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Volume 29(3); June 1995
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Original Articles
Selective Neuronal Damage Produced by beta-fluoroethylacetate Intoxication in Rat Brain.
Ki Hyeong Lee, Beom Seok Jeon, Duk Lyul Na, Seong Ho Park, Je G Chi
Korean J Pathol. 1995;29(3):277-285.
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Beta-fluoroethylacetate has been extensively used as the rodenticide in Korea. In some patients with acute poisoning, beta-fluoroethylacetate caused cerebellar dysfunction as a single and persistent neurologic sequela after a period of an acute neurological disorder which is characterized by mental deterioration, seizures, and respiratory failure. But there has been no report of pathological findings to explain neurological deficit. We tried to verify the histologic changes of the central nervous systems in beta-fluoroethylacetate poisoned rats. Silver staining(Gallyas) was used to evaluate the histology. In acute intoxication experiment with LD50(7mg/Kg), beta-fluoroethylacetate elicited acute onset of consciousness deterioration, generalized tonic-clonic seizures and large amplitude tremulous activity involving whole body with full recovery after 24 hours. There was no discernible pathologic change in CNS in acutely poisoned rats. However, when poisoned with sublethal dose(5mg/Kg) daily for five days, a moderate degree of nerve cell degeneration was found selectively in dentate nucleus, Purkinie cell layer, vestibulo-cochlear nucleus and striatum. This change was not seen in hippocampus, cerebral cortex or cerebellar cortex. These findings were well correlated with the previous reports of selective pathology in human 5-FU intoxication cases. Our preliminary results suggest that beta-fluoroethylacetate, a kind of cellular metabolism inhibitor may induce selective neuropathology mainly involving cerebellar output pathway in rats.
Ultrastructural and Immunohistochemical Investigations of Exocrine and Endocrine Cells in Fetal Human Pancreas.
Jung Ran Kim, Je G Chi, Jung Hee Cho
Korean J Pathol. 1995;29(3):286-295.
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The pancreas consists of two types of tissue arising from same primitive cells, but with entirely different functions. Although the adult human pancreas and fetal islet tissue have been the subject of numerous electron microscopic studies, little is known of the ultrastructure of the developing human exocrine pancreas. The purpose of the current study is to investigate development of endo and exocrine of pancreas, especially during the middle trimester of human fetal life, which is the period of acinar cell maturation. Fresh autopsy specimens of pancreas, taken from 15 human fetuses at the 12th (n=2), 13-16th (n=5), 17-20th (n=4), 21-24th (n=2) and 25-28th (n=2) weeks of gestation, were studied electron microscopically, and immunohistochemically. Antisera against insulin, somatostatin, glucagon, pancreatic polypeptide and gastrin, were used for immunohistochemistry. By the 12th week, primitive exocrine acini were identified and these were matured rapidly in the next 6 weeks. At the 17th week stage, ultrastructural examination revealed atypical zymogen granules in the acinar cells. These became progressively less numerous in the 21-28 week period when classical zymogen granules increased upto the level of adult stage. All the endocrine cells were found at the 12th week, forming primitive or mature islets. The relative ratio of endocrine cells at the 12th week was about 35.4%, 24.9%, 39.8%, 0.5% for A, B, D & PP cell, respectively. But at the 25th to 28th week of development, the relative numbers of A and D cells decreased somewhat, whereas those of the B cells increased. The PP cells were constant. The G cells were found at the 12th week of fetal period, which appeared through out the on period.
Polymorphic Reticulosis.
Duck Hwan Kim, Jin Hee Sohn, Sung Suk Paeng, Kyung Ha Kang, Jung Il Suh
Korean J Pathol. 1995;29(3):296-302.
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AbstractAbstract PDF
Polymorphic reticulosis(PMR) is a unique clinicopathological entity of unknown etiology, which commonly present as an aggressive, necrotizing lesion of the upper respiratory tract. It is a separate nosologic entity from Wegener's granulomatosis and idiopathic mildine destructive disease. The origin of the cells composing polymorphic reticulosis has been controversial. We reviewed 15 cases of polymorphic reticulosis with respect to clinical and histologic bases, and immunohistochemical studies were done using UCHLI (CD45RO), as a T cell marker, CD-20 as a B cell marker and alpha- I -antichymotrypsin as a histiocytic marker. Almost all cases showed characteristic histologic and immunohistochemical features similar to those of peripheral T cell lymphoma. Thus, this study indidcated that polymorphic reticulosis is a type of malignant lymphoma of T cell lineage.
Congenital Mesoblastic Nephromas with lmmunohistochemical and Flow Cytometric Analysis.
Woo Hee Jung, Yee Jeong Kim, Jee Young Han, Woo Ick Yang, Dae Young Kang
Korean J Pathol. 1995;29(3):303-310.
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AbstractAbstract PDF
We reviewed 7 cases of congenital mesoblastic nephroma (4 cases of classical mesoblastic nephroma (CMN) and 3 cases of atypical mesoblastic nephroma (AMN)) using immuno-histochemical and flow cytometric study. Results are as follows. 1) The mean tumor size was 5 (3 to 7cm)cm in CMN and 9 (7 to 10cm)cm in AMN. The AMN revealed hemorrhage and necrosis in two Of three cases. A case of AMN showed cystic change without hemorrhage and necrosis. Mitotic count ranged in 0~4/10HPF in CMN and 20-35/10HPF in AMN. 2) Immunohistochemistry for vimentin was all positive. Actin, desmin were weakly positive in CMN, but negative in AMN. The findings were consistent with myofibroblastic differentiation in CMN and AMN was considered to be the less differentiated form of CMN. 3) Flow cytometiic analysis showed diploidy in two of two CMNs and two of three AMNs. Only one AMN showed aneuploidy with DNA index of 1.41. %SG2M were 8.1 and 15.9 (mean 12.0) in CMN and 16.9, 32.9 and 19.3 (mean 22.9) in AMN, respectively. We concluded that AMN should be distinguished from CMN, clinicopathologically.
The Study of Proliferating Cell Nuclear Antigen in Colorectal Carcinoma.
Ho Soo Choi, Bok Soog Yang, Ji Shin Lee, Min Cheol Lee
Korean J Pathol. 1995;29(3):311-320.
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AbstractAbstract PDF
The determination of proliferative activity in the colorectal mucosa has been used for different purposes as the estimation of cancer risk and the assessment of disease activity in ulcerative colitis. But the prognostic significance of proliferative activity in colorectal carcinomas remains controversial. To investigate the prognostic significance of proliferative activity in colorectal carcinomas, the author estimated the proliferative activity immunohisto chemically using the monoclonal antibody PCNA and compared with clinicopathological data in 62 colorectal carcinomas. The results were as follows: 1) The reactivity of PCNA was more pronounced at the infiltrative margins of the tumors and tumor cells within the vascular or lymphatic channels. 2) The mean PCNA index of colorectal carcinomas was 40.5?0.4%. PCNA indices had positive correlations with lymph node invasion(p<0.05), liver, metastasis(p<0.05), Dukes' stage(p<0.01) and TNM classification(p<0.01), and didn't correlated with location of tumor, size of tumor, histological type and lymphtic or vascular invasion. 3) The patients with high PCNA index(more than 45%) represented higher recurrence or metastasis rate(37.5%) than those with low PCNA index (less than 45%)(19.3%) in Dukes B or C colorectal carcinomas during the follow-up periods, but not significant statistically. These results suggested that the reactivity of PCNA may be a useful prognostic factors in colorectal carcinomas.
Ultrastructural Feature of Molluscum Contagiosum Virus.
Chul Jong Yoon, Je G Chi
Korean J Pathol. 1995;29(3):321-326.
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AbstractAbstract PDF
Molluscum contagiosum virus(MCV) infection occurs in both sporadic and epidemic forms, and affects children more frequently. The skin lesions are small, pinkish and wartlike tumor. MCV has not been transmitted to animals and nQt propagated in cell culture. Therefore the viruses in human lesions can only be demonstrated by electron microscopy. Histologically, characteristic intracytoplasmic inclusion bodies (called molluscum bodies) are formed in infected epithelial cells. They gradually enlarge and eventually fill the cell. Ultrastructure of molluscum bodies in infected cells showed a large number of MCV particles that are variable-sized, spherical, ellipsoidal and brick-shaped. Early viral replication stage shows small dense bodies in the nucleus and then reveal immature MCV that consist of homogeneous rounded core and separated capsidal membrane from the cytoplasm matrix In advanced stage, shrinked nucleus with irregular membrane moves into marginal area of the cell. The spherical fon-ns represented immature viruses in cytoplasm matrix, whereas the brick-sphaped forms represented mature viruses in the inclusion of cytoplasm.
Histologic and Immunohistochemical Study of Cutaneous Vascular Disorders.
Jai Hyang Go, Hoon Jin, Dong Hwan Shin, Kwang Gil Lee
Korean J Pathol. 1995;29(3):327-333.
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AbstractAbstract PDF
There is a wide array of designation for cutaneous vascular disorders based on clinical characteristics, histology, embryology, cellular biology, and hemodynamics. The cutaneous vascular disorders can be divided into hemangioma and vascular malformation according to the biologic classification based on cell kinetics i.e. endothelial hyperplasia. There are clinical and histologic differences between them. In this study, clinical, histologic and im-munohistochemical evaluations were attempted on 40 cases of cutaneous vascular disorders diagnosed the period between 1985 and 1993. The results are as follows: 1) Twenty-three out of forty cases were immunoreacive for proliferating cell nuclear antigen(PCNA). The lesions composed of capillary-sized blood vessels with endothelial hyperplasia were diffusely reactive, whereas those composed largely of dilated blood vessels with or without focal endothelial hyperplasia were only focally reactive. 2) Each groups of the classic classification contained both reactive and nonreactive cases except nevus flammeus and juvenfle hemangioma. 3) In contrast to the cases nonreactive for PCNA, those reactive for PCNA contained areas of proliferating small vessels, which showed reactivity for PCNA. In conclusion, the cutaneous vascular disorders diagnosed by the classic classification are heterogeneous in the pattern of the endothelial hyperplasia and the PCNA staining. Therefore it should be classified by the clinical and the histologic characteristics.
Clinical and Histopathologic Study of Eosinophilic Cellulitis.
Eun Kyung Kim, Chan Keum Park, Jung Dal Lee
Korean J Pathol. 1995;29(3):334-342.
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AbstractAbstract PDF
Eosinophilic cellulitis is a rare dermatosis originally described by Wells as "recurrent granulomatous dermatitis with eosinophilia", then called Wells' syndrome. The etiology is unknown, although a hypersensitivity mechanism is suspected. Flame figures are considered as a characteristic histologic feature of Wells' syndrome. To clarify the nature of eosinophilic cellulitis and its flame figures, the authors have reviewed five cases of eosinophilic cellulitis with its clinical and histopathologic findings. Cutaneous lesions were variable in appearance and was confused with angioedema, urticarial vasculitis, erydiema multiforme, morphea or granuloma annulare. Microscopically, early lesions (2-7 days) showed diffuse dermal eosinophilic infiltration with widespread degranulation, sometimes extended into the underlying muscle. Subepidermal bulla was present in one case. Subsequently, granulomatous features with characteristic "flame figures" became apparent (several months). Collagen alteration by eosinophilic granules resulted in flame figure formation and a granulomatous response. In two patients, there were possible relationships between drug and flare-ups of eosinophilic cellulitis, but the others, no contributory precipitating factors were found. We think that eosinophilic cellulitis represents a severe anaphylactic hypersensitivity reaction to various stimuli showing characteristic histopathology with recurrent episodes and frequent hypereosinophilia in the peripheral blood.
In Situ mRNA Hybridization and an Immunohistochemical Study of EGFR in Uterine Cervix Cancer.
Hyang Mi Ko, Chang Soo Park, Sang Woo Juhng
Korean J Pathol. 1995;29(3):343-351.
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Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) is an intergral membrane protein. Overexpression or mutation of EGFR may play a role in careinogenesis. Recently, many molecular biologic techniques have been used to study expression of oncogenes. One of them, in situ mRNA hybridization, using paraffin embedded blocks, offers a unique means to allow precise localization within histological preparations, and also overcomes problems relating to translation defects and abnormal translation. In order to confirm the usefulness of epidermal growth factor receptor as a tumor marker, and to compare the expression of EGFR between in situ MRNA hybridization and an immunohistochemical study, in situ MRNA hybridization was performed along with an immunohistochemical study for EGFR in paraffin sections of 84 uterine cervix carcinomas. A positive reaction for EGFR was observed mairdy in the cytoplasm of tumor cells. The vascular muscle layer and uterine muscle tissue around the cancer nest revealed a positive reaction in immunohistochemical stain for EGFR, with a negative reaction for EGFR mRNA. In the cancer nests, the immunohistochemical positive reaction for EGFR was strong in differentiated cells and keratin pearls, but a strong positive reaction for EGFR mRNA was localized in undifferentiated cells. The overall positive of immunostaing for EGFR was 77% for uterine cervix carcinoma; 71 % for carcinoma in situ, 71 % for microinvaseve carcinoma, and 89% for invasive carcinoma. The overall positivity of EGFR from in situ MRNA hybridization was 94% of the uterine cervix carcinoma; 93% for carcinoma in situ, 93% for microinvasive carcinoma, and 96% for invasive carcinoma. From these results, EGFR is a useful tumor marker for uterine cervix carcinoma, and in situ mRNA hybridization has greater sensitivity and specificity than immunohistochemistry.
Pathology in Korea during the Period 1945~1957.
Je G Chi
Korean J Pathol. 1995;29(3):352-360.
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AbstractAbstract PDF
The pathology in Korea was introduced by Japanese and American missionaries in early 1920. Since that time, pathology teaching, service and research in Korea had been under strong influence of Japan. There was no indendent disciplines of Korean Pathology until the time of Liberation from Japan in 1945. Pathology activity during early period of Korean Pathology, 1945 to 1957, was reviewed in this paper, based on the literature available. The first half of this period (1945 to Korean War), was a transition period from the Pathology. Only 8 papers related to pathology were Japanese-German Pathology to Korean published during this time in Korean literature. However, papers that were orally presented at annual meetings were 12 in 1947, 23 in 1948 and 13 in 1949, respectively. The Korean Society of Pathologists was founded in 1947. And the annual meeting was started from 1947 under the auspiece of Korean Medical Association. The annual meeting could not be held in the year of 1950, when the Korean war started. Virtually no public academic activity was present during 1950 to 1952. The second half of this period(Korean war to 1957) represented reconstruction of Pathology. In fact it was a restart of the Korean Pathology in Korea. During this period less than 10 papers were published in the Korean medical journals. Oral presentation titles at the annual meetings were 6 in 1953, 18 in 1954, 14 in 1955, 15 in 1956 and 31 in 1957, respectively. In summary, the period of the first 12 years since the liberation from Japan, 1945 to 1957, appears to be the dark age of Korean Pathology. No significant academic activity could be found during this period. The slow start of Korean Pathology during the first half of this period was further delayed by the Korean War. Despite all these facts, spirit and effort of early Korean pathologists should be highly appreciated. It seems that the Korean Pathology actually restarted after the Korean war under the influence of American Pathology. It seems only after 1958 that the Korean Pathology took a firm position for promotion.
Case Reports
Secretory Meningioma: Report of 2 cases.
Dong Sug Kim, Eun Hi Lee, Young Ran Shim, Sang Pyo Kim, Oh Ryong Kim
Korean J Pathol. 1995;29(3):361-367.
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AbstractAbstract PDF
The secretary meningioma is a distinct variant of meningioma that revealed characteristic light microscopic, immunohistochemical and ultrastructural features of epithelial and secretary differentiation, which was named as a distinct subtype of meningioma by Alguacil-Garcia et al in 1986. We experienced 2 cases of secretary meningioma. One was a 53-year-old female who had suffered from sudden onset of dizziness for I day. The computerized tomography revealed a sharply marginated well enhanced mass in temporal lobe. The other was a 59-year-old female who had suffered from dizziness for 8 years. The computerized tomography revealed a well demarcated lobulated mass in petrosal ridge. In both cases, multiple hyaline inclusions were scattered in the background of meningothelial meningioma. They were PAS positive, diastase resistant, stained yellow with van Gieson, and did not stain with reticulin in contrast to Psammoma bodies. The immunohistochemistry revealed positive reaction for EMA, CEA, a-FP and cytokeratin. T'he electron microscopic study revealed interdigitation with desmosomes and abundant intracellular lumina. They were lined by numerous microvilli and filled with granular material which was composed of electron dense homogenous material, me branous material, and small membrane-bound vesicles. Microvilli were filled with electron dense material identical to the material in the lumina, and some of them were interconnected with electron dense material in the lumina. It was concluded that secretary activity of the meningothelial cells and degenerated microvilli were involved in the pathogenesis of hyaline inclusions.
Non-Hodgkin's Lymphoma of the Uterine Cervix: 3 cases report.
Chan Pil Park, Young Hyeh Ko, Jung Dal Lee, Moon Il Park, Kyung Tai Kim, Sam Hyun Cho
Korean J Pathol. 1995;29(3):368-373.
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Three patients with primary non-Hodgkin's lymphoma of the uterine cervix are reported and the literature is reviewed. All the three patients in the current study presented with vaginal bleeding. They were found to have diffuse large cleaved cell lymphoma, one of which was multilobated variant with marked sclerosis. Histologically, differential diagnsis from undifferentiated small cell carcinoma, endometrial stromal sarcoma & other sarcomas was difficult and requires special stains including immunobistochemical study. Vaginal pap smears were diagnosed as 'class V; malignant lymphoma' in only one patient. Immunologically, two cases were beta-cell lineage and one case was T-cell lineage. All the patients were treated with chemotherapy only and showed good responses.
Collision Tumor Composed of Papillary Transitional Cell Carcinoma, and Osteosarcoma in Urinary Bladder: A cases report.
Nam Hoon Cho, Chanil Park
Korean J Pathol. 1995;29(3):374-377.
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This is to report a case of collision tumor of the urinary bladder, which was composed of papillary transitional cell carcinoma(PTCC) and osteosarcoma. Grossly the tumor was located at left antero-lateral wall and was a fungating, gray yellow, bony hard mass with papillary configuration of the luminal surface. Histologically the tumor was composed of PTCC confined to the mucosa and sarcomatous component not intermixed with the overlying PTCC. The sarcomatous area had features of classic osteosarcoma with anaplastic tumor cells and haphazardly arranged osteoid matrix, and was positive for osteonectin but entirely negative for cytokeratin or epithelial membrane antigen. Ultrastructural study demonstrated the tumor cells to be osteoblast which had rich rERs and a few lipid vesicles in plump cytoplasm without any evidence of epithelial ongin. The case is thought to be an example of collision tumor because there was no evidence of transition between PTCC and osteosarcoma.
Epithelioid Hemangioendothelioma of Liver: A case report.
Yoo Jin Kim, Jae Hwa Lee, Bang Hur, Man Ha Hur
Korean J Pathol. 1995;29(3):378-384.
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Epithelioid hemangioendothelioma of liver is a very rare tumor of vascular origin, the most peculiar feature of which is that it is composed of endothelial cells closely resembling epithelial cells. We present a primary epithelioid hemangioendothelioma of liver in a 40-year-old male. This tumor was composed of an ill-defined yellowish white, 7 x 4cm sized, firm, solid mass and small satellite nodules in the right lobe of liver. Microscopically, two types of tumor cells-dendritic and epithelioid-were identified. The neoplastic cells infiltrated into sinusoids and intrahepatic veins. The background of tumor showed marked sclerotic change and focal proliferation of bile ductules. Confirmation of the endothelial origin of these cells was provided by positive immunoperoxidase staining for factor VIII-related antigen, and by electron mi-croscopic demonstration of Weibel-Palade body. This is the first case of epithelioid heman- gioendothelioma of liver documented in Korea. We report this case in view of its scarcity and distinctive morphologic features that allow differentiation from sclerosing carcinoma and angiosarcoma.
Kaposi's Sarcoma: A report of three cases.
Yeon Soo Lee, Yeong Jin Choi, Mi Kyung Jee, Seok Jin Kang, Byoung Kee Kim, Sun Moo Kim
Korean J Pathol. 1995;29(3):385-390.
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The classic type of Kaposi's sarcoma, or multifocal hemorrhagic sarcoma histologically characterized by proliferating fibroblastic and microvascular elements was described by Kaposi as a relatively rare neoplasm. During the past nine years, we experienced three cases of sporadic, classic Kaposi's sarcomas. They were presented as multiple papules, macules and nodules on the skin of the hands, lower logs and feet without systemic involvement. Histologically, Kaposi's sarcoma is divided into three stages, early patch, plaque and nodular stages. The nodular lesions(case 1, 2 and 3) showed extensive proliferatiion of spindle shaped, somewhat pleomorphic cells having dark prominent nuclei, proliferation of small vessels with solid aggregates of endothelial cells, and extravasation of erythrocytes. In early patch stage(case 3), widely dilated, anastomosing, thin-walled vascular spaces are noted in the upper half of the dermis. In plaque stage(case I and 3), there are proliferation of spindle shaped cells with extravasated erythrocytes and aggregates of blood vessels lined by prominent endothelial cells.

JPTM : Journal of Pathology and Translational Medicine