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Volume 34(7); July 2000
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Original Articles
The Effect of Photodynamic Therapy in BALB/-c Mice Adenocarcinoma in Homograft Model.
Chang Ho Cho, O Jun Kwon
Korean J Pathol. 2000;34(7):481-487.
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Among the efficient cancer treatments, photodynamic therapy (PDT) is one of the therapies inducing rapid apoptosis of cancer cells while causing minimal damage to surrounding normal tissue. We studied the effect of PDT on the adenocarcinoma in BALB/-c mice of homograft model, and the following results were obtained. Apoptosis occurred up to 3 mm in depth from the surface in the first 1 hour after PDT applied, and subsequently the counts were increased in the deeper portion. A remarkable apoptosis observed up to 6 mm in depth shows that the light in use could not penetrate more than 6 mm of tissue. Tissue necrosis was identified in the deeper area of the tumor 6 hours later or thereafter. This necrosis seemed to occur as an indirect effect of vascular obstruction resulting from the damage of endothelial cells which was induced by selective collection of photosensitizer in the endothelial cells of newly forming vessels as well as in the cancer cells. These results indicate that the effective depth of PDT is greater than the depth of light penetration.
Clinicopathologic Characteristics of Replication Error-Positive Gastric Adenocarcinoma in Korean.
Jae Hyuk Lee, Mi Hwa Kim, Wan Sik Lee, Young Jin Kim, Mi Sun Jee, Kwang Min Lee, Sang Woo Juhng, Chan Choi
Korean J Pathol. 2000;34(7):488-493.
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AbstractAbstract PDF
The purpose of this study is to obtain the clinicopathological characteristics of replication error-positive (RER ) gastric adenocarcinoma in Korean, and to identify the significance of RER in adenoma stage of gastric carcinogenesis. Microsatellite instability was examined at D2S71, D2S119, D3S1067, D6S87, D11S905, DM, AR, VWF, HPRT, and BAT-26 loci. Frameshift mutation of BAX gene was analyzed in RER tumors. Normal and tumor DNA of 76 cases of gastric carcinoma and 25 cases of adenoma were examined. RER was found in 8 of 76 cases (10.5%), and it was more frequently found in adenocarcinoma of female (17.7%) than those of male (4.8%). The frequency of RER was not different between the histologic types, age of the patient, anatomical location of the carcinoma, and the stage. The RER found in adenoma suggests that RER contributes to the malignant transformation early in the adenoma stage of the gastric carcinogenesis. None of the RER tumors revealed frameshift mutation of the BAX gene.
Expression of p53 and Matrix Metalloproteinase-2 Proteins in Colorectal Adenocarcinoma.
Seong Jin Cho, Hwa Eun Oh, Yang Seok Chae
Korean J Pathol. 2000;34(7):494-500.
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AbstractAbstract PDF
The p53 gene is believed to play an important role through the mutation and overexpression in the progression of various human malignant tumors. The type IV collagenase (matrix metalloproteinase: MMP-2) initiates the degradation of the extracellular matrix, and consequently may play a role in the tumor invasion and metastasis. To investigate the correlation between clinicopathologic features of the colorectal adenocarcinomas and benign tumors and expression of p53 and MMP-2 proteins, we performed an immunohistochemical study on 40 colorectal adenocarcinomas, 20 adenomas and 20 hyperplastic polyps by using the antibodies to p53 and MMP-2 proteins. The positive expression rate of the p53 protein in adenocarcinomas was 62.5% and significantly higher than in benign tumors. The positive expression rate of the MMP-2 protein was 47.5% in adenocarcinomas, but there was no expression of MMP-2 protein in benign tumors. The difference in p53 and MMP-2 expression rates between malignant and non-malignant tumors was statistically significant. The positive expression rate of p53 protein in the non-metastatic and metastatic adenocarcinomas was 59.1 and 66.7%, respectively. The positive expression rate of MMP-2 protein in the non-metastatic and metastatic adencarcinomas was 45.5 and 50.0%, respectively. The correlation between several clinicopathologic features and expression of p53 and MMP-2 protein was not statistically significant, but the rate of positive MMP-2 immunoreactivity showed a statistically significant difference between Astler-Coller stage B1 C1 group and B2 C2 group of adenocarcinoma (p=0.0431). We concluded that the expression of p53 and MMP-2 protein contributes to the cancer development and MMP-2 may play a certain role in the invasiveness of the colorectal tumor. p53 and MMP-2 protein expression is not correlated with lymph node metastasis.
Expression of Met Protein in Colorectal Carcinoma.
Kyung Un Choi, Jin Sook Lee, Chang Hun Lee, Mee Young Sol, Kang Suk Suh
Korean J Pathol. 2000;34(7):501-508.
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AbstractAbstract PDF
Met protein is a transmembrane 190 kD heterodimer with tyrosine kinase activity, encoded by c-Met oncogene. It serves as a high affinity receptor for hepatocyte growth factor (HGF)/scatter factor (SF), a cytokine which stimulates cell proliferation, motility, and invasion. In this study, we immunohistochemically evaluated the expression of Met/hepatocyte growth factor receptor in colorectal cancers. Met protein was expressed in 31 of 72 patients (43.1%). The staining pattern was cytoplasmic in nature, present throughout the tumor, and showed variable intensity from case to case. The relationship between the expression rate and intensity, and age and sex of patients, tumor size (p=0.645), tumor site (p=0.902) and tumor differentiation (p=0.844) was not statistically significant. The expression rate and intensity were significantly correlated with lymphovascular invasion (p=0.001), lymph node metastasis (p=0.010), depth of invasion (0.019), and stage (p=0.023). Cytoplasmic accumulation of Met protein was not associated with enhanced PCNA index of tumor cells (p=0.052). These results suggest that Met protein may play an important role in the invasion and metastasis of colorectal cancer cells.
Effects of Active Hexose Correlated Compounds on Drug Induced Liver Injury in Mice.
Ki Ouk Min, Hi Jeong Kwon, Eun Joo Seo, Jeana Kim, Seok Jin Kang, Byung Kee Kim
Korean J Pathol. 2000;34(7):509-515.
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AbstractAbstract PDF
AHCC (Active Hexose Correlated Compounds), which was at first extracted from cultured broth of Basidiomycotina, is known to be one of the Biological Response Modifiers (BRM). We examined the protective effects of AHCC on carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) and thioacetamide (TAA)-induced liver injury in mice. The AHCC pretreatment prevented the suppression of several physiological and biochemical parameters in the mice injected with CCl4 or TAA for 5 days. The liver weights and serum ALT and AST levels were increased by CCl4 or TAA, the degree of which was significantly reduced with the AHCC pretreatment. The AHCC pretreatment induced increasing activity of GST (glutathione s-transferase) and showed an increasing tendency of P450 and EROD (ethoxyresorufin o-dealkylation). The AHCC pretreatment also showed negative effects against the suppression of drug metabolizing enzymes, such as P450, EROD, and GST induced by CCl4 or TAA. AHCC pretreatment showed protective effects with significant inhibition of fatty change, inflammation, and necrosis in CCl4 and TAA intoxicated mice liver. The present study suggests that the protective effect of AHCC pretreatment might be related to the protection of liver from the drug induced liver injury in mice model.
Expression of c-erbB-2, c-myc, c-fos, bcl-2, p53, PCNA, and TGF-alpha in Transitional Cell Carcinoma of the Urinary Bladder.
Keun Hong Kee, Yoon Kyeong Oh
Korean J Pathol. 2000;34(7):516-523.
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AbstractAbstract PDF
Most of malignant tumors in the urinary bladder is transitional cell carcinoma (TCC) deriving from the urothelium. Clinical stage and histopathologic grading of the TCC of the urinary bladder is important in the determination of the patient's prognosis. To investigate the correlation between the prognostic factors and the expression of the various oncoproteins and growth factors in each grade of the TCC, immunohistochemical stains for c-erbB2, c-myc, c-fos, bcl-2, p53, proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA), and transforming growth factor-alpha (TGF-alpha) were performed in the formalin fixed paraffin embedded tissues of the TCC (Grade I; 15 cases, Grade II; 20 cases, Grade III; 15 cases) of the urinary bladder. The immunoexpression rate of c-erbB2 was immunoexpression 78.0% in the grade I, 85.0% in the grade II, and 95.0% in the grade III TCC. The immunoexpression rate of c-myc, c-fos and bcl-2 was below 5% in each grades of TCC. The p53 immunoexpression was identified in 11.5%, 24.3% and 30.6% of the grade I, II, and III TCC, respectively. The PCNA and TGF-alpha expression was 53.0% and 27.6% in the grade I, 77.3% and 32.7% in the grade II, and 78.2% and 37.3% in the grade III TCC, respectively. These results suggest that the expressions of c-myc, c-fos, bcl-2, and TGF-alpha are similar in each grade of the TCC and the positivity of c-erbB2, p53, and PCNA shows an increasing tendency for the higher grade TCC of the urinary bladder. Therefore, c-erbB2, p53, and PCNA are clinically useful predictors of the patient's prognosis.
Tumor Angiogenesis and Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor Expression in Cervical Intraepithelial Neoplasia.
Hye Jean Park, Hye Jin Park, Hye Sung Moon, Woon Sup Han, Sun Hee Sung
Korean J Pathol. 2000;34(7):524-530.
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AbstractAbstract PDF
Angiogenesis is an essential requirement for development, progression, and metastasis of malignant tumors. Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) is one of the important angiogenic factors. Recently the role of angiogenesis has been known in premalignant lesions. This study was performed to determine whether the angiogenesis and VEGF expression were increased in association with histological grade of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) and to see the relationship between the angiogenesis and VEGF. Immunostainings for factor VIII and VEGF were performed on 52 cases of cervical neoplasia (12 cases of CIN I, 11 cases of CIN II, 15 cases of CIN III, 7 cases of microinvasive squamous cell carcinoma, and 7 cases of invasive carcinoma) and 5 cases of normal cervix. The results showed a significant increase of microvessel count from normal cervix through CIN grades to invasive squamous cell cacinoma. VEGF expression was increased in proportion to the CIN grades. There was no significant correlation between microvessel count and VEGF expression. In conclusion, the tumor angiogenesis is an early event in tumorigenesis of uterine cervix. In addition, no significant relationship between the microvessel count and VEGF expression in CIN suggests the possibility of other growth factors affecting mainly angiogenesis of premalignant lesion of uterine cervix.
Case Reports
Heterotopic Enchondral Ossification in Metastatic Colonic Adenocarcinoma: A case report .
So Yeon Park, Yong Il Kim, Woo Ho Kim
Korean J Pathol. 2000;34(7):531-533.
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AbstractAbstract PDF
Calcification and ossification of colon cancer is frequently encountered, especially in the mucinous carcinoma. However, cartilage formation or enchondral ossification has rarely been described in human colon cancer. This report describes a case of a 59-year-old man with retroperitoneal metastasis of mucinous adenocarcinoma of colon, which showed a widespread heterotopic ossification through membranous or enchondral ossification. The ossification appeared in apposition to tumor cell nests and in the organized mucin pool. In our knowledge, this is the first case showing enchondral ossification in gastrointestinal carcinoma in Korea.
Adenoid Basal Cell Tumor of the Prostate: A case report.
Joo Heon Kim, Woo Sung Moon, Myoung Jae Kang, Dong Geun Lee, Jae Y Ro
Korean J Pathol. 2000;34(7):534-536.
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AbstractAbstract PDF
Adenoid basal cell tumor of the prostate is a rare tumorous lesion that can be misdiagnosed as adenocarcinoma of the prostate. The malignant potential of adenoid basal cell tumor remains uncertain due to small number of reported cases. This 66-year-old man presented with symptoms of urinary tract obstruction. Under the impression of benign prostatic hyperplasia, a transurethral resection of the prostate (TURP) was performed. The patient was alive with no evidence of recurrence or metastasis 15 months after TURP. Microscopically, most of the lesions were composed of nodular collections of small nests of basaloid cells with peripheral palisading, and clusters of tumor cells forming cribriform pattern. Multiple areas of basal cell hyperplasia and atypical basal cell hyperpalsia were also observed. The coexistence of basal cell hyperplasia, atypical basal cell hyperpalsia, and adenoid basal cell tumor with cribriform pattern in this case supports a morphologic continuum from the benign hyperplastic lesion to malignant neoplasia.
Fibroadenoma with Formation of Epidermal Cyst: A case report.
Jong Jae Jung, Ji Shin Lee, Seung Hyun
Korean J Pathol. 2000;34(7):537-539.
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AbstractAbstract PDF
Epidermal cyst in the fibroadenoma of the breast is very rare. A 29-year-old woman presented with a lump in the upper outer quadrant of the right breast. Clinically it was a fibroadenoma and the excisional specimen showed an encapsulated, firm lobulated lesion with a cystic area on cut surface. The cystic area showed squamous metaplasia of the ductal epithelium and keratinous cyst formation in the fibroadenoma. We report this unusual case with review of literatures.

JPTM : Journal of Pathology and Translational Medicine