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Volume 34(2); February 2000
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Original Articles
The Effect of Tumor Removal and Administration of OK432 on the Splenic Natural Killer Cell Activity in the Subcutaneous Tumor Bearing Rats.
Kyu Yun Jang, Hyun Sang Yoon, Myoung Jae Kang, Ho Yeul Choi, Sang Ho Kim
Korean J Pathol. 2000;34(2):105-112.
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AbstractAbstract PDF
To investigate the effect of tumor removal and administration of OK432 on the splenic natural killer (NK) cell activity in the subcutaneous tumor bearing rats, NK cell activity assay using a 4-hour 51Cr release assay and flow cytometric analysis for NK cell population were performed. The results were as follows: 1. Splenic NK cell activity and population in the subcutaneous tumor bearing rats decreased along with the growth of the tumor. 2. The rats with subcutaneous tumor removal showed decrease of splenic NK cell activity, but splenic NK cell population was not decreased. 3. In the rats with subcutaneous tumor removal and OK432 administration, splenic NK cell activity was significantly increased 1 week after administration of OK432 and then gradually returned to normal, whereas increase of NK cell population was not significant. In the present study, splenic NK cell activity was significantly decreased despite removal of subcutaneous tumor. But with the administration of OK432, splenic NK cell activity returned to normal. Considering the role of NK cells on the first line of defense against the metastatic implantation of circulating tumor emboli, we suggest that perioperative administration of immunopotentiator such as OK432 may improve the patient's outcome after surgery of human neoplasm.
Expression of Phospholipase C-gamma1 and gamma2 in Non-Hodgkin's and Hodgkin's Lymphoma.
Dae Woon Eom, Sung Sook Kim, Yeong Ju Woo, Jae Hee Suh, Jooryung Huh, Ae Ran Paik, Jae Ho Kim, Sung Ho Ryu, Pann Ghill Suh
Korean J Pathol. 2000;34(2):113-118.
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AbstractAbstract PDF
Phospholipase C (PLC) plays a role in ligand-mediated signal transduction for cellular activity such as proliferation and differentiation. A recent observation that PLC- gamma1 is highly expressed in some kinds of human cancer tissue supports the view that PLC-gamma1 may be involved in proliferation and carcinogenesis. PLC-gamma2 is known to be involved in B cell differentiation and maturation. However, there have been few studies about the expressions of PLC-gamma1 and gamma2 in human lymphoid malignancy. In the present study, we examined the contents of PLC-gamma1 and gamma2 in 10 cases of B cell, 10 cases of T cell non-Hodgkin's lymphoma and 5 cases of Hodgkin's lymphoma to find out whether these enzymes play any role in the carcinogenesis by immunohistochemistry and immunoprecipitation. Immunoprecipitation analysis revealed that in contrast to increased expression of PLC-gamma2 only in B cell lymphoma, a considerably higher level of PLC-gamma1 was detected in both B and T cell lymphoma. Immunohistochemical finding confirmed this observation. PLC-gamma1 and PLC-gamma2 were expressed in the cytoplasm of most tumor cells. PLC-gamma2 was also expressed in mature B cells, while PLC-gamma1 was not expressed in reactive non-tumor cells. These results suggest that PLC-gamma1 mediated signal transduction implicates a significant role in the carcinogenesis of all types of lymphoid tissue, and PLC-gamma2 may play a role in the carcinogenesis of B cell lymphoma as well as B cell differentiation.
Expression of CD44 Splicing Variants v4/5 and v6 in Gastric Adenocarcinoma and Its Relationship with Prognostic Factors.
Lee So Maeng, Hae Kyung Lee, Byung Kee Kim, Eun Jung Lee
Korean J Pathol. 2000;34(2):119-124.
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CD44, an integral membrane glycoprotein expressed by many cell types, serves as the principal transmembrane hyaluronate receptor and may be a determinant of metastatic and invasive behavior in carcinomas. This study was performed to investigate the relationship between CD44 splicing variants v4/5 and v6 expression and histopathologic prognostic factors (depth of tumor invasion, histologic classification, vascular and lymphatic invasion, and lymph node metastasis) in 107 gastric adenocarcinomas. In 107 cases of gastric carcinoma, the immunohistochemical stainining for CD44 v4/5 and CD44 v6 gave the following results. CD44 v4/5 was expressed in 40.2% and CD44 v6 in 67.3% of gastric carcinomas. The expression of CD44 v4/5 was correlated with histologic classification by Lauren (p<0.05), lymphatic invasion (p<0.05), and lymph node metastasis (p<0.004). In contrast, expression of CD44 v6 had no impact on prognostic markers. This study suggests the role of CD44 v4/5 in invasion, metastasis, and its prognostic significance in gastric adenocarcinoma.
Clinicopathologic Significance of Lymph Node Micrometastasis in Advanced Gastric Carcinoma.
Youngmee Kwon, Jae Y Ro, Gyeong Hoon Kang
Korean J Pathol. 2000;34(2):125-131.
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AbstractAbstract PDF
There have been some controversies on prognostic significance of lymph node (LN) micrometastasis (MM) in advanced gastric carcinomas (AGCs). The present study aimed at 1) determination of prognostic significance of MM, 2) evaluation of the relationship between MM and clinicopathological parameters, and 3) determination of LN group where MMs were frequently found. We studied 70 cases of AGC without LN metastasis on initial examination. The tumors were examined for location, size, depth of invasion, differentiation, histologic type, lymphatic invasion, and c-erbB-2 expression. To evaluate MM, pancytokeratin immunohistochemistry was performed in all LNs from 70 cases of AGCs. Among 2,203 dissected LNs from 70 patients, 37 (1.6%) LNs from 19 (27.1%) patients revealed MM. Micrometastases were seen in only group 1 and 2 LNs: none had group 3 and 4 LN involvement. The gender, age, tumor size, location of tumor, histologic type, differentiation, depth of invasion, lymphatic invasion, and c-erbB-2 expression were not significantly associated with MM status. The survival time of the MM-positive group (mean: 62 months) was significantly shorter than that of the MM-negative group (mean: 72 months) (p=0.046). The findings of this study indicate that the presence of MM in LNs is an important prognostic factor in AGC patients.
Expression of p27Kip1 Protein in Colorectal Adenocarcinoma.
Hyang Im Lee, Duck Hwan Kim, Eun Sook Nam, Hye Rim Park, Seoung Wan Chae, Chul Jae Park, Jeong Rye Kim, Hyung Sik Shin
Korean J Pathol. 2000;34(2):132-137.
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AbstractAbstract PDF
p27Kip1 has been recognized as a negative regulator of cell cycle. Reduced level of p27 expression is associated with development and aggressiveness of several human tumors. To investigate the role of p27Kip1 on progression of colorectal adenocarcinoma, we studied 40 cases of human colorectal adenocarcinomas for expression of p27Kip1 protein using an immunohistochemical method, and compared these results with known prognostic parameters of colorectal adenocarcinoma. Among 40 cases of colorectal adenocarcinomas, p27Kip1 expression was detected in the nuclei of tumor cells in 14 cases (35%). The expression rate of p27Kip1 protein was significantly lower in the cases with lymph node metastasis (25.8%) than in those without lymph node metastasis (66.6%) (p<0.05). But it did not correlate with other parameters such as tumor size, histologic grade, vascular invasion, and Ki-67 labeling index. The results suggest that reduced expression of p27Kip1 protein plays a role in biologically aggressive behavior of colorectal adenocarcinoma.
Microvessel Density and Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor Expression in Invasive Breast Carcinomas.
Mi Yeong Jeon, Mee Young Sol, Kyung Sun Park, Hye Kyoung Yoon
Korean J Pathol. 2000;34(2):138-144.
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AbstractAbstract PDF
Angiogenesis is essential for tumor growth and metastasis, however, the prognostic value of neovascularization is undetermined. The aim of this study is to evaluate the prognostic significance of microvessel density (MVD) and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) expression in breast carcinomas. An immunohistochemical stains for CD 31 (DAKO) to estimate MVD and VEGF (Santa Cruz) were done on 40 cases of invasive breast carcinoma. MVD was calculated as an average count of vessels per 200 power field in the most vascularized areas. VEGF expression was interpreted according to staining intensity and number of positive cells. Mean MVD was 35, and MVD was not correlated with lymph node metastasis or histologic grade, but high MVD (mean MVD>35) showed an increasing tendency in cases with larger size, negative ER/PR, and positive cathepsin D. All of the cases showed VEGF expression, but VEGF expression was not correlated with tumor size, histologic grade, lymph node metastasis, ER/PR status, and cathepsin D expression. These results suggest that MVD and VEGF expressions are not reliable prognostic factors.
Histological and Immunohistochemical Characteristics of Keratoacanthoma and Well Differentiated Squamous Cell Carcinoma.
Lucia Kim, Seung Kyung Hann, Kwang Gil Lee
Korean J Pathol. 2000;34(2):145-153.
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AbstractAbstract PDF
Keratoacanthoma (KA) is a rapidly growing cutaneous tumor and is difficult to distinguish from squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) on histomorphology alone. In the present study, we compared the clinicopathological and immunohistochemical findings using antibodies for p21 (WAF-1/CIP1), p53, laminin, and Ki-67 proteins in 27 cases of KA and 31 cases of well differentiated SCC. KA was characterized by occurrence in sun-exposed skin, shorter duration, and smaller size. Expression of p21 protein was increased according to the maturation and involution of KA, but there was no statistical significance. Expression of Ki-67 was decreased in the involutional stage of KA than in SCC (p<0.05). But p53 protein and Ki-67 were expressed in the cells at the periphery of both KA and SCC. The immunoexpression pattern of p53 and Ki-67 suggests that proliferative activities of the two lesions are similar. Laminin was present in the infiltrative cell nests of fully developed and involutional stages of KA, and it may be related to the healing process of KA. In conclusion, it is suggested that the degree of proliferative activity in the proliferative and fully developed stages of KA is similar to that of SCC and that p21 gene expression represents the differentiation property of KA and may be associated with its regression.
Case Reports
Intrathoracic Lymphangiomatosis: An autopsy case report.
Eunmee Han, Kyu Rae Kim, In Chul Lee
Korean J Pathol. 2000;34(2):154-159.
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AbstractAbstract PDF
We report a rare case of intrathoracic lymphangiomatosis associated with chylothorax in a 3-year-old boy. The patient had been healthy until he had chickenpox followed by continued dyspnea. The biopsy specimen showed proliferating lymphatic channels & spindle cells in the lung tissue. The boy died of respiratory failure despite conservative treatment and surgical treatment with pleurodesis. An autopsy was performed. Pleura and pericardium showed severe adhesion to the right lung parenchyma. The cut surface of lung showed thickened interlobular septum with honeycomb-appearance. Histologically, extensive intercommunicating and anastomosing endothelial-lined lymphatic channels were noted along the visceral and parietal pleura, pericardium, around the great vessels, and in the anterior mediastinum over the thymus. These lymphatic channels infiltrated into the pulmonary parenchyme along the bronchovascular bundles. There were scattered areas of spindle cell proliferation with extravasation of RBCs mimicking Kaposi's sarcoma. Histologic diagnosis and differential diagnosis on biopsy materials can be difficult to establish but awareness of the intrathoracic lymphangiomatosis and its various clinical presentation may be helpful for diagnosis.
Hyalinized Hemangioma of the Liver: A case report.
Young Ok Kim, Dong Hoon Sin, Chung Han Lee, Bang Hur
Korean J Pathol. 2000;34(2):160-163.
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AbstractAbstract PDF
We report a case of 50-year-old man with hyalinized hemangioma of the liver. This tumor was detected incidentally during surgical operation for gall stone and was preoperatively diagnosed as intrahepatic stone. A 2.5 2 cm sized gray to white hard mass was found in the left lobe of the liver. Histologically, the tumor was composed of dense collagenous tissue with marked hyalinization, calcification, and ossification admixed with scattered sclerotic vessels. Abundunt elastic fibers were noted in the hyalinized tissue. Totally hyalinized hemangioma is very uncommon and could be erroneously diagnosed as a malignant tumor by preoperative radiologic examination.
Cranial Fasciitis of Childhood: A case report.
Ok Ran Shin, Kyo Young Lee, Young Shin Kim, Chang Suk Kang, Sang In Shim
Korean J Pathol. 2000;34(2):164-166.
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AbstractAbstract PDF
Cranial fasciitis is a rare fibroblastic tumor which shows a predilection for the scalp of young children. We present a child with a rapidly growing mass and lytic skull lesion which on pathologic evaluation was diagnosed as cranial fasciitis. Histologically this lesion was identical to nodular fasciitis which was typically found in the trunk and extremities of adults. Cranial fasciitis is unique in that it may present as a lytic lesion in the skull, but this disease entity is not widely known to pathologists and radiologists, and should be included in the differential diagnosis of fibroblastic lesion occurring in the cranium of young children.

JPTM : Journal of Pathology and Translational Medicine