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Volume 15(1); May 2004
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Review
Biology and Oncogenesis of Human Papillomavirus and Its Clinical Application.
Jong Sup Park
Korean J Cytopathol. 2004;15(1):1-10.
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AbstractAbstract PDF
No abstract available.
Etc
Clinico-Pathologic studies on Testicular and Peritesticular tumors
Jung ll Suh, Moon Hyang Park, Hyo Sook Park, Ku Young Choi*
Korean J Cytopathol. 1981;15(1):1-15.
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AbstractAbstract
The incidence of testis and their adnexal tumor is rare, but testicular tumors constitute the fourth most common cause of death from neoplasia in the age group of 15-34 years of age. No organs, except ovary, have so various type of neoplasia than testis that there is no reliable classification of testicular tumors recently, and the urologist must depend on the clinical stage and on histologic appearance of the tumor. Even Pathologists confuse the classification and characteristics of tumor because their limited experience, variable morphologic features and nomenclature of tumor. The authors collected thirty cases of testis and their adnexal tumors in the Pathology Department of National Medical Center from october 1961 to september 1980. We review the clinical records of the case and re-classify the pathologic diagnosis base on the WHO Classification proposed by Mostofi and Sobin. The results are as the follows. 1) According to histopathologic type, embryonal carcinoma, infantile type 8 cases(26.7%), teratoma 8 cases(26.7%), teratoma 8 cases(26.7%), seminoma 4 cases(13.3%) rhabdomyosarcoma 4 cases(13.3%), germ cell tumor showing more than one histologic pattern 2 cases(6.7%), mailgnant Iymphoma, Iymphocytic, poorly differentiated 1 case(3.3%), malignant mesothelioma 1 case(3.3%), testicular leukemic infiltration 1 case(3.3%) and capillary hemangioma 1 case (3.3%). 2) The mean age of each type is 33 yearn in seminoma, 2 2/12 years in embryonal carcinoma, infantile type, 1 10/12 year in 7 cases of teratoma, and 13 yeArs in rhabdomyosarcoma. 3) Primary testicular tumors occur in the scrotal sac(27 cases, 92%) and cryptorchid testis (2 cases, 8%), Two cases of cryptorchid testns show semieoma. 4) Bilateral testicular tumor is one among 29 cases(7%) 5) Scrotal mass or enlargment is most common chief complaint (74%) at diagnosis. 6) 14 cases (77%) received orchiectomy only an4 9 cases received orchiectomy and other therapy. 7) Metastasis is confirmed in 10 cases(43%) by clinical and operation findings. (clinical record is available in 23 cases among 30 cases).
Review
Correlation of Cytology and Pathology in HPV Infection.
Sung Ran Hong
Korean J Cytopathol. 2004;15(1):11-16.
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AbstractAbstract PDF
No abstract available.
Etc
Histopathologic Studies of Atypical Epithelial Changes in Fibrocystic Disease and Carcinoma of Breast
Giu Ran Kim, In Sun Kim, Seung Yong Paik
Korean J Cytopathol. 1981;15(1):16-22.
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AbstractAbstract
The relationship between fibrocystic disease and carcinama of the breast has teen discussed for many years. Thongu it is difficult to determine which of the histologic features of cystic disease has precancerous potential, recent reviews stress the possible relationship between atypical epithelial hy-perplasia and carcinoma. Author studied 51 radical mastectomized specimens of breast cancer and 44 excised specimens of fibrocystic disease, to compare the frequency of atypical hyperplasia of ducts and lobules in the benign and malignant lesions. The results are as follows: 1) Cystic change and sclerosing adenosis were the most common types of fibrocystic disease, and infiltrating scirrhous carcinoma was the most common type of breast cancer. 2) Apocrine metaplasia, ductal papillomatosis, lobular hyperplasia and sclerosing adenosis were more commonly seen in fibrocystic disease whereas atypical ductal and atypical lobular hyperplasia were common in cancer. The degree of atypia was severe in breast cancer. 3) Among fibrocystic disease, atypical ductal hyperplasia was frequently seen in the epithelial hyperplasia type. Among breast cancers, infiltrating comedo-carcinoma was frequently associated with atypical lesion of the duct. 4) Atypical lobular hyperplasia was frequently observed in the breasts of lobular carcinoma. However, the occurrence of atypical lobular hyperplasia in fibrocystic disease was rare.
Original Article
Prevalence of Human Papillomavirus Infection in Women in South Korea: Incidence of Positive HPV DNA and anti-VLPs in Residents of Busan City.
Sook Hee Hong, Duk Hee Lee, Hai Rim Shin
Korean J Cytopathol. 2004;15(1):17-27.
  • 1,425 View
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AbstractAbstract PDF
To investigate a population-based survey of the prevalence of human papillomavirus (HPV) infection in South Korea, we performed Papanicolaou smears and tests for HPV DNA and anti-HPV antibody detection in 909 sexually active general women (age range; 20-74 years, median 44 years) who were randomly selected residents from S district of Busan City. The presence of DNA of 36 different HPV types was detected by means of a GP 5+/6+ primer-mediated PCR enzyme immunoassay in cervical exfoliated cells, and IgG antibodies against L1 virus-like particles (anti-VLPs) of 5 HPV types 16, 18, 31, 33, and 58 were tested by means of enzyme linked immunoassay. The incidence of cytologic abnormality was 5.2% in Pap smear. The positive rate of HPV DNA was 10.4%, high in young women younger than 35 years old and proportionally increased according to the cytologic grades. The most often found HPV type was HPV 70, followed by HPV 16 and 33, and high-risk HPV types were more frequent in women younger than 35 years old. The most common HPV type in abnormal cytologic smears was HPV 16, followed by HPV 58 and 66. Anti-VLPs was positive in 19.7% and the frequent anti-VLPs type was against HPV 18, followed by HPV 31 and 16. The concordance between the markers for each specific HPV type was noted in 10 women and HPV 16 was the most frequent one. The incidence of multiple HPV infection was 18.9% and that of multiple anti-VLPs antibodies was 31%. Among 103 self-reported virgins, 4.9% had anti-VLP antibodies.
Etc
A Study on HDL-chotesterol Levels in Normal and Disease Conditions
Yang Suk Chae, In Sun Kim, Seung Yong Paik
Korean J Cytopathol. 1981;15(1):23-28.
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AbstractAbstract
More than 25 years ago, Barr et al noted the negative relationship between high density lipoprotein (HDL) and the incidence of coronary artery disease. A number of studies supported for it. Recently it was known that HDL-cholesterol is more useful indicator of coronary heart disease than total cholesterol and triglyceride. Author studied the difference of HDL-cholesterol levels and HDL-cholesterol/total cholesterol ratio between normal male and female subjects, and HDL-cholesterol level in patients of coronary heart disease, diabetes mellitus, liver disease and gastrointestinal malignancies. The results are as follows: 1) Mean HDL-cholesterol level of normal subjects was 44.7± 12.4 mg/d1 and those of female and male were 48.7±14.2 mg/dl and 41.9±10.1 mg/dl respectively. 2) HDL-cholesterol/total cholesterol ratio in female was higher than that of male. 3) HDL-cholesterol level in normal subjects showed no significant changes with age. 4) The difference between HDL-cholesterol levels in patients of coronary heart disease and diabetes mellitus and that of normal subjects was insignificant. 5) HDL-cholesterol levels in patients of liver disease and gastrointestinal malignancies were lower than normal subjects.
Original Article
Immunocytochemical Staining for p16 of Atypical Squamous Cells in Cervicovaginal Smear.
Hwal Woong Kim, Jong Sil Lee, Jeong Hee Lee, Gyung Hyuck Ko
Korean J Cytopathol. 2004;15(1):28-32.
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AbstractAbstract PDF
It was reported that the main cause of intraepithelial neoplasm and squamous cell carcinoma of the uterine cervix is human papilloma virus infection, and that the expression of p16 is increased in cells infected by human papilloma virus. We performed an immunocytochemical staining for protein p16 in 17 cases of cervocovaginal smears initially diagnosed as atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance, to know whether the staining could help the differentiation of neoplastic cells from reactive atypical cells. Of 17 smears, 6 were diagnosed finally as high grade intraepithelial neoplasm or invasive squamous cell carcinoma by follow-up biopsy and smear, and 5 of the 6 were positive for p16. Three were diagnosed as koilocytosis, and one of them was weakly positive for p16. Eight were diagnosed as reactive atypical cells, and all of them were negative for p16. We thought that immunocytochemical staining of p16 in cervocovaginal smears could help the differentiation of neoplastic cells from reactive atypical cells.
Etc
Determination of Serum Total LD Activity and Isoenzymes in Various Liver Diseases
Jeong Ok Kang, Seung Hahm Park, Ki Hong Kim
Korean J Cytopathol. 1981;15(1):29-37.
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AbstractAbstract
Since LD is widely distributed in several organs and tissues, the serum total LD determination is not helpful in diagnosing a specific organ or tissue damage. But the separation of LD into five isoenzymes improves its specificity. Therefore it is used in the diagnosis of wide variety of conditions such as myocardial infarction, hepatobiliary diseases, pernicious anemia, renal diseases, progressive muscular dystrophy, and pulmonary embolism, etc. This study deals with serum total LD level and LD isoenzymes in various liver diseases such as viral hepatitis, toxic hepatitis, typhoid hepatitis, liver cirrhosis, cholecystitis and/or stone. The results as follows: 1) In normal controls, the mean total LD activity was 213±74 units and the LD isoenzyme distributions were LD2, LD1, LD3, LD4, and LD5 in decreasing order of activities. 2) In patient with viral hepatitis, the total LD activity was increased and also LD4 and LD5 were significantly increased. 3) In patient with liver cirrhosis, the serum totol LD activity was slightly increased but the LD isoenzyme distribution was within normal range. 4) In cholecystitis and/or stone, the total LD activity, LD4 and LD5 were all significantly increased but the degree of elevation was much less than viral hepatitis.
Original Article
Liquid-Based Cytology Using MonoPrep2(TM) System in Cervicovaginal Cytology: Comparative Study with Conventional Pap Smear and Histology.
Yoon Kyung Jeon, Ok Ran Kim, Ki Wha Park, Soon Beom Kang, In Ae Park
Korean J Cytopathol. 2004;15(1):33-39.
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AbstractAbstract PDF
We compared the diagnostic accuracy of liquid-based cervicovaginal cytology using MonoPrep2(TM) system (Monogen, Herndon, Virginia, USA), a manual system based on membrane filtration method, with conventional Pap smear. Study population included 92 patients visiting the gynecologic department under the suspicion of uterine cervical disease. In thirty of them, surgical biopsy was performed. MonoPrep2(TM) system provided well-preserved monolayer specimen with good nuclear morphology. However, about 19% of specimens were inadequate to interpret due to low cellularity. The detection rate of abnormal cells more than ASCUS (atypical squamous cells of unknown significance) was 23.9% and higher than 19.4 % of conventional Pap smear. Diagnostic concordance rate with conventional Pap smear was 81%, and severe discordance rate influencing on the management of patient was 7.6 %. Among these seven cases, MonoPrep2(TM) system was more diagnostic only in four. In comparison with histology, the sensitivity of diagnosis of MonoPrep2(TM) system was 78.9% and slightly higher than 73.5% of conventional Pap smear. However, the specificity was 81.1% and lower than 90.9% of Pap smear. In conclusion, MonoPrep2(TM) system provided diagnostic accuracies similar to the conventional Pap smear. The inexpertness of slide preparation and the low cellularity were considered to endow a limitation in more accurate evaluation.
Etc
Clinical-Pathologic Studies on Salivary Gland Tumors
In Ki Paik, Il Hyang Ko
Korean J Cytopathol. 1981;15(1):38-44.
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AbstractAbstract
A statistical analysis was made on 40 cases of salivary gland tumors diagnosed at Seoul Paik Hospital, Inje Medical College from 1972-1980. 1) Histological classification revealed benign pleomorphic adenomas in 31 cases(77.5%), adenocarcinoma: 3 cases(75 1(2.5%), acinic cell adenocarcinoma; 1(2.5%), malignant pleomorphic adenoma : 1(2.51(2.5%), Iymphangioma, 1 (2.5%). 2) Mean age of patients with salivary tumor was 43.2 years and mean age for benign pleomorphic adenoma was 37.9 years. Mean age of carcinoma patients was 57.2 years. Overall sex distribution of salivary gland tumors was 25 cases for male and 15 cased for female. On benign pleomorphic adenoma, male/female was 18/13. 3) Distribution of the site is as follows: Parotid gland in 15 cases(37.5%), sublmandibular gland in 14 cases(35%), minor salivary gland in 10 cases(25%). Among benign pleomorphic adenoma, submandibular gland was the most favorite site with 13 cases(41.9%) out of 31. Among 7 cases of malignant lesions including 1 case of malignant pleomorphic adenoma, 4 cases occurred at the Parotid gland. 4) Mean size of the salivary gland tumors was 3.5 cm. Average size of benign pleomorphic adenoma was 3.4 cm including 1.7 cm for minor salivary gland and 4.0 cm for major salivary gland. Average size of carcinoma was 3.6 cm. 5) Mean value of time interval between onset of symptom and diagnosis was 5.3 years. For benign pleomorphic adenoma it was 5.4 years and carcinoma was 4.7 years. 6) Chief complaint was painless, slowly growing mass which is not filed, firm, nontender in almost every cases of both benign and malignant tumors of the salivary gland.
Original Article
Quality Assuarance on Fine Needle Aspiration Cytology of Malignant Salivary Gland Neoplasms.
Young Hyeh Ko, Young Lyun Oh
Korean J Cytopathol. 2004;15(1):40-44.
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AbstractAbstract PDF
To evaluate the quality of fine needle aspiration cytology diagnosis on malignant salivary gland neoplasms, cytologic findings were correlated with histologic diagnosis of 56 surgically removed malignant salivary gland tumors. Seven cases (12.5%) were insufficient, 23 cases (41.1%) were diagnosed as malignant, 17 (30.4%) cases were accurately diagnosed by histologic subtype, and 9 cases (16%) were diagnosed as benign. Five out of 9 false negative cases were misdiagnosed as pleomorphic adenomas. Except the cases with insufficient specimen, overall sensitivity was 81.6%, and the sensitivity varied according to the histologic subtype; 91% in salivary duct carcinoma, 100% in carcinoma ex pleomorphic adenoma, 50% in mucoepidermoid carcinoma, 63% in adenoid cystic carcinoma, and 50% in acinic cell carcinoma. The diagnostic accuracy differed among cytopathologists irrespective of periods after acquisition of board of pathologists. These results confirm that salivary gland neoplasm can be easily misdiagnosed in fine needle aspiration cytology and a great caution should be given in diagnosing the benign appearing salivary aspirates to avoid under-diagnosis of malignant neoplasm with low grade cytologic atypia.
Case Report
Cytologic Findings of Chordoma in Fine Needle Aspiration Cytology.
Han Suk Ryu, Min Suk Kim, Hwa Jung Ha, Jung Soon Kim, Myung Soon Shin, Sunhoo Park, Jin Haeng Chung, Jae Soo Koh, Seung Sook Lee
Korean J Cytopathol. 2004;15(1):45-51.
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AbstractAbstract PDF
It is important to recognize the pathognomonic cytologic findings of chordoma, because of overlapping cytologic features between chordoma, chondrosarcoma, myxofibrillary ependymoma, and metastatic adenocarcinoma. We reviewed the cytomorphologic features of 5 cases of chordoma diagnosed by fine needle aspiration cytology at Korean Cancer Center Hospital from 1987 to 2003. Clinical and radiographic findings of each case were reviewed. Four males and one female (29-54 years) had tumors involving the sacrum. Pain was the presenting symptom in 4 cases. The three cases showed moderate to high cellularity. In all cases, typical physaliferous cells with or without cytoplasmic processes were noted. In two cases, the background was myxoid with single scattered cells. Cell clusters showing cord-like arrangement were occasionally seen. The single or clustered cells showed mild cellular pleomorphism with slightly increased nuclear/cytoplasmic ratio. Mitotic figures were not seen. In our review, the recognition of physaliferous cells is the most important feature to diagnose chordoma and to differentiate it from other lesions mimicking chordoma.
Etc
Study on Serum Total LD Activity and Isoenzymes in Liver Diseases
Soo Kun Kim, Soon Ho Kim
Korean J Cytopathol. 1981;15(1):45-52.
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AbstractAbstract
The authors investigated total serum LD activity and isoenzymes in 5 cases of acute hepatitis, 14 cases of chronic hepatitis, 25 cases of liver cirrhosis, 17 cases of hepatocellular carcinoma and 20 cases of healthy control. The sera were obtained from the anterior cubital veins of the patients and healthy control in Busan National University Hospital from June 1978 to July 1979. Total Serum LD activity was measured by method of Caboud-Wroblewski and isoenzyme fractions were analysed by cellulose acetate electrophoresis. The results obtained were as follows : 1) In the patients with liver diseases, total serum LD activity was significantly increases than that of healthy controls. 2) In the patients with liver diseases LD1 and LD2 were significantly decreased than those of healtly controls, while LD4 and LD5 were significantly increased. 3) The patterns of serum LD isoenzyme fractions showed LD2>LD1>LD3>LD4>LD5 in healtly adult, LD5>LD2>LD1>LD3>LD4 in acute hepatitis and LD2>LD1>LD3>LD5>LD4 in chronic hepatitis, liver cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma. 4) In the patients with liver diseases, the ratio of LD1+LD2/LD4+LD5X100 was significantly decreased than that of healthy control. 5) The diagram for the percent distribution of serum LD isoenzymes demonstrated that all the fractions of LD isoenzymes except LD3 : in acute hepatitis and LD5 in other liver diseases were out range (M±2 SD) of healthy control. On the basis of above, the authors consider that total serum LD activity, isoenzymes and diagram for the percent distribution of isoenzymes may be help of clinically in making diagnosis and differention of various liver diseases.
Case Report
Cytologic Features of Secretory Meningioma in Squash Preparation: A Case Report.
Se Hoon Kim, Kwang Gil Lee, Tai Seung Kim
Korean J Cytopathol. 2004;15(1):52-55.
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AbstractAbstract PDF
Secretory meningioma is a distinct subtype of meningioma. We describe the cytologic features of a secretory meningioma on squash preparations, in comparision with other cytologic mimickers. A 54-year-old woman presented with hearing loss, vertigo, tinnitus, and headache for seven years. A brain MRI study revealed a 4.5 cm sized mass in the cerebellopontine angle, which showed homogenous signal intensity in T2-weighted image. The intraoperative squash smear showed some well-defined, thin rimmed intracytoplasmic inclusions, containing a finely granular eosinophilic core among less cohesive meningiomatous cells. Histologic sections revealed a meningothelial meningioma with scattered inclusions, with periodic acid-Schiff, carcinoembryonic antigen, and cytokeratin positivity. Identification of characteristic intracytoplasmic inclusions is helpful for diagnosing secretory meningiomas. On squash preparations, differential diagnoses included tumors with inclusions or cytoplasmic vacuolizations, such as metastatic mammary infiltrating ductal carcinoma, gastric adenocarcinoma, hepatocellular carcinoma, and clear cell ependymoma, oligodendroglioma, hemangioblastoma, chordoma, and other variants of meningiomas (clear cell, xanthomatous, microcytic, and chordoid variants). In addition, the possibilities of glioma with eosinophilic granular body, and metastatic tumors from mammary infiltrating ductal carcinoma, gastric adenocarcinoma, and hepatocellular carcinoma in meningioma should be considered.
Etc
Histochemical Study of Salivary Gland Tumors
Dong Hwan Shin
Korean J Cytopathol. 1981;15(1):53-61.
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AbstractAbstract
Salivary gland tumors are unique among head and neck tumors in the wide array of pathology that they manifest. Billroth (1859) first described four different types of tissue in salivary gland tumors. Since then two theories, mesenchymal and epithelial, have prevailed as to the histogenesis of salivary gland tumors, particularly the so called mixed tumor. Nowadays, the epithelial theory, though not firmly established, enjoys wide support. Recent advances in histochemical techniques have helped to characterize and differentiate sugar containing compounds. Although there are a number of studies concerning the characteristics and distribution of mucoid material found in the salivary gland tumors, a more systematic histochemical study would to of help in the further investigation of the histogenesis of various salivary gland tumors. We have attempted to classify an assortment of salivary tumors on histological basis and performed histochemical studies using various special stains. Material and Methods The material consists of 110 salivary gland tumors examined at the Department of Pathology, Yonsei University College of Medicine between 1969 to 1979. All cases were subjected to histochemical analysis and further morphological study. The paraffin blocks were sectioned serially at 5-7μ and sections stained with hematoxylin and eosin, periodic acid-Schiff reagent (PAS), PAS after diastase digestion, Best's carmine, alcian blue, and toluidine blue. For control of toluidine blue staining, sections of umbilical cord were used. Results and Summary Following results are obtained from histopathologic studies and histochemical analysis on the 110 cases of salivary gland tumors. 1) Out of 110 cases 69 cases(62.7%) occurred at the major salvary gland and 76 cases(69.1%) were benign. 2) Of these major salivary gland tumors 15 cases(21.7%) were malignant while 16 cases (44.4%) of minor salivary gland tumors(total of 36 cases) were malignant. 3) In all salivary glands, there was a striking predominance of pleomorphic adenoma comprising 72 cases(65.5%) of salivary gland tumors. The second largest group observed was adenoid cystic carcinoma followed by mucoepidermoid tumor. 4) Mucoid material found in the ductal lumen of pleonlorphic adenoma, mucoepidermoid tumor and adenoid cystic carcinoma was diastase-reaistant PAS positive. Material in the pseudocystic spaces of adenoid cystic carcinoma was strongly alcian blue positive, toluidine blue positive, and metachromatic. 5) Mucoid material in the stroma of salivary gland tumor was alcian blue positive, toluidine blue-positive and metachromatic. Results of the present study indicated that the epithelial cells of pleomorphic adenoma, mucoepidermoid tumor and Warthin's tumor in addition to the duct lining cells of adenoid cystic carcinoma were derived from duct epithelia which secrete neutral mucopolysaccharide. The cells forming both pseduocyst in the adenoid cystic carcinoma and chondromyxoid area in the pleomorphlc adenoma were thought to originate from mesenchymal cells which secrete acid mucopolysaccaride.

JPTM : Journal of Pathology and Translational Medicine