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Volume 30(5); May 1996
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Original Articles
Correlation between Transforming Growth Factor-beta and Procollagen III with Regenerative Activity in Acute Liver Injury, and the Effect of Prostaglandin E2.
Nam Hoon Cho, Chan Il Park
Korean J Pathol. 1996;30(5):367-387.
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Transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-beta) plays an important role in hepatic fibrogenesis. It is thought to inhibit regeneration of the hepatocytes. The aim of this present study was to clarify the correlation of TGF-beta, collagen type III (PIIINP) and the regenerating activity of hepatocytes, and the effect of prostaglandin E2 (PgE2) on them in acute liver injury. Two hundred and sixteen male Sprague-Dawley rats, weighing 200g on average, were divided into six experimental groups and two control groups; group I-CCl4 only administration, group II-partial hepatectomy(PH) only, group III-PH following CCl4 administration, group IV-olive oil only administration, group V-sham operation, group VI-CCl4 administration with pretreatment of PgE2, group VII- PH with pretreatment of PgE2, and group VIII- PH following CCl4 administration with pretreatment of PgE2. Five rats were sacrificed at 12, 24, 36, 48, 96 and 168 hours after the administration of CCl4 or PH in each experimental group. The liver was tested with immunohistochemical stain for proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) and in situ hybridization for TGF-beta. Radioimmunoassay for serum PIIINP was also performed. The results were as follows: TGF-beta was expressed mainly in the perisinusoidal cells and periportal mesenchymal cells. The TGF-beta positive cells were most numerous in the combined group of CCl4 plus PH. TGF-beta expression tended to have an inverse relation, with the PCNA index in all experimental groups. The PCNA index was highest in the CCl4 only group and lowest in the combined group of CCl4 plus PH. The PH only group showed a peak PCNA index at 48 hours. In the CCl4 only group and the combined group of CCl4 plus PH, serum PIIINP appeared to increase at 12 hours or more after the expression of hepatic TGF-beta. Pretreatment of PgE2 revealed that TGF-beta precipitously disappeared at 48-96 hours after insult. PgE2 influenced the vanishing period, not the emerging time of TGF-beta and had a remarkable effect on the amount of TGF-beta especially in the PH following CCl4 administration group, which resulted in significant accentuation of PCNA indices. In conclusion, PH of the prior injured liver induces a marked increase of TGF-beta followed by a significant suppression of regeneration of the remaining liver, and PgE2 overtly suppresses the expression of TGF-beta.
Pathologic Analysis of 39 Cases of Epilepsy Surgery.
Young Mee Cho, Joong Koo Kang, Youn Mee Hwang, Jung Kyo Lee, Ghee Young Choe
Korean J Pathol. 1996;30(5):388-395.
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Pharmacologic therapy is still the primary management for epilpsy; however, surgical treatment is a reasonable therapeutic option for patients suffering from medically intractable seizures, especially temporal lobe epilepsy having a documented unilateral epileptogenic area. Thirty nine patients with pharmaco-resistant complex partial seizures underwent anterior temporal lobectomy and hippocampectomy in 38 cases and frontal cortisectomy in one case. On pathological examination, hippocampal sclerosis was a predominent pathologic finding and was identified in 18 cases. Other non-neoplastic lesions consisted of 5 cases of vascular lesions(2 cavernous angiomas, 2 arteriovenous malformations and 1 angiomatosis), 3 cases of fibrous nodule, 2 cases of cicatrical changes of cerebral cortex, and 1 case of parasitic infection. Neoplasms including two cases of oligodendroglioma and one case of anaplastic astrocytoma were also noted. In seven cases, there was no detectable lesion on gross and microscopic examination. On post-operative follow-up, seizures were completely terminated in most cases(31 cases, 79%). The rest of the patients also displayed marked alleviation of symptoms. The seizures tended to recur more aften among the patients with neoplasm or no pathologically detectable lesion. In order to detect any minute pathological lesion, thorough gross and microcsopic examinations are considered to be essential.
Carcinoid Tumors of the Gastrointestinal Tract: Analysis of 36 Cases.
Kyeong Cheon Jung, Hee Sung Kim, Sang Yong Song, Ghee Young Choe, Yong Il Kim
Korean J Pathol. 1996;30(5):396-407.
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We reviewed a total of 36 cases of gastrointestinal carcinoid tumors during a period of ten and a half years at Seoul National University Hospital, looking at their histologic and ultrastructural features, as well as immunohistochemical results, then we correlated these with location. The primary sites of carcinoid tumors were rectum(39%), stomach(25%), appendix(22%), small intestine(8%) and colon(6%), in order of frequency. The predominant histologic types by organ were mixed and solid(A) types in all location, the solid type(type A) in the stomach, and tubular type(type C) in the rectum. Six out of 8 cases of appendiceal carcinoid were type A and the other two cases were mucinous carcinoid. Tubular adenoma or adenocarcinoma was associated with 36% of the rectal carcinoids, with one case of carcinoid in the small intestine, and one(11%) of the gastric carcinoids was found near an adenocarcinoma. Metastasis was found in one case of ileal carcinoid(100%), one case of cecal carcinoid, 3 of gastric carcinoid(33%) and 2 of rectal carcinoid(14%). Primary tumor size ranged from 1 to 7 cm. Tumor necrosis and endolymphatic tumor emboli were found in 57% and 43% of the metastatic carcinoids, respectively. PCNA index showed a borderline significant difference between metastatic and nonmetastatic groups(P value=0.063). The low prevalence of appendiceal carcinoid and the relatively high prevalence of gastric-rectal carcinoid may reflect a low chance of incidental appendectomy and frequent detection of gastrointestinal endoscopy.
A Study of Bcl-2 Oncoprotein Expression in Endometrial Carcinoma Correlated with Hormone Receptor Status.
Young Im Han, Hye Jin Lee, Ji Yeon Lee, Sun Kyung Lee
Korean J Pathol. 1996;30(5):408-416.
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Bcl-2 is a proto-oncogene initially described in follicular lymphoma, associated with chromosomal translocation(14;18). Recent studies have shown the presence of Bcl-2 in nonhematolymphoid tissue, especially in hormonally responsive tissue. The endometrium is an attractive model for studying the hormone dependent regulation of Bcl-2 expression. We have studied the immunoreactivity of Bcl-2 oncoprotein in relation to the immunoreactivity of estrogen receptors(ER) and progesterone receptors(PR) by immunohistochemistry in 52 human endometrial carcinomas, according to nuclear grade. The results obtained are summarized as followings, 1) Immunohistochemical grade of Bcl-2 showed a significant inverse correlation with nuclear grade. 2) Immunohistochemical grades of ER and PR also showed a significant inverse correlation with nuclear grade, and were well correlated with each other. 3) Immunohistochemical grades of Bcl-2 and hormone receptors showed a strongly significant correlation. On the basis of the above results, we suggest that Bcl-2 expression may be under hormone dependent control and that it can be used in prognosis and choice of hormonal therapy in the presence of hormone receptor.
Immunohistochemical Study of Primary Large Cell Undifferentiated Carcinoma of the Lung.
Hye Seung Han, Jeong Wook Seo, Eui Keun Ham
Korean J Pathol. 1996;30(5):417-426.
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We performed a histopathologic and immunohistochemical study of 23 cases of surgically resected large cell undifferentiated carcinoma(LCUC) of the lung. The relative incidence of LCUC was 7.6% among the total resected cases of primary lung cancer over 7 years(1987-1993). The mean age of the patients was 56 years and 21 cases were male. The mean size of the mass was 5 cm and 11 cases were located peripherally. According to the histologic features, LCUC could be divided into three groups: squamous cell carcinoma-like(6 cases), adenocarcinoma-like(13 cases), and small cell carcinoma-like(4 cases) groups. The histologic differences were related to the variations of the immunohistochemical properties, but there were no differences in prognosis among these groups. Immunoreactivity to cytokeratin(CAM 5.2) was demonstrated in 22/23(96%). Carcinoembryonic antigen was positive in 13/23(57%). Neuron specific enolase and chromogranin were positive in 11/23(48%) and 5/23(22%), respectively. Vimentin was seen in 11/23(48%). From these observations, we could subclassify them by their immunologic phenotypes; exocrine features in 6/23(26%), neuroendocrine(NE) features in 4/23(17%), both exocrine and NE phenotypes in 7/23(30%), and 6 cases(26%) showed neither phenotype. The group with NE features showed a worse prognosis(P<0.05) and immunoreactivity for vimentin was also related to a worse prognosis(P<0.05). These findings imply that the immunohistochemical properties of LCUC are closely related to the histopathologic features. The groups, subdivided by histology and immunoreactivity, showed no prognostic difference except for the NE differentiation and reaction for vimentin.
Histopathological Differences between Silicone Granuloma and Paraffinoma.
Yeon Mee Kim, Hye Kyung Lee, Hye Je Cho, Je Geun Cho
Korean J Pathol. 1996;30(5):427-436.
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During the past two decades, silicone (polydimethylsiloxane) has become one of the most extensively applied biomaterials. Although pure silicone is relatively inert and usually causes only minimal tissue reactions, it has been reported to evoke a definite foreign body reaction. We studied five cases of silicone-induced granulomas in various sites; two in the breast, one in the breast and axillary lymph nodes, one in the subcutis of the abdomen, back and extremities and one in the eyeball, to illustrate the salient histopathologic features of reactions to silicone with particular emphasis to its differences from paraffin granuloma. For this, 17 paraffinomas were also studied. Tissue reaction to silicone liquid and gel was characterized by numerous round to oval empty cystic vacuoles, mild to moderate fat necrosis, foreign body reaction, a variable degree of mononuclear inflammatory cell infiltration and mild focal fibrosis. The cystic spaces were relatively uniform and showed a snow-man like appearance. In contrast to the silicone granulomas, the paraffinomas, also refered to as sclerosing lipogranulomas showed diffuse sclerosis and frequent calcification around the cystic vacuoles. The cystic spaces in paraffinomas were swiss cheese-like configuration, and the content of the cystic spaces was dirty and frequently calcified. However, there were certain similarities between these two types of granulomas particularly in the early phases of the reaction, therefore, the history of silicone injection or implant, is sometimes critical to the diagnosis of silicone granuloma. Despite great technologic advances in the manufacturing of prostheses and medical equipment, droplets and/or particles of silicone still escape into the body tissues in a variety of ways; therefores, the pathologist should always wonder whether the histologic reaction observed is due to silicone or to some other foreign material including paraffin.
Detection of bcl-2/IgH Gene Rearrangement and Expression of c-myc and p53 Oncoprotein in B-cell Lymphoma.
Ghee Young Kwon, Chul Woo Kim
Korean J Pathol. 1996;30(5):437-446.
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Many kinds of genetic changes have been known to be associated with malignant lymphoma and bcl-2, p53 and c-myc are some examples. We investigated the expression of p53 and c-myc protein in follicular and diffuse B cell lymphoma by immunohistochemistry to study the possible role of these proteins in the lymphomagenesis and transformation of the tumor. The rearrangement of bcl-2 oncogene and the immunoglobulin heavy chain gene was searched for in those cases by polymerase chain reaction(PCR). Paraffin-embedded tissues of fifteen follicular lymphomas and 14 diffuse lymphoma cases were used. The results of immunohistochemical staining are summarized as follows: 1) p53 positivity is significantly higher in diffuse lymphoma than in follicular lymphoma(P=0.001); 2) c-myc expression is not increased in diffuse lymphoma compared with follicular lymphoma; 3) PCNA index is significantly higher in diffuse lymphoma than in follicular lymphoma(P=0.03) but there was no statistically significant correlation between PCNA index and p53 positivity(P=0.44); 4) Eight out of 14 cases of follicular lymphoma and 12 of 14 cases of diffuse lymphoma showed rearrangement of the immunogloblulin heavy chain gene; 5) bcl-2 oncogene rearrangement was identified in only one case of follicular lymphoma and all the diffuse type lymphomas were negative in bcl-2/IgH rearrangement. In conclusion, assuming that the follicular pattern of B-cell lymphoma often transforms to diffuse type in later stages, c-myc over-expression might be an earlier event than p53 mutation in the process of tumor progression in B-cell lymphoma. bcl-2/IgH gene rearrangement in follicular lymphoma is a rare finding in Korea compared to that of Western countries.
Inflammatory Pseudotumor of the Urinary Bladder: An Immunohistochemical and Ultrastructural Study.
Seung Sam Paik, Joo Seob Keum, Moon Hyang Park, Jung Dal Park
Korean J Pathol. 1996;30(5):447-452.
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Inflammatory pseudotumor of the urinary bladder is an unusual, benign mesenchymal proliferative lesion of the submucosal stroma easily mistaken for a malignant neoplasm clinically and histologically. We present a case and describe the clinical presentation and radiologic, histologic, histochemical, immunohistochemical, and ultrastructural findings. A 23-year old patient presented with sudden onset of gross painless hematuria for 3 months. There was no previous instrumentation or surgery involving the genitourinary tract. Cystoscopy revealed a large polypoid and ulcerated bladder mass. The lesion consisted of plump spindle shaped, fibroblast-like cells embedded in a myxoid stroma. Mitotic figures were negligible and the lesion showed encroachment on the superficial muscle bundles. The spindle cells were immunoreactive for vimentin and muscle specific actin. Immunohistochemical and ultrastructural findings revealed the fibroblastic-myofibroblastic nature of this lesion. Complete surgical excision by partial cystectomy was successful in eradicating the lesion. The findings are described with a discussion of the pathogenesis and review of the literature.
Alpha-Fetoprotein-Producing Carcinoma of the Gallbladder.
Young Ha Oh, Haeng Ji Kang, Hyoung Guen Lee, Eun Kyung Hong, Yong Il Kim, Jung Dal Lee
Korean J Pathol. 1996;30(5):453-456.
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AbstractAbstract PDF
Alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) is a well-known tumor marker for hepatocellular carcinoma, hepatoblastoma, and yolk sac tumors. There are several studies on AFP-producing tumors that arose from the gastrointestinal tract, pancreas, lung, kidney, and urachal tract. AFP-producing carcinoma of the gallbladder is extremely rare. We report a case of AFP-producing carcinoma of the gallbladder without liver involvement in a 58-year-old man with a gallstone, on which clinical, morphologic, and immunohistochemical studies were performed.
Case Reports
Paragonimiasis Involving the Female Genital Tract and Cul De Sac: A case report.
Mi Sook Lee, Yun Sin Kim, Sung Chul Lim, Keun Hong Kee, Ho Jong Jeo, Chae Hong Suh
Korean J Pathol. 1996;30(5):457-459.
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Paragonimiasis caused by Paragonimus westermani is essentially a pulmonary disorder, but it is also known to cause ectopic parasitism at various sites in human host such as the brain, muscle, liver, spinal cord and spleen. Ectopic parasitism of the female genital tract, especially the ovary is relatively rare. We have experienced a case of a 62-year-old Korean woman with asymptomatic ectopic paragonimiasis in the salpinx , ovary, and cul de sac.
Solitary Fibrofolliculoma: A case report.
Hun Kyung Lee, Lee So Maeng, Seok Jin Kang, Soo Il Chung, Sun Moo Kim
Korean J Pathol. 1996;30(5):460-462.
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The clinical and pathological features of solitary fibrofolliculoma are presented. Solitary fibrofolliculoma is very rarely encountered and to our knowledge, only 7 cases have been reported in the Western literature and no cases have been published in Korea. We experienced a case of solitary fibrofolliculoma occurring in a 56-year-old female, who had a 1.0 cm-sized and slowly growing nodule on her chin. A brief review of the literature, was made especially in relation to the pathological findings and histogenesis of solitary fibrofolliculoma.
Original Articles
A Serous Papillary Cystadenoma of Low Malignant Potential in Paratesticular Tissue.
Keum Min Park, Nam Bok Cho, Kye Yong Song
Korean J Pathol. 1996;30(5):463-465.
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The serous papillary cystadenoma of low malignant potential in the paratesticular tissue is a tumor characterized by its resemblance to ovarian serous papillary tumor of low malignant potential. Several possible origins have been proposed but it is thought to originate from the Mullerian-type epithelium just like ovarian serous tumor of low grade malignancy. Because of the rarity of this tumor, the natural history and treatment have not been established. Herein we report on a serous papillary cystadenoma arising in the paratesticular tissue of a 12 year old . To our knowledge, this is the first reported case in the Korean literature. The size of this cystic tumor in this patient was 0.9x0.9x0.8 cm and had a sponge-like cut surface. The papillary structure was lined by both ciliated and nonciliated secretory cells, the same cellular structure as the salpinx. Areas with just a few mitoses and stratification of epithelial cells were noted, but invasion into the paratesticular tissue was absent, suggesting borderline malignancy. He is doing well after 5 months follow up. Prognosis of this scrotal tumor is thought to be better than the ovarian tumor of similar histology due to a better possibility of early detection.
Cutaneous Infection of Larval strongyloides stercoralis Manifesting Pseudolymphomatous Reactions.
Jin Hee Sohn, Hye Rim Park, Kye Yong Song, Seung Yull Cho
Korean J Pathol. 1996;30(5):466-469.
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Larval nematodes belonging to genera Ancylostoma, Strongyloides, Rhabditis, Gnathostoma or microfilariae (Onchocerca volvulus)/adult filaria (Loa loa) can invade human skin, each making different lesion. In a 71-year old immunocompetent Koreanman with 23% eosinophilia and elevated serum IgG (2530 mg/dl), a skin biopsy was undertaken for a nodular lesion at abdominal wall. A longitudinal section of a larval nematode was recognized in mid-dermal tunnel surrounded by pseudolymphomatous diffuse lymphoreticular cell infiltration. The larval nematode, 15 um in maximum diameter, had outermost cuticular layer and pale intestinal cells. The nematode section was identified as a filariform larva of Strongyloides stercoralis mainly based on its maximum diameter. In Korea, this is the first description of a cutaneous larval nematode infection. This case did not show quick migration of lesion which is a typical manifestation of classical cutaneous larva migrans.

JPTM : Journal of Pathology and Translational Medicine