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Volume 33(7); July 1999
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Original Articles
Correlation between Clinical Outcome and Proliferation Index in Diffuse Large B-Cell Lymphoma.
Sung Shin Park, Joo ryung Huh, Seung Sook Lee, Yun Koo Kang, Dae Seog Heo, Chul Woo Kim
Korean J Pathol. 1999;33(7):475-482.
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AbstractAbstract PDF
The diffuse large B-cell lymphoma category of the Revised European American Classification of Lymphoid Neoplasms (REAL) encompasses different morphologic lymphoma subtypes in a single entity, especially the diffuse large cell (DLC) and the immunoblastic (IBL) subtypes by Working Formulation (WF). The aim of this study is to determine the influence of the morphologic subdivision within this category with respect to clinical outcome and proliferative index using Ki-67 immunostainig combined with image analysis. We retrospectively reviewed 74 patients from 1990 to 1996, who were diagnosed with diffuse large B-cell lymphoma. All cases were reclassified according to REAL and Working Formulation (WF), and Ki-67 immunostaining was performed in all the cases. Fifty-eight cases (78.4%) were classified as DLC and 16 cases (21.6%) as IBL, according to WF. Twenty one cases (28.4%) showed nodal involvement and 53 cases (71.6%), extranodal involvement. All cases were found to display a variable degree of nuclear Ki-67 staining. A proliferative index of 50% or higher identified a group of patients (77%) who had poor clinical results. Overall survival was significantly reduced in these patients displaying high Ki-67 associated proliferative index compared to those with a low proliferative index (p=0.007). 5-year survival estimates were 93% in the low proliferative index group and 55% in the high proliferative index group. A multivariate regression analysis incorporating commonly used clinical prognostic factors confirmed the independent effect of proliferation index on survival. Moreover, all of the 16 IBL cases showed Ki-67 positivity of 50% or higher, which correlates with the poor clinical outcome compared to 70.7% of DLC (p=0.014). We conclude that subdivision of the diffuse large B-cell lymphoma category of the REAL classification is necessary in terms of prognostic significance in correlation with Ki-67 proliferative index.
An Analysis of Histopathologic Evaluation of Lung Carcinomas in Last Ten Years.
Ji Min Jeon, Sun Young Kwon, Eun Sook Chang, Young Jun Jeon, Kun Young Kwon
Korean J Pathol. 1999;33(7):483-489.
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Lung cancer is one of the most common types of malignancy in western nations with serious health problem, and it has become the leading cause of cancer death of males, second only to stomach cancer, in Korea. A review of the histopathology of 1363 cases (1231 patients) of lung carcinoma, diagnosed at the Keimyung University Medical center from 1987 to 1996, was performed to reclassify the type of carcinomas and to investigate the change in the distribution of histologic types of lung carcinoma according to age, sex and year. Among the 1363 cases, 132 patients underwent a surgical operation after biopsy. The diagnosis of each case was proven by histopathologic analysis of surgical specimens (13.2%) and biopsy materials (86.8%). The histologic types in our study were basically based on modified WHO classification (1982) and on new WHO classification (1999). The classification of small cell carcinoma was based on International Association for the Small Cell Lung Cancer (IASLC, 1988). Of the 1231 patients with lung carcinoma, 1012 were male and 219 were female (male to female ratio was 3.6:1). According to the analysis of age distribution, the most prevalent age group was 60~69 years in both sex as (n=516, 42.0%). Changing trends in sex distribution of lung carcinoma patients showed that the proportion of men had decreased throughout the years, whereas the proportion of women had significantly increased. Histologically, squamous cell carcinoma was the most common (n=624, 50.7%), followed by small cell carcinoma (21.1%), adenocarcinoma (18.1%), large cell undifferentiated carcinoma (2.1%), adenosquamous carcinoma (0.4%), and large cell neuroendocrine carcinoma (0.4%), in order of frequency. In men, squamous cell carcinoma was the most frequent type (55.1%). In women, adenocarcinoma was the most frequent type (39.7%). In both sexes, adenocarcinoma was the most common type in patients under the age of 40 (n=12, 41.4%), while squamous cell carcinoma proved the most frequent type in patients over the age of 40 (n=617, 51.3%). Changing trends of histologic types of lung cancer showed that the incidences of squamous cell carcinoma had significantly decreased throughout the years, whereas those of adenocarcinoma and small cell carcinoma had increased. In conclusion, the results showing increases in the percentage of female patients and in the number of cases of adenocarcinoma were noteworthy, and well correlated with other related reports.
Histopathological Features of Endoscopic Biopsies in Ischemic Colitis.
Young Lyun Oh, Cheol Keun Park
Korean J Pathol. 1999;33(7):490-496.
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AbstractAbstract PDF
Ischemic colitis still remains largely underdiagnosed despite the fact that it is one of the most common disorders of the large bowel. The aims of the present study were to evaluate the variable histologic findings of ischemic colitis and to find out helpful histopathological features in diagnosis. Retrospective review of the clinical symptoms, underlying diseases, endoscopic findings of 23 patients, and the histologic features of 37 biopsies was done. We analyzed the significant pathologic features in the histologically diagnosed ischemic colitis group and compared the biopsy time between the histologically diagnosed ischemic colitis group and the non-diagnosed group. Comparison of the endoscopic biopsy time between the group that showed significant histologic features and the group that showed no significant histologic features was also done. The age of the patients ranged from 27 to 87 years. Most patients had abdominal pain, hematemesis, and melena. Endoscopic differential diagnoses included ischemic colitis, ulcerative colitis, infectious colitis, tuberculous colitis, Crohn's disease, and pseudomembranous colitis. Histologic features and diagnoses were also variable. The coagulative necrosis of mucosa and the epithelial desquamation were frequently detected in the group pathologically diagnosed as ischemic colitis. The most pathognomonic finding was coagulative necrosis of the mucosa that was almost always detected within seven days after the onset of clinical symptoms. Recognition of variable patterns of ischemic colitis in a biopsy specimen will direct the clinician to evaluate the vascular system. Early endoscopic biopsy is essential for the precise diagnosis of ischemic colitis.
Accompanied Histopathologic Findings and Association of Serum beta-HCG Levels with Myosalpingeal Invasion in Ectopic Tubal Pregnancy.
Hye Jin Park, Ho Jung Kim, Hea Soo Koo, Sun Hee Sung, Won Sup Han
Korean J Pathol. 1999;33(7):497-502.
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AbstractAbstract PDF
Most ectopic pregnancies occur in the fallopian tubes. There have been numerous theories to explain the occurrence of ectopic pregnancy in fallopian tubes. The most commonly held view is that the passage of the fertilized ovum through the fallopian tube is delayed or hindered by chronic inflammation and its sequelae. We designed a study to evaluate the details of histopathologic changes and the location of implantation and how they relate to the clinical history. 182 fallopian tube specimens from patients who had undergone total or partial salpingectomy were examined. A high incidence of non-specific inflammation of plicae and wall of tube (31.9%) and salpingitis isthmica nodosa (12.6%) were observed. Other associated findings included acute salpingitis, complex plicae or complex hyperplasia of tubal epithelium, fibrous adhesion with ovary, endometriosis, and calcification. History of previous ectopic tubal pregnancy was found in 8 cases. The cases with serum beta-HCG value above 2,500 I.U./L (group I, n=97) were more frequently noted in those exhibiting myosalpingeal invasion of trophoblast (67 cases) than in those without invasion (30 cases). Of the 182 tubal pregnancies, 117 (64.3%) cases were found in the ampulla and 47 (25.8%) cases in isthmic location. In 117 ampullary pregnancies, the products of conception were found intraluminally in 71 cases (60.7%), and extraluminally in 34 (29.1%) cases, of which the products of conception were found entirely extraluminal. The products of conception, found both within and outside the tubal lumen, were found in 12 cases (10.2%). Of 47 tubes with isthmic pregnancies, 33 cases were intraluminal (70.2%), 12 cases were extraluminal (25.5%), and two cases were mixed (4.3%). In conclusion, significant histopathologic abnormalities accompany a majority of ectopic tubal pregnancy, and myosalpingeal invasion of trophoblast is correlated with high serum beta-HCG. Thus, it is necessary to confirm not only the ectopic placental tissue but also the accompanying details of the other histopathologic findings or the pathologic evaluation of ectopic tubal pregnancy.
Histopathologic Findings of Mastopathy in Diabetes Mellitus.
Jae Ho Han, Hee Jung Kim, Woo Hee Jung, Ki Keun Oh
Korean J Pathol. 1999;33(7):503-506.
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Diabetic mastopathy is a clinicopathologic entity which was first described as a dense fibrous breast mass in insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus. The purpose of this article was to document diabetic mastopathy histologically which had been diagnosed as fibrocystic disease and to avoid unnecessary surgical procedures in breast mass simulating malignancy in diabetic patients. We examined eight excisional breast biopsies from seven patients. Three diabetic patients with type I insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus presented with bilateral (2 patients) or unilateral (1 patient) rapidly growing palpable breast masses. Four patients with type II noninsulin-dependent diabetes mellitus presented with bilateral (2 patients) or unilateral breast mass (1 patient). One patient had no symptoms. All of them had late complications of diabetes mellitus such as nephropathy, neuropathy and retinopathy. Mammographic findings such as ill- defined mass density and asymmetric increased density suggested malignancy. However, all of them had been diagnosed as fibrocystic disease. On review, the most consistent pathologic finding was keloid-like stromal fibrosis. Others were ductitis or ductulitis, thickening of basement membrane of ducts or ductules, mononuclear perivasculitis and lobulitis. Six of eight breast satisfied all five criteria for diabetic mastopathy.
DNA Ploidy Analysis as a Prognostic Indicator in Phyllodes Tumor of the Breast.
Hee Jung Kim, Jae Ho Han, Woo Hee Jung, Hy De Lee
Korean J Pathol. 1999;33(7):507-516.
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AbstractAbstract PDF
DNA ploidy analysis using flow cytometry was performed on sixty six cases of phyllodes tumor of the breast including benign, low grade and high grade malignant phyllodes tumor. The rate of aneuploidy was 41.2% in high grade malignant phyllodes tumor and 4.8% in benign phyllodes tumor. No aneuploidy was noted in low grade malignant phyllodes tumor. The recurrence rate according to DNA ploidy pattern revealed 16.7% of aneuploidy and 7.7% of diploidy. In the aneuploid cases, the DNA index of high grade malignant phyllodes tumor was higher than benign phyllodes tumor. Morever, in diploid cases, %SG2M were significantly higher in high grade malignant phyllodes tumor. Therefore, we conclude that DNA ploidy analysis as well as histologic characteristics such as cellularity, pleomorphism of stromal cells and mitoses is useful parameters in the diagnosis, recurrence and prognostic predictors of phyllodes tumor.
Case Reports
Malignant Myoepithelioma Arising in a Recurrent Pleomorphic Adenoma: A case report.
Jeong Yu Kyung, Yeon Lim Suh
Korean J Pathol. 1999;33(7):517-520.
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Malignant myoepithelioma is a rare neoplasm of salivary gland which may either arise de novo or develop in a pre-existing pleomorphic adenoma. The malignant myoepithelioma occurs in 0.45% of major salivary gland tumors. Malignant myoepitheliomas arising in the pleomorphic adenoma number less than 20 in English literature and 1 in Korea. We describe a case of malignant myoepithelioma arising in a recurrent pleomorphic adenoma of the left parotid gland of a 61-year-old man. The tumor was ill-defined and composed of polygonal or plasmacytoid myoepithelial cells. Infiltration to surrounding tissue, hemorrhage, necrosis, increased mitotic activity and vascular tumor emboli indicated its malignant nature. There were several satellite nodules with histologic features of typical pleomorphic adenoma. Immunohistochemically, tumor cells were reactive for S-100 protein, AE1/AE3, vimentin, smooth muscle actin and glial fibrillary acid protein.
Angiosarcoma of the Uterus: A case report.
Young Kyung Bae, Joon Hyuk Choi, Mi Jin Kim
Korean J Pathol. 1999;33(7):521-524.
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AbstractAbstract PDF
Primary angiosarcoma of the female reproductive system is extremely rare, and its management is not well understood. We experienced a very rare case of angiosarcoma arising in the uterus of a 37-year-old woman who presented abdominal distension. At laparotomy, the uterus was observed to be enlarged and deformed by multilobulated hemorrhagic mass. Tumor deposits were present on both ovaries and the omentum. The operation consisted of total abdominal hysterectomy with salpingo-oophorectomy, and omentectomy. Microscopic examination showed that the tumor consisted mostly of solid sheets of pleomorphic and spindle cells forming irregular, communicating cleft-like spaces. Well-formed vascular channels lined by atypical endothelial cells were seen in differentiated areas. Some vessels were partially lined by normal endothelial cells and partially by neoplastic endothelial cells. Papillary architecture composed of epithelioid tumor cells was noted in a focal area. The tumor cells were immunoreactive for factor VIII-related antigen, Ulex europaeus agglutinin-1, CD31 and CD34. Weibel-Palade bodies were not seen in the tumor cells. She received adjuvant chemotherapy, but died 13 months after the diagnosis.
Prostatic Tissue in Ovarian Mature Cystic Teratoma: A case report.
Seung Mo Hong, Mi Sun Choe, Eun Mee Han, Hun Kyung Lee, Jae Y Ro
Korean J Pathol. 1999;33(7):525-528.
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AbstractAbstract PDF
Ovarian mature cystic teratoma containing benign prostatic tissue is rare and only 11 cases have been reported in the literature to date. We report a case of mature cystic teratoma of the ovary containing prostatic tissue. A 23-year-old female patient came to our hospital complaining of irregular menstruation for 3 months. Her menarche had occurred when she was 13 years old. The patient showed no evidence of virilization nor of endocrinopathy. A goose-egg-sized mass was palpable in the left lower abdomen on physical examination. Ultrasonography revealed a cystic ovarian mass with internal echogenecity. Microscopic finding was consistent with that of usual mature cystic teratoma except for a 1.5 cm focus of prostatic and bladder tissues. Prostatic tissue demonstrated strong immunoreactivity for prostatic specific antigen (PSA), prostatic alkaline phosphatase (PAP) and cytokeratin 7. Basal cells of the prostate glands were positive for high molecular weight cytokeratin (34betaE12). Although ovarian mature cystic teratoma containing prostatic tissue has been reported as a rare occurrence, a careful examination with immunohistochemical staining may increase the detection of prostatic tissue in mature cystic teratoma of the ovary.
Leiomyoma of the Ovary A report of two cases.
Jeong Hae Kie, Tai Seung Kim, Dong Hwan Shin
Korean J Pathol. 1999;33(7):529-532.
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AbstractAbstract PDF
Ovarian leiomyoma is a rare form of the ovarian mesenchymal neoplasm and about 50 cases have been reported in the literature. It is believed that many cases may go unnoticed because they are usually small in size and frequently mistaken for the more common fibroma or fibrothecoma. Its origin is still controversial and many possibilities are considered including the smooth muscle in the blood vessel wall of the hilum or the multipotential ovarian stromal cell. Herein we describe two cases of ovarian leiomyoma with its characteristic histologic finding.
A Branchial Cleft Cyst-Like Lymphoepithelial Cyst in the Thyroid Gland: A case report.
Gil Hyun Kang, Jee Soo Kim, Haing Sub R Chung
Korean J Pathol. 1999;33(7):533-536.
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AbstractAbstract PDF
The lymphoepithelial cyst (LEC) rarely occurs in the thyroid gland. The LEC has been thought to be related to developmental rest, namely solid cell nest, which is derived from ultimobranchial body. We report a case of lymphoepithial cyst in a 34- year-old woman clinically diagnosed with Hashimoto's thyroiditis. The cyst was located in mid to lower portion of the left lobe. It was a single unilocular cyst, which for the most part was lined with squamous epithelium, and at certain foci with ciliated columnar epithelium. The cyst wall showed a dense lymphocytic infiltration, numerous lymphoid follicles with germinal centers and admixed thyroid follicles. This morphology is similar to the branchial cleft cyst, with the exception of the thyroid follicles in the cyst wall. Near the cyst were several solid epidermoid cell nests. Immunohistochemical stain of this cyst-lining epithelium and solid cell nests showed CEA positivity. In view of the similarity in histomorphology and CEA positivity to branchial cleft cyst of the lateral neck, the LEC of the thyroid could also have been of branchial origin. However, the admixed thyroid follicles in the cyst wall suggests that the LEC of the thyroid gland might have derived from another branchial cleft as a ultimobranchial body, because it has the potential for thyroid follicular differentiation.
Balloon Cell Malignant Melanoma: A case report.
Ji Young Seo, Soon Young Kim, Jeong Hee Kang, Young Ok Kim, Bang Hur
Korean J Pathol. 1999;33(7):537-539.
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AbstractAbstract PDF
Balloon cell malignant melanoma (BCMM) is a rare histologic variant of malignant melanoma, which is composed either predominantly or entirely of large clear or foamy cells. The incidence of balloon cell malignant melanoma is about 0.15% of all cutaneous malignant melanomas. Recently, we experienced a case of cutaneous balloon cell malignant melanoma in the right lower abdomen with right inguinal and both axillary lymph node metastasis in a 56-year-old man. The cutaneous lesion was 4.5 3.5 cm in size, a well-demarcated black nodular mass, involving abdominal skin and subcutaneous tissue. The tumor was histologically composed of two types of tumor cells: predominant clear cell and focal, pigmented spindle cell. The nodal lesion was composed entirely of clear cells. Both clear and spindle cells showed positive reaction for S-100 protein and HMB-45 on immunohistochemistry.
Fibro-osseous Pseudotumor of the Digits: A case report .
In Seo Park, Jee Young Han, Hye Seung Han, Young Bae Kim, Young Chae Chu
Korean J Pathol. 1999;33(7):540-543.
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Fibro-osseous pseudotumor of the digits is a heterotopic ossification closely related to myositis ossificans and occurs in the subcutaneous tissue of the digits. This lesion is considered a reactive fibroblastic proliferation with metaplastic bone formation. We report a case of fibro-osseous pseudotumor of left index finger in a 28-year-old woman. She had had an ovoid smooth subcutaneous mass with tenderness on the left index finger for one month. In gross, the specimen consisted of a relatively circumscribed, rubbery soft mass with grayish white cut surface measuring 2.0 1.7 1.5 cm. Upon microscopic examination the lesion showed irregular multinodular growth with considerably variable cellularity. Because of the focal hypercellularity, cellular atypia, and increased mitotic activity this lesion may be confused with extraskeletal osteosarcoma or parosteal osteosarcoma. This rare lesion is curable by complete local excision.

JPTM : Journal of Pathology and Translational Medicine