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In Chul Lee 18 Articles
Adenocarcinoma Arising from Heterotopic Gastric Mucosa in Cervical Esophagus: A Case Report.
Young Ok Hong, Jeong Eun Hwang, In Chul Lee, Jin Hyuk Lee, Seung Il Park, Kyung Ja Cho
Korean J Pathol. 2008;42(1):33-36.
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Heterotopic gastric mucosa (HGM) of the upper esophagus, referred as "cervical inlet patch (CIP)", is a benign lesion that is present in 3.8-10% of the adult population. Adenocarcinomas arising from HGM of the upper esophagus are exceedingly rare. The authors report one additional case of histologically confirmed adenocarcinoma arising from a CIP. The patient had concomitant primary adenocarcinoma of the colon. The right hemicolectomy specimen and total esophagectomy specimen after preoperative chemoradiotherapy showed histologically different adenocarcinomas. The residual esophageal tumor was characterized by large mucin pools, fibrous septa, and floating tumor cells. HGM of both the fundic and antral types was seen on the surface and sides of the tumor. The independent origins of the two cancers were confirmed by immunohistochemical studies for cytokeratins 7 and 20. Without further treatment, the patient remained free of disease after 29 months of follow-up.
An Analysis for Angiotensin Converting Enzyme Gene Polymorphism in Formalin-fixed, Paraffin-embedded Tissues from Patients with Sarcoidosis.
Tae Sook Kim, Hee Yeon Hong, In chul Lee
Korean J Pathol. 2003;37(4):225-231.
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AbstractAbstract PDF
BACKGROUND
Sarcoidosis is a systemic disease characterized by nonnecrotizing granulomas involving the lung and hilar lymph nodes. Serum angiotensin converting enzyme (sACE) levelsin patients with sarcoidosis have been implicated as an indicator of granuloma burden.Recently, it has been found that ACE gene insertion/deletion (ID) polymorphism affects sACE levels in healthy individuals. Moreover, reported sACE levels were highest in the deletion/deletion(DD) genotype. Previous studies to investigate the distribution of ACE genotypes accordingto ethnic groups have revealed various results and have caused controversy.
METHODS
Polymerase chain reactions were performed to determine the ACE genotypes in fifteen formalinfixed, paraffin-embedded tissues from patients with sarcoidosis.
RESULTS
The distribution of ACE gene (I/D) polymorphism in patients with sarcoidosis was significantly different from that in normal controls. The DD genotype was more frequent in patients with sarcoidosis than in thenormal controls. The D allele frequency was also higher in patients with sarcoidosis than in thenormal controls. The relative risk of sarcoidosis was higher in DD homozygotes.
CONCLUSIONS
These results suggested the ACE gene I/D polymorphism may play an important rolein the pathogenesis and progression of sarcoidosis.
Intrathoracic Lymphangiomatosis: An autopsy case report.
Eunmee Han, Kyu Rae Kim, In Chul Lee
Korean J Pathol. 2000;34(2):154-159.
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We report a rare case of intrathoracic lymphangiomatosis associated with chylothorax in a 3-year-old boy. The patient had been healthy until he had chickenpox followed by continued dyspnea. The biopsy specimen showed proliferating lymphatic channels & spindle cells in the lung tissue. The boy died of respiratory failure despite conservative treatment and surgical treatment with pleurodesis. An autopsy was performed. Pleura and pericardium showed severe adhesion to the right lung parenchyma. The cut surface of lung showed thickened interlobular septum with honeycomb-appearance. Histologically, extensive intercommunicating and anastomosing endothelial-lined lymphatic channels were noted along the visceral and parietal pleura, pericardium, around the great vessels, and in the anterior mediastinum over the thymus. These lymphatic channels infiltrated into the pulmonary parenchyme along the bronchovascular bundles. There were scattered areas of spindle cell proliferation with extravasation of RBCs mimicking Kaposi's sarcoma. Histologic diagnosis and differential diagnosis on biopsy materials can be difficult to establish but awareness of the intrathoracic lymphangiomatosis and its various clinical presentation may be helpful for diagnosis.
Arrhythmogenic Right Ventricular Dysplasia/Cardiomyopathy: Report of an autopsy case.
Tae Yub Kim, Young Min Kim, Jae Gul Chung, Gyung Yub Gong, Su Kil Park, In Chul Lee, Joo Ryung Huh
Korean J Pathol. 1997;31(11):1233-1236.
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AbstractAbstract
A 35-year-old man was admitted with a 20 day history of generalized edema and muscular weakness of the lower extremities. He was alert with a pale puffy face and an ejection murmur was heard at the cardiac apex. The electrocardiogram disclosed low voltage, first degree atrioventricular block, and a right bundle branch block. During the hospitalization an intractable diastolic hypotension developed, which measured 0 mmHg at the lowest point. At that time the echocardiogram revealed a dilated, akinetic right ventricle. Eventually a multiorgan failure developed and an autopsy following his death presented a fibrofatty replacement of the right ventricular myocardium. This might be a case of an arrhythmogenic right ventricular dysplasia/cardiomyopathy, which is usually characterized clinically by a ventricular tachycardia and may cause a sudden death in young adults.
Clear Cell Ependymoma.
Jae Hee Suh, Seung Mo Hong, In Chul Lee
Korean J Pathol. 1997;31(4):383-387.
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The clear cell variant of ependymoma is a rare, recently described, intracranial tumor which is composed of clear neoplastic ependymal cells. Clear cell ependymomas may share characteristic histologic features of oligodendrogliomas or central neurocytomas; striking nuclear uniformity, perinuclear halos, and numerous angulated capillaries. In contrast to oligodendrogliomas, however, clear cell ependymomas are noninfiltrating tumors with sharp boundaries. Perivascular pseudorosette formation is frequent. Oligodendrogliomas are usually nonreactive for GFAP compared to diffuse immunoreactivity of clear cell ependymoma. Central neurocytomas may also be differentiated by their immunoreactivity for synaptophysin. This is a case of clear cell ependymoma in a 40-year-old man. By computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging scans, a well circumscribed cystic tumor with mural nodule was demonstrated in the right frontal lobe. It was 6cm in diameter and well enhanced. Histologically, it was sharply demarcated from the brain parenchyma. The cystic wall was lined by atypical ependymal cells, which "transformed" to clear cells in the solid area. The cells had uniform nuclei and perinuclear halos. Mitotic figures and necrotic foci were focally present. The cells were immunoreactive for glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP), while synaptophysin was negative. Electron microscopy revealed densely packed polyheadral cells with scant organelles and well developed intercellular junctions.
Congenital Hepatic Fibrosis with Caroli's Disease.
Yoon Jung Kim, Soon Ae Oak, In Chul Lee
Korean J Pathol. 1997;31(3):275-279.
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Congenital hepatic fibrosis is an inherited, congenital disorder of the liver, and is occasionally associated with cystic disease of the liver and kidney. We present a case of congenital hepatic fibrosis with Caroli's disease. A 21-year-old woman had suffered from an episodic fever with headaches for 3 years. In laboratory examination, the liver function test was within the normal limits. Esophageal varix was noted by an endoscopic examination. Hepatosplenomegaly and multiple dilated bile ducts were seen by abdominal CT scanning. An orthotopic whole liver transplantation was done. The liver was fibrotic and enlarged. Multiple cystically dilated intrahepatic ducts were noted. Microscopically, diffuse portal fibrosis and widening with proliferation of bile ductules were seen. Intrahepatic bile ducts were markedly dilated and tortuous. The liver cell cords were well preserved.
Fine Needle Aspiration Cytologic Findings of Inflammatory Pseudotumor of the Lymph Node .
So Young Park, Gyung Yub Gong, Joo Ryung Huh, Eun Sil Yu, In Chul Lee, On Ja Kim
Korean J Cytopathol. 1997;8(1):87-92.
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Reports on the cytologic or histopathologic findings of inflammatory pseudotumors are relatively infrequent and most of them have dealt with those involving the lung, liver, genitourinary tract, alimentary tract, spleen, mediastinum, retroperitoneum, etc. Moreover there have not been any cytologic studies of those involving lymph nodes. We present fine needle aspiration cytologic features of inflammatory pseudotumor occurring in a lymph node in a 64 year-old man. The aspirate consisted of proliferating spindle cells and admixed histiocytes, fibroblasts, lymphocytes, and plasma cells. Histiocytes were present either singly or in loosely cohesive small clusters. A few multinucleated giant cells were present as well. However, tuberculosis could be excluded by the absence of typical granuloma, caseation necrosis, or characteristic mixed spindle and inflammatory cell components. Other benign and malignant lymphadenopathies could also be differentiated based on cytologic findings.
Histopathologic Analysis of Helicobacter Pylori Associated Gastritis.
Ho Jung Lee, Eun Sil Yu, In Chul Lee
Korean J Pathol. 1996;30(9):764-774.
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AbstractAbstract PDF
Gastric mucosa shows continuous changes in surface epithelium as well as inflammatory reaction by various substances from the outside and their metabolic products. Gastric mucosal lesions are proven to be associated with bacterial infection by the discovery of Heliobacter pylori(H. pylori) and many studies about histopathologic changes of gastric mucosa associated H. pylori infection has been advanced. It is known that H. pylori associated gastritis displays surface foveolar epithelial changes, such as cytoplasmic vacuolation, mucin loss, juxtaluminal cytoplasm erosion, epithelial denudation, and mucosal irregularity. There have been many studies that H. pylori infection is associated with intestinal metaplasia, gastric dysplasia, and carcinoma. Also chronic H. pylori infection with its induction of gastric lymphoid follicle has been implicated as a precursor of gastric lymphoma of the unique B-cell type that arises from mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue(MALT). However, these gastric mucosal changes are also observed in gastritis with other causes. In this study, we aimed to define specific histopathiologic findings associated with H. pylori infection. A total of 463 gastric biopsy specimens were reviewed. They were Helicobacter-associated gastritis and were divided as many (MH), a few (AH), and no (NH), according to the number of H. pylori. 210 (MH), 131 (AH), and 122 (NH) biopsy specimens were included. Lymphocytes, plasma cells in lamina propria, eosinophils and neutrophils in surface epithelium and crypt as well as lamina propria were graded from 0 to 3. Surface epithelial changes including cytoplasmic vacuolation, mucin loss, juxtaluminal erosion, epithelial denudation and mucosal irregrarity were observed in 200 of 210 cases(95%) in MH group, 34 of 131 cases(26%) in AH group, and 6 of 122 cases(5%) in NH group. This result indicates there is significant difference in surface epithelial changes according to the number of H. pylori(p<0.001). Severity of eosinophil, neutrophil, lymphocyte, and plasma cell infiltration is increased in proportion to the number of H. pylori. Especially, neutrophilic infiltration is not identified in 95 of 122 cases(78%) in NH group, whereas MH group shows severe infitration (grade 3) in 127 of 210 cases(61%), and no (grade 0) in 11 of 210 cases(5%). This data well explains that the severity of neutrophil infiltration is associated with, the degree of H. pylori infection in chronic active gastritis, with statistical significance. The prevalence of lymphoid follicle formation was 17 of 120 cases(14%) in NH group, 24 of 131 cases(18%) in AH group, and 52 of 210 cases(25%) in MH group. This shows that lymphoid follicle formation correlates with the number of H. pylori, but without statistical significance. The prevalence of intestinal metaplasia in NH, AH, and MH was 43 of 122 cases(35%), 46 of 131 cases(35%), and 69 of 210 cases(33%), showing no association between intestinal metaplasia and H. pylori. In summary, H. pylori associated gastritis dispays characteristic histopathological changes in gastric mucosa, in which surface epithelial changes and various inflammatory infiltrates are increased in proportion to the number of H. pylori. Especially vacuolization of surface foveolar epithelium, cryptitis, and crypt abscess are specific findings of H. pylori associated gastritis.
Giant Cell Myocarditis: A case report.
Ho Jung Lee, Jae Gul Chung, In Chul Lee, Myeong Gun Song, Jae Jung Kim, Jong Goo Lee
Korean J Pathol. 1996;30(6):523-527.
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Giant cell myocarditis(GCM) is a rare inflammatory heart disease which is characterized by multinucleated giant cells and a granulomatous reaction. It usually progresses rapidly and results in a fatal course. We report a patient with giant cell myocarditis who was treated by cardiac transplantation. A 35-year-old male was admitted with dyspnea which had developed 4 months before. On echocardiography, the right and left ventricles were markedly dilated and severe global hypokinesia was noted. He was diagosed with dilated cardiomyopathy with secondary severe mitral regurgitation. His cardiac function deteriorated progressively. He underwent orthotopic heart transplantation. Grossly the heart was enlarged, weighing 420gm and round with a blunt apex. Both right and left ventricles were markedly dilated. There were numerous white patches, measuring up to 4cm, throughout the epi- and myocardium. Microscopically, extensive fibrosis and multiple exuberant granulomas with numerous scattered multinucleated giant cells were seen. Lymphocytes and eosinophils were also frequent. Coronary arteries were unremarkable. Neither microorganisms nor foreign materials were found. By serial endomyocardial biopsies of the transplanted heart, only mild perivascular lymphocytic infiltration was occasionally observed without any evidence of rejection or recurrence of giant cell myocarditis. The patient's postoperative course has been uneventful so far(postoperative 21 months). The etiology of GCM remains to be clarified, although various factors are suspected. No matter what the cause, our experience suggests that this grave disease might be treated well by heart transplantation.
Cardiac Fibroma: A surgically excised case.
Ho Jung Lee, Gyung Ub Gong, Jay Won Lee, Jae Gon Go, In Chul Lee
Korean J Pathol. 1996;30(6):544-547.
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Primary cardiac tumors in infancy and childhood are rare, with fibromas being the second most common tumor after rhabdomyomas. Although cardiac fibromas are characteristically benign intramural tumors, they may exhibit exhibit expansile growth resulting in obstruction, valvular dysfunction, as well as other problems so early diagnosis and successful surgical excision are important. We report a case of cardiac fibroma in a 2 month-old male infant. He presented with generalized cyanosis from birth. Echocardiography showed oval round large mass filing the right atrium and ventricle which infiltrated into the lateral wall of the ventricle. Partial excision of the tumor was done after another echocardiogram showed a pericardial effusion and restriction of blood flow to the right ventricle due to the tumor. The resected tumor was ovoid, gray-tan, slightly firm and measuring 5x3x2.5 cm. Histologically, the tumor was composed of spindle-shaped fibroblasts and hyalinized fibrous tissue interdigitating with the surrounding myocardium.
Clinicopathological Analysis of Laryngeal Leukoplakia: Clinical Follow-up and Immunohistochemical Expression of p53 and PCNA.
Yang Soon Park, Sang Yoon Park, Soon Ae Oak, Gyung Yup Gong, Joo Ryung Huh, Eun Sil Yu, In Chul Lee, Ghee Young Choe
Korean J Pathol. 1996;30(4):318-327.
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Laryngeal leukoplakia is seen in a number of pathologic settings such as keratosis without atypia(KWOA), keratosis with atypia(KWA), squamous cell carcinoma in situ(CIS) and invasive squamous cell carcinoma, and it continues to be a confusing and controversial topic for both otolaryngologist and pathologist. This is largely due to the use of ambiguous and inconsistent terminology, the lack of unanimous agreement on the definition of these terms, failure of the clinician to obtain a representative biopsy, and the subjectivity of the pathologist interpreting the biopsy. To evaluate the applicability of the expression pattern of p53 and PCNA in borderline cases of histopathologic classification, we performed a histopathologic analysis of leukoplakia to includ clinical follow-up, correlation of disease progression and degree of atypia, and expression of p53 and PCNA according to the degree of atypia. Histologically, laryngeal leukoplakia included seven cases of KWOA, fourteen cases of KWA (mild-2, moderate-8, severe-4), three cases of CIS, and one case of invasive squamous cell carcinoma. Keratosis with atypia, a moderate degree or more, showed a strong tendency to progress to invasive carcinoma(p<0.05). The degree of p53 and PCNA expression correlated with the degree of atypia(p<0.05). p53-positive cases at the initial biopsy clearly tended to recur and develop into invasive carcinoma(p<0.01).
Cytopathologic Features of Adenoid Cystic of Trachea Carcinoma: Report of 2 Cases.
Young Mee Cho, So Young Park, In Chul Lee
Korean J Cytopathol. 1995;6(2):214-218.
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Cytopathologic findings of two cases of adenoid cystic carcinoma of the trachea are reported. The carcinomas grew as a intratracheal mass. By bronchial washing, brushing and/ or post-bronchoscopic sputum cytology, large cohesive sheets, lobulated clusters, or three dimensional ball-like structures were obtained. They had numerous cyst-like spaces containing characteristic globular basophilic material. The tumor cells were uniform and had a small amount of cytoplasm. Nuclei were small and hyperchromatic. Nucleoli were occasionally observed. The cytological diagnosis was confirmed by bronchoscopic biopsies.
Cytologic Features of Soft Tissue Lesions.
Soon Ae Oak, Gyung Yub Gong, Ghee Young Choe, Jur Yung Hch, Eun Sil Yu, In Chul Lee
Korean J Cytopathol. 1995;6(1):27-35.
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We reviewed 93 cases of fine needle aspiration of skin\subcutaneous and soft tissue lesions with histologic confirmation. On the basis of the most prominent cytologic features, morphologic classification of the aspirates was done. Neoplastic lesions of soft tissue were categorized as ; round cell, spindle cell, polygonal cell, well-differentiated and myxoid tumor. This classification is convenient to recognize and categorize most soft tissue tumors.
Fine Needle Aspiration Cytology of Peripheral Neuroepithelioma of Soft Tissue: Report of A Case.
Yang Soon Park, Soon Ae Oak, Gyung Yub Gong, Ghee Young Choe, Joor Yung Huh, Eun Sil Yu, In Chul Lee
Korean J Cytopathol. 1995;6(1):62-66.
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Peripheral neuroepithelioma (PNE) of soft tissue is a malignant neuroectodermal tumor arising from peripheral(nonautonomic) nerve. It may occur in both children and adults, and are highly aggressive neoplasms that rapidly give rise to metastatic disease and death. We exprienced a case of peripheral neuroepithelioma of soft tissue in the upper arm in a 18-year-old female. Cytologic features revealed small round cells with scanty cytoplasm occurring both singly and in clusters. The clusters frequently tended to form Homer-Wright rosettes. The cells had a round to oval nucleus with fine chromatin and inconspicuous nucleoli in a hemorrhagic background.
Hairy Cell Leukemia: A case report.
Jae Gul Chung, Gyung Yub Gong, Ghee Young Choe, Eun Sil Yu, In Chul Lee, Kun Choon Park, Sang Hee Kim
Korean J Pathol. 1994;28(6):675-677.
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Hairy cell leukemia is an uncommon lymphoreticular disorder which primarily involves bone marrow, spleen, and peripheral blood. Patients, mostly men, present with splenomegaly and pancytopenia usually. A 62-year-old man was admitted with an abdominnal mass which had grown slowly for 20 years. On physical examination, an enlarged spleen was palpated without tenderness. An abdominal CT scan showed a diffusely enlarged spleen, which measured 20 cm in greatest dimension. In the peripheral blood, many atypical lymphocytes with abundant, delicate, surface projections were noted. They had tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase(TRAP) activity. Thrombocytopenia (60,000/mm3) was observed in the complete blood counts, Other laboratory data were within normal limits. He underwent splenectomy. The submitted spleen measured 26x15x5 cm and weighed 2150 gm. It was well encapsulated and the outer surface was smooth. Cut surfaces were diffusely dark-red. White and red pulps were indistinct. There was no mass-like lesion. Microscopically, the spleen consisted of monotonous mononulcear cells which involved red pulp. The white pulp was diminished, and could be barely recognized. Cells had small round nuclei and abundant cytoplasm. Ultrastructurally, cells with numerous slender surface projections were noted. In Korea, hairy cell leukemia is exceedingly rare. We report a case of hairy cell leukemia with characteristic pathologic features of spleen as well as those of peripheral blood.
Serous Cystadenoma of the Pancreas.
Young Mee Cho, Gyung Yub Gong, Ghee Young Choe, Eun Sil Yu, In Chul Lee
Korean J Pathol. 1994;28(5):522-527.
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Pathologists and others have been calling the serous cystadenoma of the pancreas "microcystic cystadenoma", following Compagno and Oertel's proposal in l978 because it usually consists of innumerable small cysts (less than 2cm). However, unilocular or predominantly macrocystic types of serous cystadenoma have been occasionally reported. Therefore, they present a difficulty in precise preoperative and intraoperative diagnosis for their simi1ar gross appearance to other cystic lesions of the pancreas. We discovered two cases of macrocystic and unilocular serous cystadenomas of the pancreas which were lined by cuboidal to flattened epithelial cells. They contained PAS positive and D-PAS negative intracytoplasmic glycogen granules. The unilocular, macrocystic and microcystic patterns may represent a morphologic spectrum of a pancreatic neoplasm. So we propose to use the term "serous cystadenoma" rather than microcystic cystadenoma.
Distribution of Smooth Muscles in Hemorrhoids.
Jae Gul Chung, Ghee Young Choe, Gyung Yub Gong, Eun Sil Yu, Jin Cheon Kim, In Chul Lee
Korean J Pathol. 1994;28(2):154-159.
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AbstractAbstract PDF
Hemorrhoids are one of the commonest disorders specific to the human. However, the pathogenesis is not well understood so far. Anal submucosa is largely composed of blood vessels, loose connective tissue and smooth muscles, forming muscular network around the venous plexuses. We analyzed the distribution of smooth muscles in the hemorrhoidal tissues. Immunohistochemical stainings for desmin, vimentin, and Factor VIII related antigen were performed using six freshly frozen hemorrhoidal tissues. All of them were diagnosed as external hemorrhoids. Four anal tissues from Miles' operation specimen without hemorrhoids were used as normal controls. In all six cases, venous plexuses were variably dilated and smooth muscle cells were unevenly distributed. In minimally involved areas, there were relatively sufficient amount of perivascular smooth muscles which were arranged in their bundles. In contrast, only single scattered cells or very small amount of smooth muscle bundles were noted around the dilated vascular plexuses in severely affected areas. In two severe hemorrhoidal tissue samples, vascular plexuses were markedly dilated and only single scattered smooth muscle cells were seen. In conclusion, the total amount of smooth muscles in the submucosa of hemorrhoid tissue was reduced than those of the normal controls. The degree of hemorrhoidal dilation was inversely related to the amount of smooth muscles. However, causal relation between diminution of submucosal smooth muscles and venous dilation remains to be clarified.
Estrogen Receptor Analysis in Fine Needle Aspirates and Frozen Sections from Human Breast Carcinomas.
Gyung Yub Gong, Se Hyun Ahn, Kun Choon Park, Ghee Young Choe, Eun Sil Yu, In Chul Lee
Korean J Cytopathol. 1994;5(1):10-14.
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The expression of sex steroid hormone receptors by neoplastic cells is an important predictor of response to hormone therapy. Thus, the selection of treatment modality is often based on the identification of receptors in tumor tissue. Various monoclonal antibodies of high specificity are now available for analyzing the estrogen receptor(ER). With these antibodies, biochemical enzyme immunoassay and immunohistochemistry using histologic sections have been used for ER analysis. We used fine needle aspirates from 15 human primary breast carinomas for the analysis of ERs. The semiquantitative receptor values obtained in cytologic specimens were correlated well with those from histologic specimens. The results of ER in fine needle aspirates were concordant with ER in histologic specimens(r=0.94). Only three cases showed a little difference in staining intensity and proportion of positive cells. Our results showed a good correlation between the receptor values determined in cytologic smears and those determined in tissue sections. It is suggested that measurement of the ER in cytologic smears may be a reliable technique which can be performed on aspiration cytologic samples.

JPTM : Journal of Pathology and Translational Medicine