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Raghvendra L. 1 Article
Identification of PI3K-AKT signaling as the dominant altered pathway in intestinal type ampullary cancers through whole-exome sequencing
Niraj Kumari, Rajneesh K. Singh, Shravan K. Mishra, Narendra Krishnani, Samir Mohindra, Raghvendra L.
J Pathol Transl Med. 2021;55(3):192-201.   Published online March 9, 2021
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AbstractAbstract PDFSupplementary Material
The genetic landscape of intestinal (INT) and pancreatobiliary (PB) type ampullary cancer (AC) has been evolving with distinct as well as overlapping molecular profiles.
We performed whole-exome sequencing in 37 cases of AC to identify the targetable molecular profiles of INT and PB tumors. Paired tumor-normal sequencing was performed on the HiSeq 2500 Illumina platform.
There were 22 INT, 13 PB, and two cases of mixed differentiation of AC that exhibited a total of 1,263 somatic variants in 112 genes (2–257 variants/case) with 183 somatic deleterious variants. INT showed variations in 78 genes (1–31/case), while PB showed variations in 51 genes (1–29/case). Targetable mutations involving one or more major pathways were found in 86.5% of all ACs. Mutations in APC, CTNNB1, SMAD4, KMT2, EPHA, ERBB, and Notch genes were more frequent in INT tumors, while chromatin remodeling complex mutations were frequent in PB tumors. In the major signaling pathways, the phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3)/AKT and RAS/mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathways were significantly mutated in 70% of cases (82% INT, 46% PB, p = .023), with PI3/AKT mutation being more frequent in INT and RAS/MAPK in PB tumors. Tumor mutation burden was low in both differentiation types, with 1.6/Mb in INT and 0.8/Mb in PB types (p =.217).
The exome data suggest that INT types are genetically more unstable than PB and involve mutations in tumor suppressors, oncogenes, transcription factors, and chromatin remodeling genes. The spectra of the genetic profiles of INT and PB types suggested primary targeting of PI3/AKT in INT and RAS/RAF and PI3/AKT pathways in PB carcinomas.


Citations to this article as recorded by  
  • Molecular pathways in periampullary cancer: An overview
    Apurva, Real Sumayya Abdul Sattar, Asgar Ali, Nimisha, Abhay Kumar Sharma, Arun Kumar, Seneha Santoshi, Sundeep Singh Saluja
    Cellular Signalling.2022; 100: 110461.     CrossRef
  • Histologic subtyping of ampullary carcinoma for targeted therapy
    Seung-Mo Hong
    Journal of Pathology and Translational Medicine.2021; 55(3): 235.     CrossRef

JPTM : Journal of Pathology and Translational Medicine