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Volume 30(1); January 1996
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Original Articles
Memorials of Alois Alzheimer (June 14, 1864~December 19, 1915) and Historical Background of Alzheimer's Disease.
Ki Hwa Yang
Korean J Pathol. 1996;30(1):1-6.
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AbstractAbstract PDF
December 19, 1995 is the 80th anniversary of Alois Alzheimer's death. Recently, dementing illness including Alzheimer's disease has become the center of public interest in Korea. However, there are not much information about him or historical background of Alzheimer's disease. It is even misunderstanding. It seems to be meaningful to introduce the lifetime of the Alois Alzheimer and the historical background of Alzheimer's disease, especially in the anniversary of his death.
p53 Protein Expression in Infiltrating Ductal Carcinoma of the Breast.
Soon Hee Jung, Mee Yon Cho, Soo Yong Kim
Korean J Pathol. 1996;30(1):7-14.
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AbstractAbstract PDF
Overexpression of the nuclear phosphoprotein p53 is the most common genetic anomaly found in primary human cancer and mutation of the tumor suppressor gene p53 has been identified in breast cancer cell lines. In this study, we evaluated the prognostic significance of p53 protein expression in patients with mammary infiltrating ductal carcinoma and its correlation with histopathologic grade, lymph node status, tumor size, p53 protein expression and survival. Among 53 cases, p53 protein expression was detected in 26(49.1%) cases by immunohistochemistry. There was no correlation between p53 protein overexpression and histopathologic grade(p=0.09) or lymph node status(p=0.38) and between survival and histopathologic grade (p=0.68) or lymph node status(p=0.52). However, p53 protein expression was significantly correlated with survival(p=0.01) and patients with p53 protein-positive tumors showed poorer survival times. But Cox multivariate analysis showed the lymph node status is significant(p=0.01). The authors conclude that the presence of mutant p53 protein and lymph node status may serve a prognostic role, in a subset of mammary infiltrating ductal carcinoma cases.
An Immunohistochemical Study of the Relationships between Estrogen and Progesterone Receptors and Proliferating Cell Nuclear Antigen in Endometrial Hyperplasia and Adenocarcinoma.
Seol Mi Park, Hye Kyoung Yoon, Jong Eun Joo
Korean J Pathol. 1996;30(1):15-22.
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AbstractAbstract PDF
Estrogen and progesterone receptors exist in the epithelial and stromal cells of the endometrium. Proliferative disorders of the endometrium may be associated with autocrine and paracrine actions of estrogen and progesterone in epithelial and stromal cells. This study was performed to evaluate the differences estrogen and progesterone receptor(ER/PR) expression in the epithelial and stromal cells of endometrial hyperplasias and adenocarcinomas using immunohistochemical methods. Immunohistochemical analysis of proliferating cell nuclear antigen(PCNA) was done to evaluate a possible correlation between PCNA and hormone receptor expression. Evaluation was based on samples from 31 simple hyperplasias, 30 complex hyperplasias, and 32 adenocarcinomas. The immunohistochemical expression of ER, PR and PCNA in epithelial and stromal cells were examined according to a scoring system based on the percentage of positive cells and the staining intensity. The results were as follows; 1) The expression of ER and PR in epithelial cells showed a graded, significant decreases in simple hyperplasia, complex hyperplasia and endometrial carcinoma, in that order(ER: P=0.008, PR: P= 0.026). 2) PR expression in the stromal cells showed a significant decrease between hyperplasia and adenocarcinoma(P=0.003). The difference in ER expression was not significant. 3) In stromal cells, the decrease in PR expression was more prominent than the decrease in ER expression when complex hyperplasia was compared to simple hyperplasia. 4) The PCNA expression in simple and complex hyperplasia and adenocarcinoma was not higher than the expression of PCNA in nomal proliferative endometrium. There was no significant difference in PCNA expression between simple and complex hyperplasia and adenocarcinoma(P=0.073). 5) A negative correlation between PCNA and ER/PR expression was not demonstrated in simple and complex hyperplasia, or in adenocarcinoma. Endometrial hyperplasia and adenocarcinoma are probably related to a paracrine action of estrogen and progesterone in epithelial and stromal cells. A progressive loss of PR expression in stromal cells may induce abnormal proliferation of endometrium due to a disrupted hormonal balance.
Expression of p53, c-myc, Transforming Growth Factor-alpha and -beta in Human Epithelial Ovarian Tumors.
Jae Hwa Lee, Young Ok Lee, Man Ha Huh
Korean J Pathol. 1996;30(1):23-31.
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AbstractAbstract PDF
The author examined expression of tumor-related antigens, such as p53 tumor supressor protein, c-myc, TGF-alpha, and TGF-beta proteins in 75 cases of surgically resected epithelial ovarian tumors. Peroxidase immunohistochemistry was used to determine the frequency of expression, the relationship among expression of these antigens and histopathological spectrums, and clinical stage, and their potential prognostic significance. The results are summarized as follows. A positive correlation was found between expression of p53(P=0.02), c-myc(P=0.03), and TGF-alpha(P=0.001) and histological degrees of malignancy(benign, borderline, or malignant) in epithelial ovarian tumors. A significant correlation was found between expression of p53 and histological degrees of malignancy in serous ovarian tumors(P=0.003) and mucinous tumors (P=0.049). A significant correlation was also found between expression of c-myc and the histological grade of serous carcinomas(P=0.02). A correlation between expression of these antigenic proteins and clinical stage of epithelial ovarian tumors was not demonstrated. Expression of p53 and c-myc was closely correlated with expression of TGF-alpha irrespective of the histological degrees of malignancy and type of epithelial ovarian tumors(0.4 < or = K < or = 0.7). The results of this study support the ideas that expression of c-myc and TGF-alpha might be a useful prognostic indicator in human ovarian carcinomas, and expression of p53 could be another indicator of prognosis, as the expression of p53 is characteristic in that the expression is mostly seen in invasive ovarian carcinomas.
Significance of Ultrastructural Electron Dense Deposits on Glomerular Capillary Loops in IgA Nephropathy.
Sun Hee Sung, Ok Kyung Kim, Woon Sup Han
Korean J Pathol. 1996;30(1):32-39.
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AbstractAbstract PDF
To evaluate the clinical and histopathological significance of electron dense deposits on capillary in IgA nephropathy, we reviewed and compared the clinical, laboratory, and pathological features of the patients with IgA nephropathy without loop extension of electron dense deposits(Group I, 91 cases) and IgA nephropathy with loop extension(Group II, 17cases) by ultrastructural examination using transmission electron microscope. IgA nephropathy associated with liver disease, Henoch-Schonlein purpura, systemic lupus erythematosus and the other IgA nephropathies associated with systemic diseases were excluded. The results were as follows; 1) There was no significant difference in age distribution. 2) Generalized edema was more common in group II. 3) Nephrotic ranged proteinuria(>3 g/24hr urine) was more prominent in Group II(52.9%) than Group I(8.8%). 4) Among the groups, segmental or mild deposits on the loops were noted in 13 cases, and severe and generalized deposits in 4 cases. Subendothelial deposits were noted in 6 cases, subepithelial deposits in 3 cases, subendothelial with intramembranous deposits in 1 case, subendothelial with subepithelial deposits in 1 case, intramembranous with subepithelial deposits in 2 cases, and subendothelial, subepithelial and intramembranous deposits in 4 cases. 5) The other associated ultrastructural changes of group II were diffuse effacement of foot processes with microvillous transformation, swelling or vacuolar degeneration of podocytes and glomerular endothelium. 6) According to the WHO morphologic criteria, the grade of Group II was significantly higher than Group I. From the above results, it can be concluded that the extension of electron dense deposits along the capillary loops in the cases of IgA nephropathy is highly correlated with proteinuria in the nephrotic ranged. It seems to be a poor prognostic indicator in view of the facts that it correlats with high histopathologic grading.
Case Reports
Intraabdominal Desmoplastic Small Cell Tumors with Divergent Differentiation: Report of two cases with immunohistochemical and ultrastructural studies.
Young Ha Oh, Nam Hoon Kim, Joo Seob Keum, Moon Hyang Park
Korean J Pathol. 1996;30(1):40-49.
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AbstractAbstract PDF
We studied two intraabdominal desmoplastic small cell tumors. The patients were two men, 37 and 23 years old, with jaundice and palpable abdominal masses. On exploratory laparotomy, each patient revealed a huge mass in the greater omentum with disseminated peritoneal seeding, measuring 32 cm and 11 cm in its greatest dimension, respectively. The tumor involved the diaphragm, rectal shelf, and cul de sac in case 1, and it involved the porta hepatis, retroperitoneum, and serosal surface of the ascending and transverse colon in case 2. Omentectomy of the huge mass and satellite masses was performed in each patient. Both tumors showed nearly the same histopathologic features. The histologic pattern was suggestive of a metastatic small cell carcinoma, but there was no specific, single primary site. The tumors consisted of variably sized, discrete islands of epithelial-like small cells in dense desmoplastic stroma. The tumor cells revealed divergent epithelial, mesenchymal, and neural differentiation by histologic, immunohistochemical, and electron microscopic observations. Only one cycle of chemotherapy including cisplatin and VP-16 was given in case 1 because of a subsequent hepatic problem, who, thereafter, showed massive intraabdominal recurrent tumors 6 months after diagnosis. In case 2, the poor condition of the patient had made chemotherapy and radiotherapy impossible. Case 2 died of disseminated intravascular coagulation following progressive cachexia 7 months after diagnosis.
Ovarian Sertoli-Leydig Cell Tumors with Heterologous Gastrointestinal Type Epithelium or with Striated Skeletal Muscle: report of two cases.
Ki Ouk Min, Eun Joo Seo, Young Shin Kim, Kyo Young Lee, Sang In Shim
Korean J Pathol. 1996;30(1):50-56.
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AbstractAbstract PDF
Sertoli-Leydig cell tumors of the ovary are rare, accounting for no more than 0.5% of all ovarian neoplasms. These tumors occur predominantly in women 10 to 30 years of age. Heterologous elements are found in over 20% of the moderately and poorly differentiated Sertoli- Leydig cell tumors. The most common element is gastrointestinal mucin-secreting epithelium, found in approximately 20% of all cases. Approximately 4% of Sertoli-Leydig cell tumors contain immature skeletal muscle and/or cartilaginous elements. The origin of these neoplasms is regarded as neometaplasia of the mesodermal neoplastic element. While the degree of differentiation of Sertoli-Leydig cell tumors is probably of greater importance in determining prognosis than the presence of heterologous components, recent evidence does point to an unfavorable effect on clinical outcome when heterologous mesenchymal components such as cartilage and striated muscle are present. We experienced two cases of ovarian heterologous Sertoli-Leydig cell tumors with gastrointestinal type epithelium and striated skeletal muscle in 20 and 21 year-old females, respectively. One case involved a patient who had complained of amenorrhea for 3 years while the other case involved a patient who had complained of left lower abdominal tenderness and amenorrhea for one and one half years. It was determined by ultrasonography of the pelvis that the two patients suffered from right and left ovarian masses. Both patients underwent adnexectomy. These tumors were large with partly solid and partly cystic areas. Based on light microscopic examination one case was classified as an intermediate Sertoli-Leydig cell tumor with heterologous gastrointestinal type epithelium, while the other case was classified as a poorly differentiated Sertoli-Leydig cell tumor with heterologous striated skeletal muscle.
A Case Report of Renal Cell Carcinoma in a Polycystic Kidney: A case report.
Kyoung Chan Choi, Joon Hyuk Choi, Won Hee Choi
Korean J Pathol. 1996;30(1):57-60.
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A forty-nine-year-old woman with polycystic disease had a right nephrectomy for what was preoperatively thought to be a polycystic disease, but at surgery turned out to be a tumor based on frozen section. Microscopic examination revealed papillary type, renal cell carcinoma with classical features of adult polycystic kidneys. Radiologic findings revealed multiple cysts in the liver. The clinical recognition of a carcinoma developing in polycystic kidneys is often difficult because of the presence of preexisting large renal masses and occasional hematuria. Renal cell carcinoma should be thought of when confronted with abdominal pain or back pain, severe hematuria, sudden dysuria or a new renal mass occurring in a patient with polycystic kidneys.
Infiltrating Ductal Carcinoma of the Breast with Stromal Osteoclast-Like Multinucleated Giant Cell: A case report.
So Ya Paik, Sang Yeop Yi, Jai Hyang Go, Dong Hwan Shin
Korean J Pathol. 1996;30(1):61-64.
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AbstractAbstract PDF
Malignant tumors of the breast which contain stromal osteoclast-like, multinucleated giant cells are a rare entity of yet unknown clinical significance. These benign multinucleated giant cells are known to occur mostly in areas of prominent angiogenesis and in close association with tumor cells. Supplementary immunohistochemical and electronmicroscopic examinations indicate that the multinucleated giant cells are of histiocytic origin. We report on a case of infiltrating ductal carcinoma with stromal osteoclast-like multinucleated giant cells occurring in the right breast of a 37 year-old woman. Grossly, the tumor was characterized by a well-circumscribed dark brown, solid firm mass. Microscopically, multinucleated giant cells were found in the stroma intermingled with malignant tumor cells. The stroma showed only a small amount of mononuclear cell infiltration and a moderate degree of vascular proliferation. Immunohistochemical stains revealed the tumor cells to be positive for carcinoembryonic antigen, epithelial membrane antigen and cytokeratin while the multinucleated giant cells were positive for vimentin, CD68 and negative for all other stains tested. Ultrastructurally the multinucleated giant cells differed from tumor cells by having abundant cytoplasmic organelles such as rough endoplasmic reticulum, lysosomes, ribosomes, and vesicles but lacking desmosomes or other types of intercellular junctions. Other characteristic features of multinucleated giant cells included, indented nuclei and prominent cytoplasmic process.
Primary Malignant Melanoma arising in Mucosa of the Palatine Tonsil: A case report.
Ki Jung Yun, Hyang Jeong Jo, Hyung Bae Moon, Sang Won Yoon
Korean J Pathol. 1996;30(1):65-67.
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AbstractAbstract PDF
Maligant melanomas of the oral or nasal cavity, and the vulvovaginal area are relatively common among the melanomas of non-ocular mucosa. But, primary malignant melanoma arising in the mucosa of the palatine tonsil is rare. We present a case of primary malignant melanoma arising in the mucosa of the palatine tonsil. A 36-year-old male was admitted for evaluation of a recurrent sore throat. Tonsillectomy was performed on the basis of clinical suspicion of chronic tonsillitis. Grossly, the left tonsil was focally dark. Microscopically, the tonsillar mucosa was diffusely infiltrated with tumor cells. Tumor cells revealed numerous melanin pigments. Intraepithelial nests of tumor cells were noted, but pagetoid spread of tumor cells was not found. Tumor cells were positive for S-100 protein and HMB45 stain. There was no evidence of melanoma in the skin or eye.
Serous Cystadenoma of the Pancreas: A case report.
Young Kyoung Bae, Woo Young Jang, Kyoung Chan Choi, Joon Hyuk Choi, Won Hee Choi
Korean J Pathol. 1996;30(1):68-71.
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AbstractAbstract PDF
Serous cystadenoma of the pancreas, also known as microcystic adenoma or glycogen-rich cystadenoma, is an unusually benign tumor. It is usually large and composed microscopically of many small cysts lined by small, cuboidal or flattened cells containing abundant glycogen. It has been suggested that serous cystadenoma probably arise from the ductular cells or centroacinar cells. Herein, we report on a case of serous cystadenoma of the pancreas in a 55-year-old female. The tumor, measuring 13.5x11.5x10.0 cm, was located in the head of the pancreas and the cut surface revealed a sponge-like appearance due to innumerable tiny cysts containing clear serous fluid. Microscopic analysis showed cystic spaces lined by cuboidal cells with intracytoplasmic glycogen.

JPTM : Journal of Pathology and Translational Medicine