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Articles in E-pub version are posted online ahead of regular printed publication.

Case Report
Solitary Peutz-Jeghers type harmartomatous polyp in duodenum with gastric foveolar epithelium: a case report
Eugene Choi, Junghwan Lee, Youngsoo Park
Received October 11, 2022  Accepted November 6, 2022  Published online January 10, 2023  
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4132/jptm.2022.11.07    [Epub ahead of print]
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  • 36 Download
AbstractAbstract PDF
Peutz-Jeghers type hamartomatous polyp is known to be associated with Peutz-Jeghers syndrome, which shows characteristic multiple hamartomatous polyp involvement in the gastrointestinal tract, combined with mucocutaneous symptom, familial history of Peutz- Jeghers syndrome or STK11/LTB1 mutation. However, some cases showing histologic appearance of the polyps discovered in Peutz- Jeghers syndrome while lacking other diagnostic criteria of the syndrome have been reported, and these are called solitary Peutz- Jeghers type polyps. Herein, we report a case of solitary Peutz-Jeghers type polyp covered with heterotopic epithelium. The patient was 47-year-old female without any mucocutaneous symptoms nor familial history of Peutz-Jeghers syndrome. Microscopic examination revealed Peutz-Jeghers type hamartomatous polyp in duodenum covered with gastric type foveolar epithelium. Considering the definition of hamartomatous polyp, which is, the abnormal overgrowth of the indigenous epithelial component, the histological feature of current case is noteworthy in a point that it shows proliferation of heterotopic component, rather than the indigenous component.
Original Article
Significance of tumor-associated neutrophils, lymphocytes, and neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio in non-invasive and invasive bladder urothelial carcinoma
Wael Abdo Hassan, Ahmed Kamal ElBanna, Noha Noufal, Mohamed El-Assmy, Hany Lotfy, Rehab Ibrahim Ali
Received September 7, 2022  Accepted November 6, 2022  Published online January 10, 2023  
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4132/jptm.2022.11.06    [Epub ahead of print]
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AbstractAbstract PDF
Background
Tumor-infiltrating neutrophils and lymphocytes play essential roles in promoting or combating various neoplasms. This study aimed to investigate the association between tumor-infiltrating neutrophils and lymphocytes and the neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio in the progression of urothelial carcinoma.
Methods
A total of 106 patients diagnosed with urothelial carcinoma were was. Pathological examination for tumor grade and stage and for tumor-infiltrating neutrophils, both CD4 and CD8+ T lymphocytes, as well as the neutrophil- to-lymphocyte ratio were evaluated.
Results
The presence of neutrophils and the neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio correlated with high-grade urothelial neoplasms. In both low- and high-grade tumors, the lymphocytes increased during progression from a non-invasive neoplasm to an early-invasive neoplasm. CD8+ T lymphocytes increased in low-grade non–muscle-invasive tumors compared to non-invasive tumors. Additionally, there was a significant decrease in CD8+ T lymphocytes during progression to muscle-invasive tumors.
Conclusions
Our results suggest that tumor-infiltrating neutrophils and CD8+ T lymphocytes have a significant effect on tumor grade and progression.
Case Study
Unsuspected systemic Epstein-Barr virus–positive T-cell lymphoma of childhood diagnosed at autopsy in a potential homicide case
Daniel J. Robbins, Erik A. Ranheim, Jamie E. Kallan
Received August 12, 2022  Accepted October 30, 2022  Published online December 22, 2022  
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4132/jptm.2022.10.31    [Epub ahead of print]
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  • 68 Download
AbstractAbstract PDF
Systemic Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)–positive T-cell lymphoma of childhood (SETLC) is a rare, rapidly progressive, and often fatal disease of children and young adults characterized by monoclonal expansion of EBV-positive T cells in tissues or peripheral blood following infection with EBV. Its distinction from other EBV-positive T-cell lymphoproliferative disorders with overlapping features can be difficult, and particular diagnostic features may not be manifest until autopsy examination. We present the case of a 10-year-old boy with significant disability due to remote traumatic brain injury following non-accidental head trauma who died unexpectedly at home. Given the history of physical abuse and the potential for homicide charges, significant medicolegal implications arose with this case. Pathologic investigation ultimately revealed conclusive diagnostic features of SETLC including extensive proliferation of EBV-positive T cells in multiple organs. A natural manner of death was confirmed, thereby excluding delayed homicide related to complications of non-accidental head trauma.
Original Article
Expression of specific microRNAs in tissue and plasma in colorectal cancer
Allan Fellizar, Vivencio Refuerzo, John Donnie Ramos, Pia Marie Albano
Received October 27, 2021  Accepted February 19, 2022  Published online May 3, 2022  
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4132/jptm.2022.02.19    [Epub ahead of print]
  • 1,650 View
  • 289 Download
AbstractAbstract PDF
Background
MicroRNAs (miRNA/miR) play significant roles in the regulation of cell differentiation, cell cycle progression, and apoptosis. They become dysregulated during carcinogenesis and are eventually released into the circulation, enabling their detection in body fluids. Thus, this study compared the miRNA expression in tissue and plasma samples of colorectal cancer (CRC) patients and clinically healthy controls and determined miRNA expression as a potential CRC biomarker.
Methods
Using quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR), miR-21-5p, miR-29a-3p, miR-92a-3p, miR-135b-5p, miR-196b-5p, and miR-197-3p, expression was analyzed and compared between the malignant (n = 41) and the adjacent neoplasm free mucosal tissues (n = 41) of CRC patients. The findings were validated in plasma samples (n = 36) collected from the same CRC patients prior to surgery or any form of treatment and compared to plasma from their age and sex-matched controls (n = 36).
Results
MiR-21-5p, miR-29a-3p, miR-92a-3p, and miR-196b-5p were upregulated and miR-135b-5p was downregulated in CRC malignant tissues compared to their expression in adjacent neoplasm-free tissue. This was further observed in the plasma of the same CRC cases compared to controls. MiR-92a-3p showed itself the most sensitive (0.93; p < .001) and most specific (0.95; p < .001) in detecting CRC in tissue. In plasma, miR-196b-5p was the most sensitive (0.97; p < .001) and specific (0.94; p < .001) in detecting CRC. Plasma miR-92a-3p and miR-196b-5p were the most sensitive (0.95; p < .001) and specific (0.94; p < .001) in the early detection of CRC.
Conclusions
Results show that specific miRNAs dysregulated in malignant tissues are released and can be detected in the circulation, supporting their potential as non-invasive biomarkers of CRC.

JPTM : Journal of Pathology and Translational Medicine