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Hyae Min Jeon 2 Articles
The Definition of Minimal Extrathyroid Extension in Thyroid Pathology by Analyzing Sizable Intra- and Extrathyroid Blood Vessels
Hyae Min Jeon, Beom Jin Lim, Hang-Seok Chang, SoonWon Hong
Korean J Pathol. 2012;46(6):548-553.   Published online December 26, 2012
  • 8,035 View
  • 38 Download
  • 7 Citations
AbstractAbstract PDF

To define the exact boundary of the intrathyroid and extrathyroid aspects of a gland when determining the extent of cancer invasion, we plan to clarify the definition of sizable vascular structures, which is one of the helpful histologic clues in determining a minimal extrathyroid extension. We hypothesized that arterial wall thicknesses in extrathyroid soft tissue would be significantly different from the arteries in the thyroid parenchyma.


Twenty cases of papillary carcinoma were selected. The numbers and wall thicknesses of the arteries and arterioles in intrathyroid and extrathyroid tissue were evaluated. The absence of nerve tissue in the thyroid gland was confirmed using the S-100 protein immunohistochemical stain.


The comparison of the mean thicknesses of the total arteries between the extrathyroid and intrathyroid tissues in the retrospective study (26.88 µm vs. 15.07 µm, respectively) and the prospective study (35.24 µm vs. 16.52 µm, respectively) revealed significant differences (p=0.000). The greatest thickness of the intrathyroid arteries was 67.93 µm.


According to our results, the study showed that the extrathyroidal arteries were significantly thicker than the intrathyroidal arteries. We suggest that the sizable blood vessels of extrathyroidal arteries should be greater than 67.93 µm in thickness.


Citations to this article as recorded by  
  • Invasion in thyroid cancer: Controversies and best practices
    Michiya Nishino, Jack Jacob
    Seminars in Diagnostic Pathology.2020; 37(5): 219.     CrossRef
  • MiR-221/222 promote migration and invasion, and inhibit autophagy and apoptosis by modulating ATG10 in aggressive papillary thyroid carcinoma
    Hao Shen, Zaikai Lin, Haiyan Shi, Lingling Wu, Baojin Ma, Hong Li, Baobing Yin, Jun Tang, Hongjin Yu, Xiaoxing Yin
    3 Biotech.2020;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • Minimal extrathyroidal extension affects the prognosis of differentiated thyroid cancer: Is there a need for change in the AJCC classification system?
    Zeming Liu, Yihui Huang, Sichao Chen, Di Hu, Min Wang, Ling Zhou, Wei Zhou, Danyang Chen, Haifeng Feng, Wei Wei, Chao Zhang, Wen Zeng, Liang Guo, Scott M. Langevin
    PLOS ONE.2019; 14(6): e0218171.     CrossRef
  • miR-199a-3p downregulation in thyroid tissues is associated with invasion and metastasis of papillary thyroid carcinoma
    Chengbiao Liu, Meiling Xing, Liping Wang, Kejun Zhang
    British Journal of Biomedical Science.2017; 74(2): 90.     CrossRef
  • Clinicopathological Significance of Minimal Extrathyroid Extension in Solitary Papillary Thyroid Carcinomas
    Chang Gok Woo, Chang Ohk Sung, Yun Mi Choi, Won Gu Kim, Tae Yong Kim, Young Kee Shong, Won Bae Kim, Suck Joon Hong, Dong Eun Song
    Annals of Surgical Oncology.2015; 22(S3): 728.     CrossRef
  • Intraoperative Frozen Section for the Evaluation of Extrathyroidal Extension in Papillary Thyroid Cancer
    Om Prakash Prajapati, A. K. Verma, M. Sabaretnam
    World Journal of Surgery.2015; 39(7): 1855.     CrossRef
  • Tumor Sprouting in Papillary Thyroid Carcinoma Is Correlated with Lymph Node Metastasis and Recurrence
    Eunjung Lee, Wonkyung Jung, Jeong-Soo Woo, Jae Bok Lee, Bong Kyung Shin, Han Kyeom Kim, Aeree Kim, Baek-hui Kim
    Korean Journal of Pathology.2014; 48(2): 117.     CrossRef
Cytologic Features of Giant Cell Ependymoma: A Case Report and Review of the Literature
Myoung Ju Koh, Sun Och Yoon, Hyae Min Jeon, Hyeon Joo Jeong, Soon Won Hong, Se Hoon Kim
Korean J Pathol. 2012;46(5):507-513.   Published online October 25, 2012
  • 7,826 View
  • 62 Download
  • 4 Citations
AbstractAbstract PDF

Here, we present a case of anaplastic giant cell ependymoma (GCE) occurring in a 15-year-old woman. Squash smear slides for intraoperative frozen section diagnosis revealed oval to round cell clusters with a papillary structure in a fibrillary background. This was occasionally accompanied by the presence of bizarre pleomorphic giant cells with hyperchromatic nuclei and prominent intranuclear inclusions. These intranuclear inclusions were a key clue to diagnosis of ependymoma. Histologic analysis revealed features of a high-grade tumor with perivascular pseudorosettes and bizarre pleomorphic giant cells, which established the diagnosis of GCE. We performed a review of literatures about the cytologic features of GCE, including our case, thus proposing that intraoperative frozen diagnosis of GCE would be established by squash smear preparations featuring the mitosis and necrosis, as well as the high cellularity, and the presence of giant cells showing hyperchromatic nuclei with eosinophilic cytoplasm and intranuclear inclusions/pseudoinclusions.


Citations to this article as recorded by  
  • Report of a case of giant cell ependymoma with unusual clinical and pathological presentation
    Mónica B. Mezmezian, Victor Del Caño, Liliana G. Olvi
    Neuropathology.2019; 39(4): 313.     CrossRef
  • Giant Cell Ependymoma of Cervicomedullary Junction: A Case Report of a Long-Term Survivor and Literature Review
    Martina Cappelletti, Andrea G. Ruggeri, Giorgia Iacopino, Roberto Delfini
    World Neurosurgery.2018; 116: 121.     CrossRef
  • Immunohistochemical features of giant cell ependymoma of the filum terminale with unusual clinical and radiological presentation
    Fernando Candanedo-Gonzalez, Cindy Sharon Ortiz-Arce, Samuel Rosales-Perez, Ana Lilia Remirez-Castellanos, Candelaria Cordova-Uscanga, Armando Gamboa-Dominguez
    Diagnostic Pathology.2017;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • Giant Cell Ependymoma of Lateral Ventricle: Case Report, Literature Review, and Analysis of Prognostic Factors and Genetic Profile
    Hirokazu Takami, Christopher S. Graffeo, Avital Perry, Aditya Raghunathan, Robert B. Jenkins, Caterina Giannini, Terry C. Burns
    World Neurosurgery.2017; 108: 997.e9.     CrossRef

JPTM : Journal of Pathology and Translational Medicine