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Volume 54(1); January 2020
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Reviews
Standardized Pathology Report for Colorectal Cancer, 2nd Edition
Baek-hui Kim, Joon Mee Kim, Gyeong Hoon Kang, Hee Jin Chang, Dong Wook Kang, Jung Ho Kim, Jeong Mo Bae, An Na Seo, Ho Sung Park, Yun Kyung Kang, Kyung-Hwa Lee, Mee Yon Cho, In-Gu Do, Hye Seung Lee, Hee Kyung Chang, Do Youn Park, Hyo Jeong Kang, Jin Hee Sohn, Mee Soo Chang, Eun Sun Jung, So-Young Jin, Eunsil Yu, Hye Seung Han, Youn Wha Kim
J Pathol Transl Med. 2020;54(1):1-19.   Published online November 13, 2019
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4132/jptm.2019.09.28
  • 13,820 View
  • 913 Download
  • 15 Citations
AbstractAbstract PDFSupplementary Material
The first edition of the ‘Standardized Pathology Report for Colorectal Cancer,’ which was developed by the Gastrointestinal Pathology Study Group (GIP) of the Korean Society of Pathologists, was published 13 years ago. Meanwhile, there have been many changes in the pathologic diagnosis of colorectal cancer (CRC), pathologic findings included in the pathology report, and immunohistochemical and molecular pathology required for the diagnosis and treatment of colorectal cancer. In order to reflect these changes, we (GIP) decided to make the second edition of the report. The purpose of this standardized pathology report is to provide a practical protocol for Korean pathologists, which could help diagnose and treat CRC patients. This report consists of “standard data elements” and “conditional data elements.” Basic pathologic findings and parts necessary for prognostication of CRC patients are classified as “standard data elements,” while other prognostic factors and factors related to adjuvant therapy are classified as “conditional data elements” so that each institution could select the contents according to the characteristics of the institution. The Korean version is also provided separately so that Korean pathologists can easily understand and use this report. We hope that this report will be helpful in the daily practice of CRC diagnosis.
Tumor immune response and immunotherapy in gastric cancer
Yoonjin Kwak, An Na Seo, Hee Eun Lee, Hye Seung Lee
J Pathol Transl Med. 2020;54(1):20-33.   Published online November 1, 2019
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4132/jptm.2019.10.08
  • 10,656 View
  • 669 Download
  • 29 Citations
AbstractAbstract PDF
Remarkable developments in immuno-oncology have changed the landscape of gastric cancer (GC) treatment. Because immunotherapy intervenes with tumor immune response rather than directly targeting tumor cells, it is important to develop a greater understanding of tumor immunity. This review paper summarizes the tumor immune reaction and immune escape mechanisms while focusing on the role of T cells and their co-inhibitory signals, such as the immune checkpoint molecules programmed death-1 and programmed deathligand 1 (PD-L1). This paper also describes past clinical trials of immunotherapy for patients with GC and details their clinical implications. Strong predictive markers are essential to improve response to immunotherapy. Microsatellite instability, Epstein-Barr virus, PD-L1 expression, and tumor mutational burden are now regarded as potent predictive markers for immunotherapy in patients with GC. Novel immunotherapy and combination therapy targeting new immune checkpoint molecules such as lymphocyte-activation gene 3, T cell immunoglobulin, and mucin domain containing-3, and indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase have been suggested, and trials are ongoing to evaluate their safety and efficacy. Immunotherapy is an important treatment option for patients with GC and has great potential for improving patient outcome, and further research in immuno-oncology should be carried out.
HER2 status in breast cancer: changes in guidelines and complicating factors for interpretation
Soomin Ahn, Ji Won Woo, Kyoungyul Lee, So Yeon Park
J Pathol Transl Med. 2020;54(1):34-44.   Published online November 6, 2019
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4132/jptm.2019.11.03
  • 12,953 View
  • 790 Download
  • 34 Citations
AbstractAbstract PDF
Human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2) protein overexpression and/or HER2 gene amplification is found in about 20% of invasive breast cancers. It is a sole predictive marker for treatment benefits from HER2 targeted therapy and thus, HER2 testing is a routine practice for newly diagnosed breast cancer in pathology. Currently, HER2 immunohistochemistry (IHC) is used for a screening test, and in situ hybridization is used as a confirmation test for HER2 IHC equivocal cases. Since the American Society of Clinical Oncology (ASCO)/College of American Pathologists (CAP) guidelines on HER2 testing was first released in 2007, it has been updated to provide clear instructions for HER2 testing and accurate determination of HER2 status in breast cancer. During HER2 interpretation, some pitfalls such as intratumoral HER2 heterogeneity and increase in chromosome enumeration probe 17 signals may lead to inaccurate assessment of HER2 status. Moreover, HER2 status can be altered after neoadjuvant chemotherapy or during metastatic progression, due to biologic or methodologic issues. This review addresses recent updates of ASCO/CAP guidelines and factors complicating in the interpretation of HER2 status in breast cancers.
Molecular characteristics of meningiomas
Young Suk Lee, Youn Soo Lee
J Pathol Transl Med. 2020;54(1):45-63.   Published online January 15, 2020
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4132/jptm.2019.11.05
  • 10,871 View
  • 464 Download
  • 16 Citations
AbstractAbstract PDF
Meningioma is the most common primary intracranial tumor in adults. The grading of meningioma is based on World Health Organization criteria, which rely on histopathological features alone. This grading system is unable to conclusively predict the clinical behavior of these tumors (i.e., recurrence or prognosis in benign or atypical grades). Advances in molecular techniques over the last decade that include genomic and epigenomic data associated with meningiomas have been used to identify genetic biomarkers that can predict tumor behavior. This review summarizes the molecular characteristics of meningioma using genetic and epigenetic biomarkers. Molecular alterations that can predict meningioma behavior may be integrated into the upcoming World Health Organization grading system.
2019 Practice guidelines for thyroid core needle biopsy: a report of the Clinical Practice Guidelines Development Committee of the Korean Thyroid Association
Chan Kwon Jung, Jung Hwan Baek, Dong Gyu Na, Young Lyun Oh, Ka Hee Yi, Ho-Cheol Kang
J Pathol Transl Med. 2020;54(1):64-86.   Published online January 15, 2020
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4132/jptm.2019.12.04
  • 15,705 View
  • 682 Download
  • 18 Citations
AbstractAbstract PDF
Ultrasound-guided core needle biopsy (CNB) has been increasingly used for the pre-operative diagnosis of thyroid nodules. Since the Korean Society of the Thyroid Radiology published the ‘Consensus Statement and Recommendations for Thyroid CNB’ in 2017 and the Korean Endocrine Pathology Thyroid CNB Study Group published ‘Pathology Reporting of Thyroid Core Needle Biopsy’ in 2015, advances have occurred rapidly not only in the management guidelines for thyroid nodules but also in the diagnostic terminology and classification schemes. The Clinical Practice Guidelines Development Committee of the Korean Thyroid Association (KTA) reviewed publications on thyroid CNB from 1995 to September 2019 and updated the recommendations and statements for the diagnosis and management of thyroid nodules using CNB. Recommendations for the resolution of clinical controversies regarding the use of CNB were based on expert opinion. These practical guidelines include recommendations and statements regarding indications for CNB, patient preparation, CNB technique, biopsy-related complications, biopsy specimen preparation and processing, and pathology interpretation and reporting of thyroid CNB.
Original Articles
Analysis of the molecular subtypes of preoperative core needle biopsy and surgical specimens in invasive breast cancer
Ye Sul Jeong, Jun Kang, Jieun Lee, Tae-Kyung Yoo, Sung Hun Kim, Ahwon Lee
J Pathol Transl Med. 2020;54(1):87-94.   Published online November 13, 2019
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4132/jptm.2019.10.14
  • 4,476 View
  • 172 Download
  • 10 Citations
AbstractAbstract PDF
Background
Accurate molecular classification of breast core needle biopsy (CNB) tissue is important for determining neoadjuvant systemic therapies for invasive breast cancer. The researchers aimed to evaluate the concordance rate (CR) of molecular subtypes between CNBs and surgical specimens.
Methods
This study was conducted with invasive breast cancer patients who underwent surgery after CNB at Seoul St. Mary’s Hospital between December 2014 and December 2017. Estrogen receptor (ER), progesterone receptor (PR), human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2), and Ki67 were analyzed using immunohistochemistry. ER and PR were evaluated by Allred score (0–8). HER2 was graded from 0 to +3, and all 2+ cases were reflex tested with silver in situ hybridization. The labeling index of Ki67 was counted by either manual scoring or digital image analysis. Molecular subtypes were classified using the above surrogate markers.
Results
In total, 629 patients were evaluated. The CRs of ER, PR, HER2, and Ki67 were 96.5% (kappa, 0.883; p<.001), 93.0% (kappa, 0.824; p<.001), 99.7% (kappa, 0.988; p<.001), and 78.7% (kappa, 0.577; p<.001), respectively. Digital image analysis of Ki67 in CNB showed better concordance with Ki67 in surgical specimens (CR, 82.3%; kappa, 0.639 for digital image analysis vs. CR, 76.2%; kappa, 0.534 for manual counting). The CRs of luminal A, luminal B, HER2, and triple negative types were 89.0%, 70.0%, 82.9%, and 77.2%, respectively.
Conclusions
CNB was reasonably accurate for determining ER, PR, HER2, Ki67, and molecular subtypes. Using digital image analysis for Ki67 in CNB produced more accurate molecular classifications.
Clinicopathologic characteristics of HER2-positive pure mucinous carcinoma of the breast
Yunjeong Jang, Hera Jung, Han-Na Kim, Youjeong Seo, Emad Alsharif, Seok Jin Nam, Seok Won Kim, Jeong Eon Lee, Yeon Hee Park, Eun Yoon Cho, Soo Youn Cho
J Pathol Transl Med. 2020;54(1):95-102.   Published online November 13, 2019
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4132/jptm.2019.10.24
  • 5,153 View
  • 227 Download
  • 8 Citations
AbstractAbstract PDF
Background
Pure mucinous carcinoma (PMC) is a rare type of breast cancer, estimated to represent 2% of invasive breast cancer. PMC is typically positive for estrogen receptors (ER) and progesterone receptors (PR) and negative for human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2). The clinicopathologic characteristics of HER2-positive PMC have not been investigated.
Methods
Pathology archives were searched for PMC diagnosed from January 1999 to April 2018. Clinicopathologic data and microscopic findings were reviewed and compared between HER2-positive PMC and HER2-negative PMC. We also analyzed the differences in disease-free survival (DFS) and overall survival according to clinicopathologic parameters including HER2 status in overall PMC cases.
Results
There were 21 HER2-positive cases (4.8%) in 438 PMCs. The average tumor size of HER2-positive PMC was 32.21 mm (± 26.55). Lymph node metastasis was present in seven cases. Compared to HER2-negative PMC, HER2-positive PMC presented with a more advanced T category (p < .001), more frequent lymph node metastasis (p = .009), and a higher nuclear and histologic grade (p < .001). Microscopically, signet ring cells were frequently observed in HER2-positive PMC (p < .001), whereas a micropapillary pattern was more frequent in HER2-negative PMC (p = .012). HER2-positive PMC was more frequently negative for ER (33.3% vs. 1.2%) and PR (28.6% vs. 7.2%) than HER2-negative PMC and showed a high Ki-67 labeling index. During follow-up, distant metastasis and recurrence developed in three HER2-positive PMC patients. Multivariate analysis revealed that only HER2-positivity and lymph node status were significantly associated with DFS.
Conclusions
Our results suggest that HER2-positive PMC is a more aggressive subgroup of PMC. HER2 positivity should be considered for adequate management of PMC.
Expression of female sex hormone receptors and its relation to clinicopathological characteristics and prognosis of lung adenocarcinoma
Jin Hwan Lee, Han Kyeom Kim, Bong Kyung Shin
J Pathol Transl Med. 2020;54(1):103-111.   Published online November 13, 2019
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4132/jptm.2019.10.12
  • 4,149 View
  • 113 Download
  • 3 Citations
AbstractAbstract PDF
Background
Adenocarcinoma (ADC) of the lung exhibits different clinicopathological characteristics in men and women. Recent studies have suggested that these differences originate from the expression of female sex hormone receptors in tumor cells. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the immunohistochemical expression of female sex hormone receptors in lung ADC and determine the expression patterns in patients with different clinicopathological characteristics.
Methods
A total of 84 patients with lung ADC who underwent surgical resection and/or core biopsy were recruited for the present study. Immunohistochemical staining was performed for estrogen receptor α (ERα), estrogen receptor β (ERβ), progesterone receptor (PR), epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), EGFR E746- A750 del, and EGFR L858R using tissue microarray.
Results
A total of 39 (46.4%) ERα-positive, 71 (84.5%) ERβ-positive, and 46 (54.8%) PR-positive lung ADCs were identified. In addition, there were 81 (96.4%) EGFR-positive, 14 (16.7%) EGFR E746-A750 del–positive, and 34 (40.5%) EGFR L858R–positive cases. The expression of female sex hormone receptors was not significantly different in clinicopathologically different subsets of lung ADC.
Conclusions
Expression of female sex hormone receptors is not associated with the prognosis and clinicopathological characteristics of patients with lung ADC.
Comparison of papanicolaou smear and human papillomavirus (HPV) test as cervical screening tools: can we rely on HPV test alone as a screening method? An 11-year retrospective experience at a single institution
Myunghee Kang, Seung Yeon Ha, Hyun Yee Cho, Dong Hae Chung, Na Rae Kim, Jungsuk An, Sangho Lee, Jae Yeon Seok, Juhyeon Jeong
J Pathol Transl Med. 2020;54(1):112-118.   Published online January 15, 2020
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4132/jptm.2019.11.29
  • 5,657 View
  • 166 Download
  • 7 Citations
AbstractAbstract PDF
Background
The decrease in incidence of cervical dysplasia and carcinoma has not been as dramatic as expected with the development of improved research tools and test methods. The human papillomavirus (HPV) test alone has been suggested for screening in some countries. The National Cancer Screening Project in Korea has applied Papanicolaou smears (Pap smears) as the screening method for cervical dysplasia and carcinoma. We evaluated the value of Pap smear and HPV testing as diagnostic screening tools in a single institution.
Methods
Patients co-tested with HPV test and Pap smear simultaneously or within one month of each other were included in this study. Patients with only punch biopsy results were excluded because of sampling errors. A total of 999 cases were included, and the collected reports encompassed results of smear cytology, HPV subtypes, and histologic examinations.
Results
Sensitivity and specificity of detecting high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion (HSIL) and squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) were higher for Pap smears than for HPV tests (sensitivity, 97.14%; specificity, 85.58% for Pap smears; sensitivity, 88.32%; specificity, 54.92% for HPV tests). HPV tests and Pap smears did not differ greatly in detection of low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion (85.35% for HPV test, 80.31% for Pap smears). When atypical glandular cells were noted on Pap smears, the likelihood for histologic diagnosis of adenocarcinoma following Pap smear was higher than that of high-risk HPV test results (18.8 and 1.53, respectively).
Conclusions
Pap smears were more useful than HPV tests in the diagnosis of HSIL, SCC, and glandular lesions.
Case Study
Morule-like features in pulmonary adenocarcinoma associated with epidermal growth factor receptor mutations: two case reports with targeted next-generation sequencing analysis
Yoo Jin Lee, Harim Oh, Eojin Kim, Bokyung Ahn, Jeong Hyeon Lee, Youngseok Lee, Yang Seok Chae, Chul Hwan Kim
J Pathol Transl Med. 2020;54(1):119-122.   Published online November 1, 2019
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4132/jptm.2019.09.30
  • 3,230 View
  • 107 Download
  • 1 Citations
AbstractAbstract PDF
Morules, or morule-like features, can be identified in benign and malignant lesions in various organs. Morular features are unusual in pulmonary adenocarcinoma cases with only 26 cases reported to date. Here, we describe two cases of pulmonary adenocarcinoma with morule-like features in Korean women. One patient had a non-mucinous-type adenocarcinoma in situ and the other had an acinarpredominant adenocarcinoma with a micropapillary component. Both patients showed multiple intra-alveolar, nodular, whorled proliferative foci composed of atypical spindle cells with eosinophilic cytoplasm. Targeted next-generation sequencing was performed on DNA extracted from formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded samples of the tumors. Results showed unusual epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) mutations, which are associated with drug resistance to EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitors, revealing the importance of identifying morule-like features in pulmonary adenocarcinoma and the need for additional study, since there are few reported cases.
Editorial
Papillary thyroid carcinoma variants with tall columnar cells
Chan Kwon Jung
J Pathol Transl Med. 2020;54(1):123-123.   Published online January 15, 2020
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4132/jptm.2019.12.18
  • 3,484 View
  • 129 Download
  • 1 Citations
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JPTM : Journal of Pathology and Translational Medicine