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Volume 23(2); June 1989
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Original Articles
Morphological Observation on the Prenatal Development of the Human Heart (I): Study on the Early Cardiac Development using Human and Chick Embryos.
Jeong Wook Seo, Je G Chi
Korean J Pathol. 1989;23(2):187-197.
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Normal embryonic development of human heart is studied with special emphasis to the formation of atrioventricular and ventriculoarterial connections and their significance in congenital heart disease. Twenty nine human embryos and 8 chick embryos are used in this study. Human embryos are analyzed by reconstruction of serial section slides and chick embryos are microdissected and examined by scanning electron microscopy. In the early cardiac development (Streeter horizon 12), bulbo-ventricular fold divided two ventricles first. The atrioventricular canal is incompletely divided and the canal was in contact neither with septum primum nor with ventricular septal crest. Infundibular and truncal septa were not seen. The division of A-V canal was observed during the stages 14-15. Septation of truncus arteriosus (Streeter horizon 15-17) was followed by septation of bulbus cordis (Streeter horizon 16-17). The shortening of mitral-aortic distance and downward left shift of aortic valve occured after the trunco-infundibular septation and finally the secondary interventricular formen closed at the end of seventh week (Streeter horizon 20-21).
Morphological Observation on the Prenatal Development of the Human Heart (II): Analysis of Cardiac Skeleton with Special Emphasis to Their Relation to the Bulboventricular Malformation.
Jeong Wook Seo, Je G Chi, Kyung Phill Suh
Korean J Pathol. 1989;23(2):198-207.
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Two dimensional alignment of valves in the cardiac skeleton is studied using 49 fetal hearts. They are standardized with fixed length between the centers of mitral and tricuspid valves. The relations among the parameters and of wall thichness ratio are studied, especially by the change of gestational age, mitral aortic distance and pulmonary-aortic distance, the angles between the two lines and mitral-tricuspid line. Anterior shift of great vessels was seen in heart with gestational age less than 20 weeks. Long mitral-aortic distance showed anterior shift of the great arteries and left ventricle was relatively thicker than right ventricle. Narrow aortomitral-tricuspid angle denoted posterior shift of great vessels and thich right ventricle. Short pulmonary-aortic distance denoted antero-posterior alignment and posterior shift of the vessels and thick left ventricle. Left-right alignment of vessels was not associated with right-ward shift but only with pulmonic displacement to the left. By these observation abnormal alignment of valves in cardiac skeleton would be a basic defect in bulboventricular malformation and we could find basic difference of cardiac skeleton, between normal variation and abnormal heart.
Nucleolar Organizer Regions in Normal Tissue and Hyperplastic and Neoplastic Lesions.
Joon Mee Kim, In Sun Kim, Seung Yong Paik
Korean J Pathol. 1989;23(2):208-222.
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For the identification of proliferating cells in tissue, the argyrophilic method for the demonstration of nucleolar organizer regions (Ag-NORs) have been described. To evaluate the applicability of Ag-NORs in surgical pathology, the authors have done Ag-NORs staining on 144 cases of routinely processed, formalin-fixed paraffin sections of various tissues; 15 normal tissues, 12 reactive and hyperplastic lesions, 30 benign neoplasms, 4 borderline lesions, and 83 malignant tumors. The results were summerized as follows; 1) In normal tissues, the mean numbers of Ag-NORs were highter in labile cells, especially in actively proliferating cells such as germ cells of testis, crypt epithelial cells in gastrointestinal mucosa, and lymphocytes from germinal center of tonsil and lymph node, than those of stable cells. 2) The mean numbers of Ag-NORs in reactive and hyperplastic lesions, benign neoplasms, and borderline lesions were similar to those of normal labile cells. 3) The mean numbers of Ag-NORs in carcinomas and sarcomas, (usually more than 2) significantly exceeded those of normal and non-malignant conditions. However, certain cases of carcinomas such as papillary carcinomas of thyroid, mucinous carcinoma of stomach, bronchioloalveolar carcinoma of lung, and adenoid cystic carcinoma of lung, and some of the leiomyosarcoma, malignant fibrous histiocytoma, and malignant schwannoma showed relatively lower numbers of Ag-NORs. 4) In non-Hodgkin's lymphomas, the high grade lymphomas showed more Ag-NORs than the low grade ones. From above results, it is suggested that the Ag-NORs technique is helpful in differentiation between malignant and non-malignant lesions. However, further evaluation on the significance of Ag-NORs upon the behavior of the cancer is to be made.
Serochemical and Histopathological Observations on the Effect of Malotilate in Chronic Liver Injury Induced by Carbon Tetrachloride with or without Ethanol.
Hyoung Chun Kim, Eon Sub Park, Jae Hyung Yoo, Kye Yong Song
Korean J Pathol. 1989;23(2):223-234.
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An experimental studies were carried out to observe the protective effects of malotilate, a new antihepatotoxic agent, on the chronic hepatic injury induced by CCl4 with or without ethanol. The rats used weighed about 200g were divided into 2 groups, 4 weeks & 8 weeks. Each group was given by orally with malotilate, 100 mg/kg, once a day, and was injected by subcutaneously with CCl4 1.5 mg/kg in a mixture with olive oil twice a week. Aqueous ethanol (20%) was administered in drinking water daily. The serochemical and histopathological studies were carried out in each experimental group. The results were as follows: 1. The chronic liver injuries induced by CCl4 with or without ethanol were significantly ameliorated by normalize serum values GOT, GPT. Alkaline phosphatase, Cholesterol, HDL-Cholesterol, and gamma glutamyl transpeptidase. 2. In Group of 4 weeks, malotilate manifested protective effects by significant inhibition of fatty changes, spotty necrosis and fibrosis in CCl4-intoxicated liver with or without additional ethanol. 3. In group of 8 weeks, malotilate significantly imoproved fatty changes, fibrogenic activity in the group administered with CCl4, followed by ethanol.
Supernumerary Tooth Germs in the Incistive Canal of Five Fetal Maxillas.
Suk Keun Lee, Chang Yun Lim, Je G Chi
Korean J Pathol. 1989;23(2):235-239.
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Five fetal maxillas were obtained from the autopsy file of fetal postmortem examination, and were examined by serial micro-sections of frontal plane and horizontal plane. Especially the area around the incisive canal of the maxilla was carefully observed. The results are as follows. 1) In 5 fetal maxillas extra-dental laminas and supernumerary tooth germs which are severely malformed in shape are found in the dilated incisive canal, where prominent vessels and nerves are distributed. 2) The supernumerary tooth germs disclose almost normal histo-differentiation of odontoblast and ameloblast, and there shows relatively abundant perifollicular fibrosis in the place of perifollicular bone. 3) It is observed that the over-growth of the extradental lamina from the dental ridge of deciduous central incisor frequently tends to direct toward the incisive canal that includes prominent vessels and nerves.
Human Papillomavirus Infection and Its Relationship to Cervical Intraepithelial Neoplasia: An immunohistochemical, histopathological and Cytological Study.
Mi Jin Kim, Won Hee Choi, Tae Sook Lee
Korean J Pathol. 1989;23(2):240-253.
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It has suggested that a significant proportion of intraepithelial lesion of the cervix may be related to the influence of human papillomaviurs (HPV). Its etiological relation with cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) and cervical squamous cell carcinoma has recently been proposed. The 131 cases of CIN and 6 condyloma acuminata were stained by immunoperoxidase technique for HPV anigen. The results are as follows: The 18 cases (13.1%) exhibited positive staining, localized in nuclei of koilocytotic cells confined to superficial and intermediate layer of epithelium. HPV antigen was found in 1 case (16.7) of 6 condyloma acuminata, 4 cases (12.5%) of 32 mild dysplasia, 3 cases (13.6%) of 22 moderate dysplasia, 2 cases (14.3%) of 14 severe dysplasia and 8 cases (12.7%) of 63 carcinoma in situ. In the positive cases of mild and moderate dysplasia, HPV antigen was localized directly within the lesion, while those cases of severe dysplaia and carcinoma in situ contained positive cells in areas of mild or moderate dysplasia adjacent to the lesion. Of three distinct morphologic patterns, flat type was most common and papillary type was least. Histologically condylomatous lesions were present in 67 cases (51.1%) out of 131 cases of CIN. The histological and cytological feature encountered most frequently was koilocytotic arypia. Other main histological features are bi- or multinucleation, exocytosis of inflammatory cells, acanthosis, mitotic figures, dyskeratosis and epithelial pearl. On the cervical smear, the evidence of condyloma was proved in 50.0%. Cytologically in the condyloma with high degree of CIN, the nuclear atypia was so prominent that the differentiation from dysplasia or carcinoma in situ was very difficult, although the chromatin appeared somewhat smudged. The mean age of 18 cases was 42.4 years which is older than previous study. The results of this study provide common association with HPV and CIN and add great weight to the suggestion that the infection with HPV plays an important part in genesis of cervical cancer.
Skin Lesions in Secondary Syphilis.
Sung Ku Ahn, Kwang Gil Lee, Soo Il Chun, Jung Bock Lee
Korean J Pathol. 1989;23(2):254-262.
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We reviewed 37 skin biopsies obtained from 35 patients with secondary syphilis during the period of 9 years from January 1980 to June 1988, which had been diagnosed by dark field examination, serologic tests for syphilis, and identification of spirochetes by immunoperoxidase method (avidin-biotin complex) in the skin biopsies. We investigated the histologic features of the skin lesions in secondary syphilis according to the types and patterns of inflammatory cell infiltration in the dermis, vascular reactions and epidermal changes. We matched these histologic findings with the clinical features of the skin lesions. The results were as follows; 1) The histologic patterns of dermal infiltrate in order of frequency were as follows; junctional pattern in 14 biopsies (38%), lichenoid pattern in 10 biopsies (27%), diffuse pattern in 5 biopsies (14%), patchy pattern in 3 biopsies (8%), normal pattern in 3 biopsies (8%) and undertermined in 2 biopsies (5%). 2) The dermal infiltration of plasma cells was found in 24 biopsies (65%). All the biopsies of diffues and lichenoid patterns, 7 biopsies of junctional and one biopsy of patchy pattern showed plasma cells but none in normal pattern. 3) Eosinophils were observed in the dermis in 11 biopsies (30%). There was no difference in incidence of eosinophils in the dermis among morphologic patterns. However, they were frequently seen in the dermis and epidermis of condyloma lata (4 of 7 biopsies). 4) The vascular changes in the dermis included endothelial cell swelling in 23 biopsies (62%), endothelial cell proliferation in 22 biopsies (60%) and vascular dilatation in 10 biopsies (27%). They were most commonly observed in the lichenoid pattern followed by diffuse and junctional patterns. Three cases showed lymphocytic vasculitis. 5) Epidermal changes were seen in all of the biopsies exocytosis, parakeratosis, hydropic change of basal cells, acanthosis, spongiosis, keratinocyte necrosis and hyperkeratosis in the order of frequency. 6) In relation to the clinical manifestations, junctional pattern (14 biopsies) consisted of 6 papulosquamous lesions, 5 macules and 3 papules. Lichenoid pattern (10 biopsies) consisted of 7 papulosquamous lesions and 3 papules. All the biopsies showing diffuse pattern (5 biopsies) appeared in condyloma lata. Patchy pattern (3 biopsies) consisted of 2 macules and 1 papule. All of the normal pattern (3 biopsies) appeared in macules. In conclusion, with dermal and epidermal changes, the acknowlegement of the 5 basic histologic patterns in secondary syphilis seems to be very helpful for the diagnosis of syphilis.
Cystandenoma and Primary Cystadenocarcinoma of the Liver.
Kyoung Ho Kim, Chan Il Park
Korean J Pathol. 1989;23(2):263-268.
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Primary cystic neoplasia of the liver is rare. We report a cystadenoma with mesenchymal stroma (CMS) and a cystadenocarcinoma, and make a review of literature with particular reference to their histogenesis. The CMS has many similarities to the ovarian mucinous cystadenoma; occurring almost exlusively in female, being lined by mucus-secreting epithelial cells, and containing dense ovarian-like stroma. These features suggest that CMS may arise from the ectopic ovarian tissue within the liver. Cystadenocarcinoma may have its origin in CMS or cystadenoma without mesenchymal stroma of CMS. Cholangiocarcinoma arising from the congenital hepatic cysts can be differentiated only when it contains benign epithelia.
Case Reports
Juvenile Cellular Adenofibroma of Breast: A case report.
Je G Chi, Yeon Lim Suh
Korean J Pathol. 1989;23(2):269-272.
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Juvenile cellular adenofibroma of the breast is a unique neoplasm of the breast that should be differentiated from other important benign and malignant lesions of the juvenile breasts. We report a case with it's characteristic clinical, gross and histological features. The tumor was in the right breast with the size of 20 cm in maximum extent. This patient was also associated with hemihypertrophy of the right side. Microscopically the masses were characterized by prominent stromal cellularity associated with pericanalicular duct proliferation.
Mesenchymal Chondrosarcoma Arising from Orbital Soft Tissue: A case report.
Yu Mee Kang, Mi Kyung Jee, Seok Jin Gang, Byung Kee Kim, Sun Moo Kim
Korean J Pathol. 1989;23(2):273-277.
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Orbital mesenchymal chondrosarcoma, first described by Luis et. al in 1971, is a very rare tumor of characteristic histologic features. A 21-year-woman was admitted with a 4-month histoiry of rapidly progressive proptosis and visual disturbance. Right orbital exenteration was performed under the clinical diagnosis of orbital calcifying tumor. Grossly, the tumor presented as a multibloblated, circumscribed mass that measures 5.5 cm in the greatest dimentsion. Cut sections resembled ordinary chonrosarcoma. Microscopically, the tumor was composed of undifferentiated mesenchymal cells, interspersed nodules of well differentated cartilagenous tissue, areas of gradual transition from undifferentiated mesenchymal cells to cartilage, and hemangiopericytoma-like areas. A brief summary of the histopathological aspect of this tumor and a review of literature are presented.

JPTM : Journal of Pathology and Translational Medicine