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Volume 8(2); December 1997
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Etcs
A Study on Malignant Tumors among Korean Infants and Children
Sang Kook Lee
Korean J Cytopathol. 1974;8(2):71-77.
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AbstractAbstract
In many countries cancer is now the second to third most common causes of death in the children over the age of one year. And it has been recently become apparent that there is much variation in the frequency ratio of tumors from country to country and within different communities in childhood as there is in adult cancer. In this connection, a statistical survey was performed on the primary malignant tumors of Korean infants and children based on biopsy, and bone marrow materials. In this study total 237 cases of the primary malignant tumors(male 151 and female 86 cases) diagnosed at the Department of Pathology, College of Medicine, Seoul National University during the period of ten years, 1960 to 1969 were examined. Among the malignant tumors in both sexes, the relative frequency ratio is highest for leukemia(51.9%) and thereafter in order of frequency ratios, for lymphoma(12.2%), Wilms’ tumor(7 2%), soft tissue tumor(5.9%), carcinoma(5.1%), brain tumor or gonadal and germ cell tumor(3.8% respectively), retinoblastoma(3.0%) and sympathetic tissue tumor(2.5%). The relative frequency of malignant tumors among Korean infants and children show some different points as compared to those of Western European populations. Among lymphomas, lymphosarcoma is by far the most frequent type, whereas in British Hodgkin’s disease and lymphosarcoma occurred about equally. In Korea malignant tumors of the brain and neuroblastoma are much less frequent. Hepatocellular carcinoma is more frequent in Korea and Japan than in the West. In Korea and Japan Ewing’s sarcoma is rare or much less frequent than osteosarcoma, whereas in European countries including British the two diseases are almost equally frequent during childhood.
An Experimental Study on the Effect of Drugs to the Bone Marrow and Peripheral Blood in Rabbits
Bo Ryun Kim, Sang In Kim
Korean J Cytopathol. 1974;8(2):79-89.
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AbstractAbstract
An experimental study was performed to understand the nature of pancytopenia and/or aplastic anemia due to drugs, and to provide the data for the further experiments to detect the pathogenesis of drug induced aplastic anemia. Facing high prevalence rate of aplastic anemia in Korea authors believe that some of these cases are due to toxic herb medicine, some of them being included in this experiment. A group of 5 to 7 rabbits were treated with chloramphenical, phenylbutazone, herb medicines - Buza, Daekeok, Choho and Banha for upto 5 months. The detailed changes of peripheral blood and bone marrow were analysed in weekly bases. The following results were obtained. 1. A pancytopenia and bone marrow hypoplasia that is compatible with aplastic anemia was induced in each one of the chloramphenicol, phenylbutazone and Daekeok treated rabbit group. The degree of aplastic marrow changes were most prominent in CM treated rabbit and the changes due to phenylbutazone and the Daekeok was milder than that of CM. 2. In those cases with aplastic blood and marrow picture, the decrease of platelet count was first appearing and constant finding, while the decrease of hemoglobin and reticulocyte was a subsequent finding of constant and progressive one, the leukopenia or relative lymphocytosis were variable according to the drugs and rabbits. The bone marrow of these aplastic cases disclosed an increased fat, decreased number of nucleated cells with decreased granulocytic and megakaryocytic series, increased proportion of lymphocytes, plasma cells and reticulum cells in relative number. Increased number of mast cells was one of constant findings. 3. Though transient, the peripheral blood of many rabbits in each drug-treated groups disclosed a thrombocytopenia, anemia or decreased reticulocyte count and/or leukopenia. This tendency was more frequent in those groups treated with chloramphenicol, phenylbutazone and Daekeok. The bone marrow in these cases did not showed any significant hypoplasia, however there was a relatively increased number of lymphocytes, plasma cells and reticulum cells. The mast cells was also encountered occasionally. 4. The peripheral blood of some rabbits, especially in those treated with herb medicine disclosed a transient increase of some blood cells, however the bone marrows did not disclosed any particular changes. 5. Even with same drug, the peripheral blood and bone marrow exhibited a considerable variations according to the individual animal, duration of drug administration and the site of bone marrows obtained. 6. Pancytopenia with bone marrow hypoplasia or aplasia due to drugs may be attributable to the kind of drugs and ice duration of drug administration, however, the species and individual susceptibility of animals to the particular drug seems to play a key role in this sort of experiment. The authors highly suspect the pathogenetical correlation of mast cells in the drug induced aplasia of bone marrow.
Histological Specificity of Borderline Malignancy of Ovarian Serous and Mucinous Tumors
Chae Koo Lee, Yong Il Kim, Kye Yong Song
Korean J Cytopathol. 1974;8(2):91-97.
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AbstractAbstract
One hundred and fourteen consecutive cases of histologically verified ovarian serous and mucinous tumors were reevaluated to clarify the histological specificity of borderline malignancy. The unique and definitive diagnostic criterion for the establishment of borderline malignancy of both serous and mucinous tumors is aggressive proliferation of lining cells without neighboring stromal invasiveness, but further reliable informations to suggest such low grade malignancy include less pleomorphic tumor cells with no apparent solid epithelial cell nest or secondary gland formation. Among various histological and cytological characteristics in relation to cellular pleomorphism, presence of one or more macronucleoli was very closely correlated with histological gradings of both tumors. True papillary growth with tendency of forming delicate secondary branching and marked epithelial stratification in serous tumors and the leakage of mucin into the adjacent stromal tissue in mucinous tumors were additional strong suggestions of invasive carcinoma, for which borderline malignancy should not be taken into consideration when some, but not all, of the above morphological features were detected.
Studies on the Usefulness of Paraffin Embedded Tissue for Electronmicroscopy by Reprocessing
Chung Sook Kim, Yoo Bock Lee, Dong Sik Kim
Korean J Cytopathol. 1974;8(2):99-108.
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AbstractAbstract
Paraffin embedded tissue after the fixation in 10% neutral formalin for routine light microscopy were deparaffinized and reprocessed for electronmicroscopy. While a large part of ultrastrures were poorly preserved, some of structures, namely nucleolus, nuclear chromatin, inner nulcear membrane, specific cytoplasmic granules, dense bodies, cell skeleton, and desmosomes were relatively well preserved. Thus even the routine paraffin embedded tissues can be used for the demonstration of these ultrastructures when desired, in addition to that it is much easier to select area to be desired for the electronmicroscopic examinations.
Original Articles
Effectiveness of Transbronchial Fine Needle Aspiration in Diagnosing Lung Cancers.
Tae Yub Kim, Gyung Yub Gong, Won Dong Kim, On Ja Kim
Korean J Cytopathol. 1997;8(2):109-114.
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AbstractAbstract PDF
Transbronchial fine needle aspiration(TBNA) is one of the cytologic methods in diagnosing lung cancers. TBNA can be used in cases of hilar, mediastinal or lung masses adjacent to the bronchi. We analyzed and compaired the findings of 27 cases of TBNA and bronchial washing and brushing(BW/BB) in lung cancers confirmed by either biopsy or surgical resection between Jun, 1996 and May, 1997 in Asan Medical Center. They were 18 cases of non-small cell carcinomas(eight squamous cell carcinomas, nine adenocarcinomas, and one large cell undifferentiated carcinoma), eight cases of small cell carcinomas, and one case of metastatic hepatocellular carcinoma. The sensitivity of TBNA was 37%(10/27) and false negative was 63%(17/27). Although the sensitivity of BW/BB was 56%(15/27), it was not different statistically from that of TBNA(Chi square, p=0.38). Overall sensitivity of TBNA and BW/BB in this series was 70%(19/27). Forty-seven percent of false negative TBNA(8/17) were positive in BW/BB. The findings suggest that the addition of TBNA to the standard BW/BB increases diagnostic yield in cytologic diagnosis of lung cancer.
PLC-gamma1 for Differentiating Adenocarcinoma from Reactive Mesothelial Cells in Effusions.
Woo Yeong Ju, Sung Sook Kim
Korean J Cytopathol. 1997;8(2):115-119.
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AbstractAbstract PDF
Cytologic diagnosis of reactive or malignant effusion is sometimes difficult. Espe- cially, differentiation of benign reactive mesothelial cells from malignant cells in body effusion is more difficult. Recently, immunohistochemistry has been used to diagnose difficult cases. Phospholipase C(PLC)-gamma 1 is one of the isoenzyme of the PLC which plays central role in signal transduction involving cellular growth, differentiation and transformation by phosphorylating many protein component. Increased expression of PLC-gamma 1 in human breast carcinoma, colorectal carcinoma and stomach cancers are reported. To evaluate the efficacy of positive PLC-gamma 1 immunostaining in the diagnosis of malignancy in effusions, paraffin-embedded cell blocks of pleural fluid and ascites from 10 patients(5 metastatic adenocarcinomas, and 5 reactive mesothelial cells) were immunostained with a monoclonal antibody to PLC-gamma 1. PLC-gamma 1 immuostained all the adenocarcinomas in cell block(5/5) with intense membrane pattern, however, none of the reactive mesothelial proliferations stained with the diagnostic membrane pattern. Thus, our study strongly supports the conclusion that PLC-gamma 1 immunopositivity is likely to become a useful adjunct for the diagnosis of malignancy in effusions.
Etc
Effect of Rheum coreanum.N. on Hematopoietic Activity of Blooded Rabbit
Sang Chull Kim
Korean J Cytopathol. 1974;8(2):115-121.
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AbstractAbstract
Rheum coreanum Nakai(R.C.N.) has been known to possess phytohemoagglutinin activity. This experimental study is undertaken to evaluate whether R.C.N. has effect on hematopoietic activity in rabbit. Each rabbit of experimental group was injected 1.0ml of R.C.N. extract intravenously just after bleeding, and studied peripheral blood in R.B.C. count, hematocrit, hemoglobin, reticulocyte count, total W.B.C. count, Iymphocyte and granulocyte count. The result obtained are as follow : 1. Interval of recovery in erythrocytic series was shortened by R.C.N. injection after bleeding. 2. Higher level of peripheral leukocyte count in early stage was noted by R.C.N. injection after bleeding. 3. Higher level of peripheral leukocyte count was due to increased lymphocyte count. R.C.N. seems to possess activities to stimulate the bone marrow hematopoiesis and the blastoid transformation of lymphocytes.
Original Article
Comparison of Fine Needle Aspiration Cytologic Diagnoses and Histologic Diagnoses in 256 Breast Lesions.
Mi Sun Kang, Soo Jin Jung, Hye Kyoung Yoon
Korean J Cytopathol. 1997;8(2):120-128.
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AbstractAbstract PDF
PURPOSE: Henoch-Schonlein purpura nephritis(HSPN) accompanied by nephrotic syndrome(NS) is known to have a poor prognosis and effective treatment is still controversial, even though both corticosteroids and immunosuppresant have been used for therapy. Cyclosporine A(CsA) is a well known immunosuppresant and widely used in renal transplantation and glomerular diseases especially steroid resistant. The aims of this study was to evaluate the therapeutic effect of CsA and to compare CsA with previously reported our data of rifampin(RFP) and azathioprine(AZA) in children with HSPN accompanied by NS.
METHODS
37 HSPN patients with NS confirmed by renal biopsy were selected. Of these, 17 patients were treated with CsA(5 mg/kg/day) for 6-8 months, 7 children were treated with RFP(10-20 mg/kg/day) for 9-12 months and 13 patients were treated with AZA(2 mg/kg/day) for 8 months. Along with these regimens, low dose oral prednisolone(0.5-1 mg/kg, qod) was also used. Sequential renal biopsy was done in all patients 1 month after termination of treatment. RESULTS: Complete remission rate of nephrotic syndrome was 5S.8% in CsA, 57.1% in RFP and 38.4% in AZA group after 17, 22, 11 months of mean follow-up period. Overall remission rate including partial remission was 88.2% in CsA, 85.7% in RFP and 84.6% in AZA group. Disappearance rate of hematuria was 58.8% in CsA, 57.1% in RFP and 46.2% in AZA group. Improvement of grade of clinical status was observed in 17 out of 17 CsA, 7 out of 7 RFP and 10 out of 13 AZA group. Improvement of pathologic class on sequencial renal biopsy was shown in 5 CsA(29.4%), none RFP(0%) and 2 AZA group(12.4%). Improvement on histologic immune-deposition was seen in 15 CsA(88.2%), 6 RFP(85.9%) and 4 AZA group(30.8%). CONCLUSION: In conclusion, Both CsA and RFP treated groups showed better result in complete remission rate of nephrotic syndrome and significant inprovement of histologic immune-deposition compared with AZA treated group(p=0.004). So, we recommend CsA and RFP rather than AZA for immunosuppresant treatment in HSPN with nephrotic syndrome.
Etc
Effect of Eugenia c. t. on Hematopoietic Activity of Bleeded Rabbit
Moon Ja Kang
Korean J Cytopathol. 1974;8(2):123-129.
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AbstractAbstract
Eugenia caryophyllata tumberg (ECT) has been known to have possessed phytohemagglutinin activity. This study was undertaken to evaluate whether ECT has an effect on the erythropoietic activity. Rabbits of experimental group were injected 1.0ml. of ECT extract intravenously just after bleeding and studied peripheral blood in R.B.C. count, hematocrit, reticulocyte count, hemoglobin, total W.B.C. count, lymphocyte and granulocyte count. The results obtained are as follow: 1. Marked decrease in R.B.C. count, hemoglobin and hematocrit were noted on the first and second day after ECT injection. 2. Hematologic data which was decreased previously showed tendency to recover from third day after injection, and it recovered to the values of pre-bleeding on the tenth day after injection. 3. Considerable increase in reticulocyte count was observed from the first day after injection and it reached maximum level on the seventh day. But increased levels kept sustained on the thirteenth day. 4. Total leukocyte count was increased about 86% on the first day, 130% on the second day after injection and it recovered to the value of pre-bleeding on forth day after injection. 5. Increase of total leukocyte count was due to mainly increased number of lymphocytes and granulocytes in peripheral blood. 6. ECT seems to have erythroagglutinin at earlier stage and potency to stimulate erythropoietic activities at later stage and it seems to increase in peripheral lymphocyte of rabbit.
Original Article
The Significance of AgNOR Count in Body Fluid: Differential between reactive mesothelial cells & malignant cells.
Seung Sam Paik, Eun Kyung Hong, Se Jin Jang, Moon Hyang Park, Jung Dal Lee
Korean J Cytopathol. 1997;8(2):129-134.
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AbstractAbstract PDF
To distinguish reactive mesothelial cells from malignant cells in body fluid, we applied silver staining of nucleolar organizer regions(AgNORs) to ethanol fixed cytologic preparations. Fifty aspirated samples of benign(22 cases) and malignant(26 cases) body fluids were studied using the one step silver staining method. Two cytologically atypical samples were also included in the study. In malignant cases the mean AgNOR count was 3.56+/-0.81, while in benign cases the mean AgNOR count was 2.02+/-0.33. The difference of AgNOR counts between these two groups were statistically significant(p<0.001). The mean of atypical cases was 2.91. Both were diagnosed as malignant in follow-up cytology. In malignant effusions, there is statistically significant difference in AgNOR counts between cells forming complex papillae or clusters and singly scattered cells(p<0.05), 3.29+/-0.95 and 3.83+/-0.55, respectively. We concluded that AgNOR count appears to be useful as a diagnostic tool especially when the cytologic differentiation is difficult.
Etc
Simple Microzone Cellulose Acetate Electrophoresis of Alkaline Phosphatase Isoenzymes in Human Tissue and Serum
Jae Sik Kim
Korean J Cytopathol. 1974;8(2):131-137.
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AbstractAbstract
The author attempted a newly applicable simple electrophoretic screening of alkaline phosphatase isoenzymes with human tissue extracts and serum on microzone cellulose membrane with multiple specimen. Isoenzymes were localized colorimetrically with they substrate alpha-naphthol AS-MX phosphate by coupling the reaction product with Fast blue RR salt and Fast red violet LB salt. Alkaline phosphatase consists of a cup of enzymes which hydrolyze phosphate esters in an alkaline medium as follows by the general reaction: R-O-P + H₂O AIPase P + ROH The increase of serum alkaline phosphatase activity is observed in hepatobiliary disease, various bone disorders characterized by increased osteoblastic activity, during growth, pregnancy and a certain kinds of intestinal tract disease etc. The alkaline phosphatase has been fractionated electrophoretically into isoenzymes by numerous methods including paper, starch ge1 cellulose acetate agar gel acrylamide disc gel cellogen micro starch gel and Beckman microzone agarose gel membrane because various electrophoretic media, substrates, buffers and conditions have been used to fractionate and localize isoenzymes of alkaline phosphatase (orthophosphoric monoester phosphohydrolase) from human serum and tissues, it is often difficult to compare results. Usually these methods were examined and found unsuitable for use in a routine clinical laboratory. The author’s objective was to devise a simple routine screening method for localization and characterization of alkaline phosphatase isoenzymes on microzone cellulose acetate membrane by the simplest procedure as well as microzon cellulose acetate electrophoresis of serum protein. Electrophoresis of eight samples on a single microzone cellulose membrane facilitates comparison of isoenzymes with known tissue extract controls(liver and bone).
Original Article
Fine Needle Aspiration Cytology of Mucoepidermoid Carcinoma of the Salivary Gland.
Jeong Seok Moon, Hwa Eun Oh, Joo Han Lee, Aee Ree Kim, Chul Hwan Kim, Han Kyeom Kim, Mee Ja Park, Nam Hee Won
Korean J Cytopathol. 1997;8(2):135-142.
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AbstractAbstract PDF
PURPOSE: There is no specific treatment guidelines for Henoch-Schonlein (HS) nephritis. Therefore we performed this study to observe the effect of long term steroid therapy combined with azathioprine METHODS: Treatment protocols; 1) Steroid pulse therapy: methylprednisolon 30 mg/kg/dose, maximum 1 gm, intravenously 6 times for alternate day. 2) Oral steroid was given 2 mg/kg/day for 1 month, 1 mg/kg/day for following I month and alternate day oral steroid combined with azathioprine 2 mg/kg/day for 2 years. RESULTS: Time period from HSP to onset of HS nephritis was between 2 weeks to 5 months with mean 7.4+/-7.4 weeks. Clinical remission were seen in 4 cases out of 5 (80%). Mean time period with disappearance of proteinuria and microscopic hematuria were 5+/-2.4 month and 13.3+/-2.9 month respectively. On pathologic findings by ISKDC, 3 cases were grade IIIb, 2 cases were grade IV in first kidney biopsies and showed pathologic improvement in follow up kidney biopsies after 2 years treatment. CONCLUSION: As there no definitive treatment for HS nephritis so far, our study of long term oral steroid therapy with azathioprine was effective in clinical and histologic aspect. Therefore further study in HS nephritis with in a large group will be needed in the future.
Etc
Experimental Study for Hematological Changes in Acute Carbon Monoxide Poisoning
Jae Sik Kim, Sae Hoon Kwon, Youn Soo Kim
Korean J Cytopathol. 1974;8(2):139-144.
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AbstractAbstract
Authors made an experimental study for hematological changes in acute carbon monoxide poisoning using 54 dogs which were divided into a control group and a CO(2%) inhaled group. The hemoglobin concentration, hematocrit, RBC count, WBC count and differential count were studied at 15, 75 and 135 minutes in each group. The obtained results were as followings: 1. There was an increasing tendency of the hemoglobin concentrations up to 13.7±2.02 gm% from 13.1±2.55 gm% of the control. 2. The values of hematocrit were significantly increased and it was highest at 75 minutes after CO inhalation. 3. RBC counts showed an increasing tendency but it was not so significant. 4. WBC counts were significantly decreased to fifty percent of the control. 5. The neutrophils were also significantly decreased, while the eosinophils were increased at 75 minutes after CO inhalation. The basophils were markedly decreased and lymphocytes were increased significantly. In monocytes there was seen a decreasing tendency. The author thought that the decreases of the WBC counts and neutrophils are against to other reports and it requires further study.
Case Report
Fine Needle Aspiration Cytology of Salivary Duct Carcinoma: A Case Report.
A Young Park, Hyun Jung Kim, Dong Won Kim, Dong Wha Lee
Korean J Cytopathol. 1997;8(2):143-149.
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AbstractAbstract PDF
PURPOSE: To investigate renal toxicity of high-dose intravenous immunoglobulin(IVIG) in children with Kawasaki disease and idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura. METHODS: 23 children with Kawasaki disease and 7 children with idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura who were treated with high-dose IVIG(2 g/kg) were evaluated for the change of urine output, blood urea nitrogen(BUN), serum creatinine(Scr), creatinine clearance(Ccr), tubular reabsorption of phosphorus(TRP), fractional excretion of sodium(FENa), 24hour urine b2-microg1obuin/creatinine(b2MG/cr) ratio and urine microalbumin/creatinine(MA/cr) ratio at post-IVIG 1 and 3 day. RESULTS: There was no significant change of urine output, BUN, Scr, Ccr, TRP, 24hour urine b2MG/cr and MA/cr ratio after high-dose IVIG treatment. Transient increase of FENa at post-IVIG 1 day was the only significant change.
CONCLUSION
There was no significant renal toxicity of high-dose IVIG in children with Kawasaki disease and idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura who had normal renal function.
Etc
Six Cases of Liposarcoma
Sung Ho Lee
Korean J Cytopathol. 1974;8(2):145-150.
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AbstractAbstract
Six cases of liposarcoma have been reported and investigated a pathohistological findings according to previous reports. In order to comparison of classification of liposarcoma, previous report of Shuman, Stout and Enterline’s classification and cellular components of a pathology of the liposarcoma were also reviewed. Because of limited cases and unfavorable follow up study, previous reports have been referred for clinical course, cure rate, treatment and other statistics. The remained subjects is a prevalence and pathological investigation of this tumor in our country.

JPTM : Journal of Pathology and Translational Medicine