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Reviews
A standardized pathology report for gastric cancer: 2nd edition
Young Soo Park, Myeong-Cherl Kook, Baek-hui Kim, Hye Seung Lee, Dong-Wook Kang, Mi-Jin Gu, Ok Ran Shin, Younghee Choi, Wonae Lee, Hyunki Kim, In Hye Song, Kyoung-Mee Kim, Hee Sung Kim, Guhyun Kang, Do Youn Park, So-Young Jin, Joon Mee Kim, Yoon Jung Choi, Hee Kyung Chang, Soomin Ahn, Mee Soo Chang, Song-Hee Han, Yoonjin Kwak, An Na Seo, Sung Hak Lee, Mee-Yon Cho
J Pathol Transl Med. 2023;57(1):1-27.   Published online January 15, 2023
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4132/jptm.2022.12.23
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AbstractAbstract PDFSupplementary Material
The first edition of ‘A Standardized Pathology Report for Gastric Cancer’ was initiated by the Gastrointestinal Pathology Study Group of the Korean Society of Pathologists and published 17 years ago. Since then, significant advances have been made in the pathologic diagnosis, molecular genetics, and management of gastric cancer (GC). To reflect those changes, a committee for publishing a second edition of the report was formed within the Gastrointestinal Pathology Study Group of the Korean Society of Pathologists. This second edition consists of two parts: standard data elements and conditional data elements. The standard data elements contain the basic pathologic findings and items necessary to predict the prognosis of GC patients, and they are adequate for routine surgical pathology service. Other diagnostic and prognostic factors relevant to adjuvant therapy, including molecular biomarkers, are classified as conditional data elements to allow each pathologist to selectively choose items appropriate to the environment in their institution. We trust that the standardized pathology report will be helpful for GC diagnosis and facilitate large-scale multidisciplinary collaborative studies.
Infections and immunity: associations with obesity and related metabolic disorders
Amitabha Ray, Melissa J. L. Bonorden, Rajashree Pandit, Katai J. Nkhata, Anupam Bishayee
J Pathol Transl Med. 2023;57(1):28-42.   Published online January 15, 2023
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4132/jptm.2022.11.14
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AbstractAbstract PDF
About one-fourth of the global population is either overweight or obese, both of which increase the risk of insulin resistance, cardiovascular diseases, and infections. In obesity, both immune cells and adipocytes produce an excess of pro-inflammatory cytokines that may play a significant role in disease progression. In the recent coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, important pathological characteristics such as involvement of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system, endothelial injury, and pro-inflammatory cytokine release have been shown to be connected with obesity and associated sequelae such as insulin resistance/type 2 diabetes and hypertension. This pathological connection may explain the severity of COVID-19 in patients with metabolic disorders. Many studies have also reported an association between type 2 diabetes and persistent viral infections. Similarly, diabetes favors the growth of various microorganisms including protozoal pathogens as well as opportunistic bacteria and fungi. Furthermore, diabetes is a risk factor for a number of prion-like diseases. There is also an interesting relationship between helminths and type 2 diabetes; helminthiasis may reduce the pro-inflammatory state, but is also associated with type 2 diabetes or even neoplastic processes. Several studies have also documented altered circulating levels of neutrophils, lymphocytes, and monocytes in obesity, which likely modifies vaccine effectiveness. Timely monitoring of inflammatory markers (e.g., C-reactive protein) and energy homeostasis markers (e.g., leptin) could be helpful in preventing many obesity-related diseases.
Perspectives on single-nucleus RNA sequencing in different cell types and tissues
Nayoung Kim, Huiram Kang, Areum Jo, Seung-Ah Yoo, Hae-Ock Lee
J Pathol Transl Med. 2023;57(1):52-59.   Published online January 10, 2023
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4132/jptm.2022.12.19
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AbstractAbstract PDF
Single-cell RNA sequencing has become a powerful and essential tool for delineating cellular diversity in normal tissues and alterations in disease states. For certain cell types and conditions, there are difficulties in isolating intact cells for transcriptome profiling due to their fragility, large size, tight interconnections, and other factors. Single-nucleus RNA sequencing (snRNA-seq) is an alternative or complementary approach for cells that are difficult to isolate. In this review, we will provide an overview of the experimental and analysis steps of snRNA-seq to understand the methods and characteristics of general and tissue-specific snRNA-seq data. Knowing the advantages and limitations of snRNA-seq will increase its use and improve the biological interpretation of the data generated using this technique.
Single-cell and spatial sequencing application in pathology
Yoon-Seob Kim, Jinyong Choi, Sug Hyung Lee
J Pathol Transl Med. 2023;57(1):43-51.   Published online January 10, 2023
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4132/jptm.2022.12.12
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AbstractAbstract PDF
Traditionally, diagnostic pathology uses histology representing structural alterations in a disease’s cells and tissues. In many cases, however, it is supplemented by other morphology-based methods such as immunohistochemistry and fluorescent in situ hybridization. Single-cell RNA sequencing (scRNA-seq) is one of the strategies that may help tackle the heterogeneous cells in a disease, but it does not usually provide histologic information. Spatial sequencing is designed to assign cell types, subtypes, or states according to the mRNA expression on a histological section by RNA sequencing. It can provide mRNA expressions not only of diseased cells, such as cancer cells but also of stromal cells, such as immune cells, fibroblasts, and vascular cells. In this review, we studied current methods of spatial transcriptome sequencing based on their technical backgrounds, tissue preparation, and analytic procedures. With the pathology examples, useful recommendations for pathologists who are just getting started to use spatial sequencing analysis in research are provided here. In addition, leveraging spatial sequencing by integration with scRNA-seq is reviewed. With the advantages of simultaneous histologic and single-cell information, spatial sequencing may give a molecular basis for pathological diagnosis, improve our understanding of diseases, and have potential clinical applications in prognostics and diagnostic pathology.
Case Report
Solitary Peutz-Jeghers type harmartomatous polyp in duodenum with gastric foveolar epithelium: a case report
Eugene Choi, Junghwan Lee, Youngsoo Park
Received October 11, 2022  Accepted November 6, 2022  Published online January 10, 2023  
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4132/jptm.2022.11.07    [Epub ahead of print]
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AbstractAbstract PDF
Peutz-Jeghers type hamartomatous polyp is known to be associated with Peutz-Jeghers syndrome, which shows characteristic multiple hamartomatous polyp involvement in the gastrointestinal tract, combined with mucocutaneous symptom, familial history of Peutz- Jeghers syndrome or STK11/LTB1 mutation. However, some cases showing histologic appearance of the polyps discovered in Peutz- Jeghers syndrome while lacking other diagnostic criteria of the syndrome have been reported, and these are called solitary Peutz- Jeghers type polyps. Herein, we report a case of solitary Peutz-Jeghers type polyp covered with heterotopic epithelium. The patient was 47-year-old female without any mucocutaneous symptoms nor familial history of Peutz-Jeghers syndrome. Microscopic examination revealed Peutz-Jeghers type hamartomatous polyp in duodenum covered with gastric type foveolar epithelium. Considering the definition of hamartomatous polyp, which is, the abnormal overgrowth of the indigenous epithelial component, the histological feature of current case is noteworthy in a point that it shows proliferation of heterotopic component, rather than the indigenous component.
Original Article
Significance of tumor-associated neutrophils, lymphocytes, and neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio in non-invasive and invasive bladder urothelial carcinoma
Wael Abdo Hassan, Ahmed Kamal ElBanna, Noha Noufal, Mohamed El-Assmy, Hany Lotfy, Rehab Ibrahim Ali
Received September 7, 2022  Accepted November 6, 2022  Published online January 10, 2023  
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4132/jptm.2022.11.06    [Epub ahead of print]
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AbstractAbstract PDF
Background
Tumor-infiltrating neutrophils and lymphocytes play essential roles in promoting or combating various neoplasms. This study aimed to investigate the association between tumor-infiltrating neutrophils and lymphocytes and the neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio in the progression of urothelial carcinoma.
Methods
A total of 106 patients diagnosed with urothelial carcinoma were was. Pathological examination for tumor grade and stage and for tumor-infiltrating neutrophils, both CD4 and CD8+ T lymphocytes, as well as the neutrophil- to-lymphocyte ratio were evaluated.
Results
The presence of neutrophils and the neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio correlated with high-grade urothelial neoplasms. In both low- and high-grade tumors, the lymphocytes increased during progression from a non-invasive neoplasm to an early-invasive neoplasm. CD8+ T lymphocytes increased in low-grade non–muscle-invasive tumors compared to non-invasive tumors. Additionally, there was a significant decrease in CD8+ T lymphocytes during progression to muscle-invasive tumors.
Conclusions
Our results suggest that tumor-infiltrating neutrophils and CD8+ T lymphocytes have a significant effect on tumor grade and progression.
Review
Inflammatory bowel disease–associated intestinal fibrosis
Ji Min Park, Jeongseok Kim, Yoo Jin Lee, Sung Uk Bae, Hye Won Lee
J Pathol Transl Med. 2023;57(1):60-66.   Published online January 10, 2023
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4132/jptm.2022.11.02
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  • 72 Download
AbstractAbstract PDF
Fibrosis is characterized by a proliferation of fibroblasts and excessive extracellular matrix following chronic inflammation, and this replacement of organ tissue with fibrotic tissue causes a loss of function. Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is a chronic inflammation of the gastrointestinal tract, and intestinal fibrosis is common in IBD patients, resulting in several complications that require surgery, such as a stricture or penetration. This review describes the pathogenesis and various factors involved in intestinal fibrosis in IBD, including cytokines, growth factors, epithelial-mesenchymal and endothelial-mesenchymal transitions, and gut microbiota. Furthermore, histopathologic findings and scoring systems used for stenosis in IBD are discussed, and differences in the fibrosis patterns of ulcerative colitis and Crohn’s disease are compared. Biomarkers and therapeutic agents targeting intestinal fibrosis are briefly mentioned at the end.
Case Report
Metallic implant-associated lymphoma: ALK-negative anaplastic large cell lymphoma associated with total knee replacement arthroplasty
Jai-Hyang Go
J Pathol Transl Med. 2023;57(1):75-78.   Published online January 10, 2023
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4132/jptm.2022.10.30
  • 519 View
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AbstractAbstract PDF
Metallic implant-associated lymphomas are extremely rare. Only seven cases have been reported in association with knee joint arthroplasty, and all tumors were large B-cell lymphomas. This report is the first case of anaplastic large cell lymphoma occurring after total knee replacement arthroplasty. An 80‑year‑old female patient was admitted because of right knee pain for 2 years. She had undergone total knee replacement arthroplasty 10 years prior. Computed tomography showed an irregular osteolytic lesion in the right lateral femoral condyle, adjacent to the metallic prosthesis. Histologic findings reveal sheets of anaplastic tumor cells that were positive for CD2, CD4, CD5, CD43, and CD30 but negative for CD3, CD20, CD15, and anaplastic lymphoma kinase. Epstein-Barr encoding region in situ hybridization was negative. Analysis of T-cell receptor γ gene rearrangement studies using BIOMED-2–based multiplex polymerase chain reaction confirmed monoclonal T cell proliferation. The woman was finally diagnosed with ALK-negative anaplastic large cell lymphoma.
Case Study
Unsuspected systemic Epstein-Barr virus–positive T-cell lymphoma of childhood diagnosed at autopsy in a potential homicide case
Daniel J. Robbins, Erik A. Ranheim, Jamie E. Kallan
Received August 12, 2022  Accepted October 30, 2022  Published online December 22, 2022  
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4132/jptm.2022.10.31    [Epub ahead of print]
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AbstractAbstract PDF
Systemic Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)–positive T-cell lymphoma of childhood (SETLC) is a rare, rapidly progressive, and often fatal disease of children and young adults characterized by monoclonal expansion of EBV-positive T cells in tissues or peripheral blood following infection with EBV. Its distinction from other EBV-positive T-cell lymphoproliferative disorders with overlapping features can be difficult, and particular diagnostic features may not be manifest until autopsy examination. We present the case of a 10-year-old boy with significant disability due to remote traumatic brain injury following non-accidental head trauma who died unexpectedly at home. Given the history of physical abuse and the potential for homicide charges, significant medicolegal implications arose with this case. Pathologic investigation ultimately revealed conclusive diagnostic features of SETLC including extensive proliferation of EBV-positive T cells in multiple organs. A natural manner of death was confirmed, thereby excluding delayed homicide related to complications of non-accidental head trauma.
Original Article
The proteomic landscape shows oncologic relevance in cystitis glandularis
Jun Yong Kim, Dohyun Han, Hyeyoon Kim, Minsun Jung, Han Suk Ryu
J Pathol Transl Med. 2023;57(1):67-74.   Published online December 22, 2022
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4132/jptm.2022.10.24
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AbstractAbstract PDF
Background
The relationship between cystitis glandularis (CG) and bladder malignancy remains unclear.
Methods
We identified the oncologic significance of CG at the molecular level using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry-based proteomic analysis of 10 CG, 12 urothelial carcinoma (UC), and nine normal urothelium (NU) specimens. Differentially expressed proteins (DEPs) were identified based on an analysis of variance false discovery rate < 0.05, and their functional enrichment was analyzed using a network model, Gene Set Enrichment Analysis, and Gene Ontology annotation.
Results
We identified 9,890 proteins across all samples and 1,139 DEPs among the three entities. A substantial number of DEPs overlapped in CG/NU, distinct from UC. Interestingly, we found that a subset of DEP clusters (n = 53, 5%) was differentially expressed in NU but similarly between CG and UC. This “UC-like signature” was enriched for reactive oxygen species (ROS) and energy metabolism, growth and DNA repair, transport, motility, epithelial-mesenchymal transition, and cell survival. Using the top 10 shortlisted DEPs, including SOD2, PRKCD, CYCS, and HCLS1, we identified functional elements related to ROS metabolism, development, and transport using network analysis. The abundance of these four molecules in UC/CG than in NU was consistent with the oncologic functions in CG.
Conclusions
Using a proteomic approach, we identified a predominantly non-neoplastic landscape of CG, which was closer to NU than to UC. We also confirmed a small subset of common DEPs in UC and CG, suggesting that altered ROS metabolism might imply potential cancerous risks in CG.
Newsletters
What’s new in neuromuscular pathology 2022: myopathy updates and gene therapies
Chunyu Cai
J Pathol Transl Med. 2023;57(1):79-80.   Published online December 20, 2022
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4132/jptm.2022.10.14
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AbstractAbstract PDF
This compilation of new changes in the diagnosis and treatment of muscle and nerve disease is extracted from the latest publications from the European Neuromuscular Centre International workshops, FDA.gov and clinicaltrials.gov.
What’s new in soft tissue and bone pathology 2022–updates from the WHO classification 5th edition
Erica Y. Kao, Jose G. Mantilla
J Pathol Transl Med. 2022;56(6):385-386.   Published online November 15, 2022
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4132/jptm.2022.10.18
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AbstractAbstract PDF
The 2020 release of the WHO Classification of Soft Tissue and Bone Tumors, 5th edition, contains several changes driven by new knowledge in the field. These include reclassification of some entities, refinement of risk classification systems, and the inclusion of novel disease processes, many of which are driven by recurrent gene fusions. The most notable changes are described here.
Original Article
Development of quality assurance program for digital pathology by the Korean Society of Pathologists
Yosep Chong, Jeong Mo Bae, Dong Wook Kang, Gwangil Kim, Hye Seung Han
J Pathol Transl Med. 2022;56(6):370-382.   Published online November 15, 2022
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4132/jptm.2022.09.30
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AbstractAbstract PDFSupplementary Material
Background
Digital pathology (DP) using whole slide imaging is a recently emerging game changer technology that can fundamentally change the way of working in pathology. The Digital Pathology Study Group (DPSG) of the Korean Society of Pathologists (KSP) published a consensus report on the recommendations for pathologic practice using DP. Accordingly, the need for the development and implementation of a quality assurance program (QAP) for DP has been raised.
Methods
To provide a standard baseline reference for internal and external QAP for DP, the members of the Committee of Quality Assurance of the KSP developed a checklist for the Redbook and a QAP trial for DP based on the prior DPSG consensus report. Four leading institutes participated in the QAP trial in the first year, and we gathered feedback from these institutes afterwards.
Results
The newly developed checklists of QAP for DP contain 39 items (216 score): eight items for quality control of DP systems; three for DP personnel; nine for hardware and software requirements for DP systems; 15 for validation, operation, and management of DP systems; and four for data security and personal information protection. Most participants in the QAP trial replied that continuous education on unfamiliar terminology and more practical experience is demanding.
Conclusions
The QAP for DP is essential for the safe implementation of DP in pathologic practice. Each laboratory should prepare an institutional QAP according to this checklist, and consecutive revision of the checklist with feedback from the QAP trial for DP needs to follow.
Reviews
Biomarker testing of cytology specimens in personalized medicine for lung cancer patients
Hyojin Kim, Jin-Haeng Chung
J Pathol Transl Med. 2022;56(6):326-333.   Published online November 9, 2022
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4132/jptm.2022.10.17
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AbstractAbstract PDF
Every patient with advanced non–small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) should be tested for targetable driver mutations and gene arrangements that may open avenues for targeted therapy. As most patients with NSCLC in the advanced stage of the disease are not candidates for surgery, these tests have to be performed on small biopsies or cytology samples. A growing number of other genetic changes with targetable mutations may be treatable in the near future. To identify patients who might benefit from novel targeted therapy, relevant markers should be tested in an appropriate context. In addition, immunotherapy of lung cancer is guided by the status of programmed death-ligand 1 expression in tumor cells. The variety and versatility of cytological specimen preparations offer significant advantages for molecular testing; however, they frequently remain underused. Therefore, evaluating the utility and adequacy of cytologic specimens is important, not only from a lung cancer diagnosis, but also for the large number of ancillary studies that are necessary to provide appropriate clinical management. A large proportion of lung cancers is diagnosed by aspiration or exfoliative cytology specimens; thus, optimizing strategies to triage and best use the tissue for diagnosis and biomarker studies forms a critical component of lung cancer management. In this review, we discuss the opportunities and challenges of using cytologic specimens for biomarker testing of lung cancer and the role of cytopathology in the molecular era.
Noninvasive follicular thyroid neoplasm with papillary-like nuclear features: its updated diagnostic criteria, preoperative cytologic diagnoses and impact on the risk of malignancy
Hee Young Na, So Yeon Park
J Pathol Transl Med. 2022;56(6):319-325.   Published online November 9, 2022
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4132/jptm.2022.09.29
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AbstractAbstract PDF
Due to the extremely indolent behavior, a subset of noninvasive encapsulated follicular variant papillary thyroid carcinomas has been classified as “noninvasive follicular thyroid neoplasm with papillary-like nuclear features (NIFTP)” since 2016 and is no longer considered carcinoma. Since the introduction of this new terminology, changes and refinements have been made in diagnostic criteria. Initially, the incidence of NIFTP was estimated substantial. However, the reported incidence of NIFTP varies greatly among studies and regions, with higher incidence in North American and European countries than in Asian countries. Thus, the changes in the risk of malignancy (ROM) in the Bethesda System for Reporting Thyroid Cytopathology (TBSRTC) differ inevitably among regions. Because more conservative surgery is recommended for NIFTPs, distinguishing NIFTPs from papillary thyroid carcinomas in preoperative fine-needle aspiration cytology became one of the major concerns. This review will provide comprehensive overview of updates on diagnostic criteria, actual incidence and preoperative cytologic diagnoses of NIFTP, and its impact on the ROM in TBSRTC.

JPTM : Journal of Pathology and Translational Medicine