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Dong Wook Kang 7 Articles
Development of quality assurance program for digital pathology by the Korean Society of Pathologists
Yosep Chong, Jeong Mo Bae, Dong Wook Kang, Gwangil Kim, Hye Seung Han
J Pathol Transl Med. 2022;56(6):370-382.   Published online November 15, 2022
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AbstractAbstract PDFSupplementary Material
Digital pathology (DP) using whole slide imaging is a recently emerging game changer technology that can fundamentally change the way of working in pathology. The Digital Pathology Study Group (DPSG) of the Korean Society of Pathologists (KSP) published a consensus report on the recommendations for pathologic practice using DP. Accordingly, the need for the development and implementation of a quality assurance program (QAP) for DP has been raised.
To provide a standard baseline reference for internal and external QAP for DP, the members of the Committee of Quality Assurance of the KSP developed a checklist for the Redbook and a QAP trial for DP based on the prior DPSG consensus report. Four leading institutes participated in the QAP trial in the first year, and we gathered feedback from these institutes afterwards.
The newly developed checklists of QAP for DP contain 39 items (216 score): eight items for quality control of DP systems; three for DP personnel; nine for hardware and software requirements for DP systems; 15 for validation, operation, and management of DP systems; and four for data security and personal information protection. Most participants in the QAP trial replied that continuous education on unfamiliar terminology and more practical experience is demanding.
The QAP for DP is essential for the safe implementation of DP in pathologic practice. Each laboratory should prepare an institutional QAP according to this checklist, and consecutive revision of the checklist with feedback from the QAP trial for DP needs to follow.
Standardized Pathology Report for Colorectal Cancer, 2nd Edition
Baek-hui Kim, Joon Mee Kim, Gyeong Hoon Kang, Hee Jin Chang, Dong Wook Kang, Jung Ho Kim, Jeong Mo Bae, An Na Seo, Ho Sung Park, Yun Kyung Kang, Kyung-Hwa Lee, Mee Yon Cho, In-Gu Do, Hye Seung Lee, Hee Kyung Chang, Do Youn Park, Hyo Jeong Kang, Jin Hee Sohn, Mee Soo Chang, Eun Sun Jung, So-Young Jin, Eunsil Yu, Hye Seung Han, Youn Wha Kim
J Pathol Transl Med. 2020;54(1):1-19.   Published online November 13, 2019
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  • 957 Download
  • 26 Citations
AbstractAbstract PDFSupplementary Material
The first edition of the ‘Standardized Pathology Report for Colorectal Cancer,’ which was developed by the Gastrointestinal Pathology Study Group (GIP) of the Korean Society of Pathologists, was published 13 years ago. Meanwhile, there have been many changes in the pathologic diagnosis of colorectal cancer (CRC), pathologic findings included in the pathology report, and immunohistochemical and molecular pathology required for the diagnosis and treatment of colorectal cancer. In order to reflect these changes, we (GIP) decided to make the second edition of the report. The purpose of this standardized pathology report is to provide a practical protocol for Korean pathologists, which could help diagnose and treat CRC patients. This report consists of “standard data elements” and “conditional data elements.” Basic pathologic findings and parts necessary for prognostication of CRC patients are classified as “standard data elements,” while other prognostic factors and factors related to adjuvant therapy are classified as “conditional data elements” so that each institution could select the contents according to the characteristics of the institution. The Korean version is also provided separately so that Korean pathologists can easily understand and use this report. We hope that this report will be helpful in the daily practice of CRC diagnosis.


Citations to this article as recorded by  
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    Hyun Gu Lee, Chan Wook Kim, Jong Keon Jang, Seong Ho Park, Young Il Kim, Jong Lyul Lee, Yong Sik Yoon, In Ja Park, Seok-Byung Lim, Chang Sik Yu, Jin Cheon Kim
    Clinical Colorectal Cancer.2023; 22(1): 129.     CrossRef
  • A standardized pathology report for gastric cancer: 2nd edition
    Young Soo Park, Myeong-Cherl Kook, Baek-hui Kim, Hye Seung Lee, Dong-Wook Kang, Mi-Jin Gu, Ok Ran Shin, Younghee Choi, Wonae Lee, Hyunki Kim, In Hye Song, Kyoung-Mee Kim, Hee Sung Kim, Guhyun Kang, Do Youn Park, So-Young Jin, Joon Mee Kim, Yoon Jung Choi,
    Journal of Pathology and Translational Medicine.2023; 57(1): 1.     CrossRef
  • IGFL2-AS1, a Long Non-Coding RNA, Is Associated with Radioresistance in Colorectal Cancer
    Jeeyong Lee, Da Yeon Kim, Younjoo Kim, Ui Sup Shin, Kwang Seok Kim, Eun Ju Kim
    International Journal of Molecular Sciences.2023; 24(2): 978.     CrossRef
  • A Standardized Pathology Report for Gastric Cancer: 2nd Edition
    Young Soo Park, Myeong-Cherl Kook, Baek-hui Kim, Hye Seung Lee, Dong-Wook Kang, Mi-Jin Gu, Ok Ran Shin, Younghee Choi, Wonae Lee, Hyunki Kim, In Hye Song, Kyoung-Mee Kim, Hee Sung Kim, Guhyun Kang, Do Youn Park, So-Young Jin, Joon Mee Kim, Yoon Jung Choi,
    Journal of Gastric Cancer.2023; 23(1): 107.     CrossRef
  • Incremental Detection Rate of Dysplasia and Sessile Serrated Polyps/Adenomas Using Narrow-Band Imaging and Dye Spray Chromoendoscopy in Addition to High-Definition Endoscopy in Patients with Long-Standing Extensive Ulcerative Colitis: Segmental Tandem End
    Ji Eun Kim, Chang Wan Choi, Sung Noh Hong, Joo Hye Song, Eun Ran Kim, Dong Kyung Chang, Young-Ho Kim
    Diagnostics.2023; 13(3): 516.     CrossRef
  • Prognostic Impact of Extramural Lymphatic, Vascular, and Perineural Invasion in Stage II Colon Cancer: A Comparison With Intramural Invasion
    Sang Sik Cho, Ji Won Park, Gyeong Hoon Kang, Jung Ho Kim, Jeong Mo Bae, Sae-Won Han, Tae-You Kim, Min Jung Kim, Seung-Bum Ryoo, Seung-Yong Jeong, Kyu Joo Park
    Diseases of the Colon & Rectum.2023; 66(3): 366.     CrossRef
  • Polo-like kinase 4 as a potential predictive biomarker of chemoradioresistance in locally advanced rectal cancer
    Hyunseung Oh, Soon Gu Kim, Sung Uk Bae, Sang Jun Byun, Shin Kim, Jae-Ho Lee, Ilseon Hwang, Sun Young Kwon, Hye Won Lee
    Journal of Pathology and Translational Medicine.2022; 56(1): 40.     CrossRef
  • A Prediction Model for Tumor Recurrence in Stage II–III Colorectal Cancer Patients: From a Machine Learning Model to Genomic Profiling
    Po-Chuan Chen, Yu-Min Yeh, Bo-Wen Lin, Ren-Hao Chan, Pei-Fang Su, Yi-Chia Liu, Chung-Ta Lee, Shang-Hung Chen, Peng-Chan Lin
    Biomedicines.2022; 10(2): 340.     CrossRef
  • Rationale and design of a prospective, multicenter, phase II clinical trial of safety and efficacy evaluation of long course neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy plus tislelizumab followed by total mesorectal excision for locally advanced rectal cancer (NCRT-PD1
    Zhengyang Yang, Xiao Zhang, Jie Zhang, Jiale Gao, Zhigang Bai, Wei Deng, Guangyong Chen, Yongbo An, Yishan Liu, Qi Wei, Jiagang Han, Ang Li, Gang Liu, Yi Sun, Dalu Kong, Hongwei Yao, Zhongtao Zhang
    BMC Cancer.2022;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • Potential of DEK proto‑oncogene as a prognostic biomarker for colorectal cancer: An evidence‑based review
    Muhammad Habiburrahman, Muhammad Wardoyo, Stefanus Sutopo, Nur Rahadiani
    Molecular and Clinical Oncology.2022;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • Reproducibility and Feasibility of Classification and National Guidelines for Histological Diagnosis of Canine Mammary Gland Tumours: A Multi-Institutional Ring Study
    Serenella Papparella, Maria Ines Crescio, Valeria Baldassarre, Barbara Brunetti, Giovanni P. Burrai, Cristiano Cocumelli, Valeria Grieco, Selina Iussich, Lorella Maniscalco, Francesca Mariotti, Francesca Millanta, Orlando Paciello, Roberta Rasotto, Mariar
    Veterinary Sciences.2022; 9(7): 357.     CrossRef
  • Composite scoring system and optimal tumor budding cut-off number for estimating lymph node metastasis in submucosal colorectal cancer
    Jeong-ki Kim, Ye-Young Rhee, Jeong Mo Bae, Jung Ho Kim, Seong-Joon Koh, Hyun Jung Lee, Jong Pil Im, Min Jung Kim, Seung-Bum Ryoo, Seung-Yong Jeong, Kyu Joo Park, Ji Won Park, Gyeong Hoon Kang
    BMC Cancer.2022;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • Automated Hybrid Model for Detecting Perineural Invasion in the Histology of Colorectal Cancer
    Jiyoon Jung, Eunsu Kim, Hyeseong Lee, Sung Hak Lee, Sangjeong Ahn
    Applied Sciences.2022; 12(18): 9159.     CrossRef
  • Clinical Implication of Perineural and Lymphovascular Invasion in Rectal Cancer Patients Who Underwent Surgery After Preoperative Chemoradiotherapy
    Young Il Kim, Chan Wook Kim, Jong Hoon Kim, Jihun Kim, Jun-Soo Ro, Jong Lyul Lee, Yong Sik Yoon, In Ja Park, Seok-Byung Lim, Chang Sik Yu, Jin Cheon Kim
    Diseases of the Colon & Rectum.2022; 65(11): 1325.     CrossRef
  • Molecular Pathology of Gastric Cancer
    Moonsik Kim, An Na Seo
    Journal of Gastric Cancer.2022; 22(4): 264.     CrossRef
  • Selective approach to arterial ligation in radical sigmoid colon cancer surgery with D3 lymph node dissection: A multicenter comparative study
    Sergey Efetov, Albina Zubayraeva, Cüneyt Kayaalp, Alisa Minenkova, Yusuf Bağ, Aftandil Alekberzade, Petr Tsarkov
    Turkish Journal of Surgery.2022; 38(4): 382.     CrossRef
  • Evaluation of lncRNA FOXD2-AS1 Expression as a Diagnostic Biomarker in Colorectal Cancer
    Hooman Shalmashi, Sahar Safaei, Dariush Shanehbandi, Milad Asadi, Soghra Bornehdeli, Abdolreza Mehdi Navaz
    Reports of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology.2022; 11(3): 471.     CrossRef
  • Improvement in the Assessment of Response to Preoperative Chemoradiotherapy for Rectal Cancer Using Magnetic Resonance Imaging and a Multigene Biomarker
    Eunhae Cho, Sung Woo Jung, In Ja Park, Jong Keon Jang, Seong Ho Park, Seung-Mo Hong, Jong Lyul Lee, Chan Wook Kim, Yong Sik Yoon, Seok-Byung Lim, Chang Sik Yu, Jin Cheon Kim
    Cancers.2021; 13(14): 3480.     CrossRef
  • Addition of V-Stage to Conventional TNM Staging to Create the TNVM Staging System for Accurate Prediction of Prognosis in Colon Cancer: A Multi-Institutional Retrospective Cohort Study
    Jung Hoon Bae, Ji Hoon Kim, Jaeim Lee, Bong-Hyeon Kye, Sang Chul Lee, In Kyu Lee, Won Kyung Kang, Hyeon-Min Cho, Yoon Suk Lee
    Biomedicines.2021; 9(8): 888.     CrossRef
  • Gene Expression Profiles Associated with Radio-Responsiveness in Locally Advanced Rectal Cancer
    Jeeyong Lee, Junhye Kwon, DaYeon Kim, Misun Park, KwangSeok Kim, InHwa Bae, Hyunkyung Kim, JoonSeog Kong, Younjoo Kim, UiSup Shin, EunJu Kim
    Biology.2021; 10(6): 500.     CrossRef
  • A Patient-Derived Organoid-Based Radiosensitivity Model for the Prediction of Radiation Responses in Patients with Rectal Cancer
    Misun Park, Junhye Kwon, Joonseog Kong, Sun Mi Moon, Sangsik Cho, Ki Young Yang, Won Il Jang, Mi Sook Kim, Younjoo Kim, Ui Sup Shin
    Cancers.2021; 13(15): 3760.     CrossRef
  • Comparison between Local Excision and Radical Resection for the Treatment of Rectal Cancer in ypT0-1 Patients: An Analysis of the Clinicopathological Factors and Survival Rates
    Soo Young Oh, In Ja Park, Young IL Kim, Jong-Lyul Lee, Chan Wook Kim, Yong Sik Yoon, Seok-Byung Lim, Chang Sik Yu, Jin Cheon Kim
    Cancers.2021; 13(19): 4823.     CrossRef
  • Comparison of Vascular Invasion With Lymph Node Metastasis as a Prognostic Factor in Stage I-III Colon Cancer: An Observational Cohort Study
    Jung Hoon Bae, Ji Hoon Kim, Bong-Hyeon Kye, Abdullah Al-Sawat, Chul Seung Lee, Seung-Rim Han, In Kyu Lee, Sung Hak Lee, Yoon Suk Lee
    Frontiers in Surgery.2021;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • Clinicopathological significance of Ki67 expression in colorectal cancer
    Jing Li, Zhi-ye Liu, Hai-bo Yu, Qing Xue, Wen-jie He, Hai-tao Yu
    Medicine.2020; 99(20): e20136.     CrossRef
  • Lateral lymph node and its association with distant recurrence in rectal cancer: A clue of systemic disease
    Young Il Kim, Jong Keon Jang, In Ja Park, Seong Ho Park, Jong Beom Kim, Jin-Hong Park, Tae Won Kim, Jun-Soo Ro, Seok-Byung Lim, Chang Sik Yu, Jin Cheon Kim
    Surgical Oncology.2020; 35: 174.     CrossRef
  • Transformation of Pathology Reports Into the Common Data Model With Oncology Module: Use Case for Colon Cancer
    Borim Ryu, Eunsil Yoon, Seok Kim, Sejoon Lee, Hyunyoung Baek, Soyoung Yi, Hee Young Na, Ji-Won Kim, Rong-Min Baek, Hee Hwang, Sooyoung Yoo
    Journal of Medical Internet Research.2020; 22(12): e18526.     CrossRef
Increased Expression of Thymosin β4 Is Independently Correlated with Hypoxia Inducible Factor-1α (HIF-1α) and Worse Clinical Outcome in Human Colorectal Cancer
Seung Yun Lee, Mee Ja Park, Hye Kyung Lee, Hyun Jin Son, Chang Nam Kim, Joo Heon Kim, Dong Wook Kang
J Pathol Transl Med. 2017;51(1):9-16.   Published online October 16, 2016
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  • 152 Download
  • 5 Citations
AbstractAbstract PDF
Thymosin β4 is a multi-functional hormone-like polypeptide, being involved in cell migration, angiogenesis, and tumor metastasis. This study was undertaken to clarify the clinicopathologic implications of thymosin β4 expression in human colorectal cancers (CRCs).
We investigated tissue sections from 143 patients with CRC by immunohistochemistry. In addition, we evaluated the expression patterns and the clinico-pathological significance of thymosin β4 expression in association with hypoxia inducible factor-1α (HIF-1α) expression in the CRC series.
High expression of thymosin β4 was significantly correlated with lymphovascular invasion, invasion depth, regional lymph node metastasis, distant metastasis, and TNM stage. Patients with high expression of thymosin β4 showed poor recurrence-free survival (p = .001) and poor overall survival (p = .005) on multivariate analysis. We also found that thymosin β4 and HIF-1α were overexpressed and that thymosin β4 expression increased in parallel with HIF-1α expression in CRC.
A high expression level of thymosin β4 indicates poor clinical outcomes and may be a useful prognostic factor in CRC. Thymosin β4 is functionally related with HIF-1α and may be a potentially valuable biomarker and possible therapeutic target for CRC.


Citations to this article as recorded by  
  • Thymosin β4 Is an Endogenous Iron Chelator and Molecular Switcher of Ferroptosis
    Joanna I. Lachowicz, Giusi Pichiri, Marco Piludu, Sara Fais, Germano Orrù, Terenzio Congiu, Monica Piras, Gavino Faa, Daniela Fanni, Gabriele Dalla Torre, Xabier Lopez, Kousik Chandra, Kacper Szczepski, Lukasz Jaremko, Mitra Ghosh, Abdul-Hamid Emwas, Mass
    International Journal of Molecular Sciences.2022; 23(1): 551.     CrossRef
  • Metal coordination of thymosin β4: Chemistry and possible implications
    Joanna Izabela Lachowicz, Mariusz Jaremko, Lukasz Jaremko, Giuseppina Pichiri, Pierpaolo Coni, Marco Piludu
    Coordination Chemistry Reviews.2019; 396: 117.     CrossRef
  • Adipose-Derived Mesenchymal Stem Cells Enhance Ovarian Cancer Growth and Metastasis by Increasing Thymosin Beta 4X-Linked Expression
    Yijing Chu, Min You, Jingjing Zhang, Guoqiang Gao, Rendong Han, Wenqiang Luo, Tingting Liu, Jianxin Zuo, Fuling Wang
    Stem Cells International.2019; 2019: 1.     CrossRef
  • An Investigation on the Therapeutic Effect of Thymosinβ4 and Its Expression Levels in Streptozotocin-Induced Diabetic Mice
    Kyung Sook Cho, Dong-Jin Kim, Bomee Shim, Jung Yeon Kim, Jun Mo Kang, Seon Hwa Park, Sang-Ho Lee, Hyung-In Yang, Kyoung Soo Kim
    BioMed Research International.2018; 2018: 1.     CrossRef
  • Hypoxia-inducible factor-1α expression in colorectal carcinoma
    Ahmed M. Abd ElAziz, Hanan S. Abd ElHamid, Rasha R. Mostafa, Yousra R.A. Shalaby
    Egyptian Journal of Pathology.2018; 38(1): 18.     CrossRef
A Case of Giant Colonic Muco-submucosal Elongated Polyps Associated with Intussusception
Joo Heon Kim, Seung Yun Lee, Je Ho Jang, Hyun Young Han, Dong Wook Kang
J Pathol Transl Med. 2016;50(6):474-478.   Published online May 23, 2016
  • 7,355 View
  • 110 Download
  • 2 Citations
AbstractAbstract PDF
Colonic muco-submucosal elongated polyp (CMSEP), a newly categorized non-neoplastic colorectal polyp, is a pedunculated and elongated polyp composed of normal mucosal and submucosal layers without any proper muscle layer. We herein report a giant variant of CMSEP associated with intussusception in the rectosigmoid colon, with a review of the literature. A 48-year-old woman underwent a laparoscopic low anterior resection due to multiple large submucosal polypoid masses associated with intussusception. Grossly, the colonic masses were multiple pedunculated polyps with a long stalk and branches ranging in size from a few millimeters to 14.0 cm in length. Microscopically, there was no evidence of hyperplasia, atypia, or active inflammation in the mucosa. The submucosal layers were composed of edematous and fibrotic stroma with fat tissue, dilated vessels, and lymphoid follicles.


Citations to this article as recorded by  
  • Jejunal intussusception and perforation due to enteric muco-submucosal elongated polyp: a case report and literature review
    Ryosuke Kikuchi, Shigenobu Emoto, Hiroaki Nozawa, Kazuhito Sasaki, Koji Murono, Shinya Abe, Hirofumi Sonoda, Aya Shinozaki-Ushiku, Soichiro Ishihara
    Surgical Case Reports.2023;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • Colonic Mucosubmucosal Elongated Polyp in the Sigmoid Colon on Surveillance Colonoscopy
    Xiaowen Fan, Melissa Hershman, Gabriel Levi, Ilan Weisberg
    ACG Case Reports Journal.2019; 6(6): e00110.     CrossRef
Difference of the Nuclear Green Light Intensity between Papillary Carcinoma Cells Showing Clear Nuclei and Non-neoplastic Follicular Epithelia in Papillary Thyroid Carcinoma
Hyekyung Lee, Tae Hwa Baek, Meeja Park, Seung Yun Lee, Hyun Jin Son, Dong Wook Kang, Joo Heon Kim, Soo Young Kim
J Pathol Transl Med. 2016;50(5):355-360.   Published online August 22, 2016
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  • 83 Download
AbstractAbstract PDF
There is subjective disagreement regarding nuclear clearing in papillary thyroid carcinoma. In this study, using digital instruments, we were able to quantify many ambiguous pathologic features and use numeric data to express our findings.
We examined 30 papillary thyroid carcinomas. For each case, we selected representative cancer cells showing clear nuclei and surrounding non-neoplastic follicular epithelial cells and evaluated objective values of green light intensity (GLI) for quantitative analysis of nuclear clearing in papillary thyroid carcinoma.
From 16,274 GLI values from 600 cancer cell nuclei and 13,752 GLI values from 596 non-neoplastic follicular epithelial nuclei, we found a high correlation of 94.9% between GLI and clear nuclei. GLI between the cancer group showing clear nuclei and non-neoplastic follicular epithelia was statistically significant. The overall average level of GLI in the cancer group was over two times higher than the non-neoplastic group despite a wide range of GLI. On a polygonal line graph, there was a fluctuating unique difference between both the cancer and non-neoplastic groups in each patient, which was comparable to the microscopic findings.
Nuclear GLI could be a useful factor for discriminating between carcinoma cells showing clear nuclei and non-neoplastic follicular epithelia in papillary thyroid carcinoma.
Early Colorectal Epithelial Neoplasm in Korea: A Multicenter Survey of Pathologic Diagnosis
Yun Kyung Kang, So-Young Jin, Mee Soo Chang, Jung Yeon Kim, Gyeong Hoon Kang, Hye Seung Lee, Jin Hee Sohn, Ho Sung Park, Kye Won Kwon, Mi Jin Gu, Young Hee Maeng, Jong Eun Joo, Haeng Ji Kang, Hee Kyung Kim, Kee-Taek Jang, Mi Ja Lee, Hee Kyung Chang, Joon Mee Kim, Hye Seung Han, Won Ae Lee, Yoon Jung Choi, Dong Wook Kang, Sunhoo Park, Jae Hyuk Lee, Mee-Yon Cho
Korean J Pathol. 2013;47(3):245-251.   Published online June 25, 2013
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  • 54 Download
  • 1 Citations
AbstractAbstract PDF

The incidence of early colorectal epithelial neoplasm (ECEN) is increasing, and its pathologic diagnosis is important for patient care. We investigated the incidence of ECEN and the current status of its pathologic diagnosis.


We collected datasheets from 25 institutes in Korea for the incidence of colorectal adenoma with high grade dysplasia (HGD) and low grade dysplasia in years 2005, 2007, and 2009; and early colorectal carcinoma in the year 2009. We also surveyed the diagnostic terminology of ECEN currently used by the participating pathologists.


The average percentage of diagnoses of adenoma HGD was 7.0%, 5.0%, and 3.4% in years 2005, 2007, and 2009, respectively. The range of incidence rates of adenoma HGD across the participating institutes has gradually narrowed over the years 2005 to 2009. The incidence rate of early colorectal carcinoma in the year 2009 was 21.2%. The participants did not share a single criterion or terminology for the diagnosis of adenoma HGD. The majority accepted the diagnostic terms that distinguished noninvasive, mucosal confined, and submucosal invasive carcinoma.


Further research requirements suggested are a diagnostic consensus for the histopathologic diagnosis of ECEN; and standardization of diagnostic terminology critical for determining the disease code.


Citations to this article as recorded by  
  • Diminutive and Small Colorectal Polyps: The Pathologist's Perspective
    Yun Kyung Kang
    Clinical Endoscopy.2014; 47(5): 404.     CrossRef

JPTM : Journal of Pathology and Translational Medicine