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Volume 25(6); December 1991
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Original Article
The Korean Journal of Pathology: A Review of the First 25 Years.
Je G Chi
Korean J Pathol. 1991;25(6):497-508.
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The Korean Journal of Pathology was first launched in 1967, marking the 20th anniversary of the founding of the Korean Society of Pathologists in 1946. The first publisher was Professor Chae Koo Lee and the first editor was Professor Sang In Kim. What began as a semi-annual journal became a quarterly beginning in 1977. Now, in 1991, it is a bimonthly journal with an average of 14 articles per issue. A total of 1,075 articles consisting of 8,624 pages have been published through this journal with more than 537 persons having joined authorship. Papers related to diagnostic pathology took a majority, and accordingly, articles of animal experiment and basic research were the minor. Because of low autopsy rate among Koreans papers on systemic and special pathology have not developed harmoniously, with particular deficit of cardiovascular pathology and special sense organs. Papers on gastrointestinal tract and hepatobiliary system predominate since early years of publication, indicative of prevalence of diseases related to those organ systems. Relative dominance of papers on pediatric pathology and teratology represents availability of postmortem materials of fetuses and infants in many hospitals, despite the extremely low adult autopsy rate. Papers using electron microscopy appeared first in 1972 and the first paper on cytopathology was published in 1977. During the last 25 years of the Korean Journal of Pathology two new related journals were born. The first journal was the Korean Journal of Clinical Pathology in 1981, and the second journal was the Korean Journal of Cytopathology in 1990. Two journal supplements, one of nationwide cancer statistics and the other of an accumulated total index, were accompanied. One issue in memory of the late Professor Yun Il-Sun was published in 1975. The Korean Journal of Pathology is now a periodical registered as a quarterly journal to the Ministry of Culture(MA-1664), and its international standardized serial number is 0379-1149. It is indexed in Excerpta Medica since 1990. It is hoped that the Korean Journal of Pathology will become an internationally referenced periodical approved by eminent international indexing systems such as Index Medicus and Science Citation Index in the nearest future.
Comparative Study
A Comparative Study between Localization of IgA and Secretory Component in Gastric Disease.
Joon Hyuk Choi, Won Hee Choi, Tae Sook Lee
Korean J Pathol. 1991;25(6):509-519.
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The purpose of this study is to evaluate the change of mucosal immunity in gastric diseases. A quantative analysis of IgA and secretory component(SC) in gastric diseases by immunohistochemical method was performed in 110 specimens. The results are as follows: 1) In normal gastric mucosa, all of 10 cases revealed a negative reaction to antihuman SC but 4 cases were positive for IgA. 2) In chronic superficial gastritis and chronic atrophic gastritis with intestinal metaplasia, the metaplastic cells except for the goblet cells were positive for both IgA and SC. 3) The dysplastic cells were also positive for both IgA and SC, and the regenerating cells in ulcer as well. 4) All of the well differentiated or moderately well differentiated adenocarcinomas showed positive reactions to antihuman IgA and antihuman SC, and the intensity appeared to be stronger in the former. However, among 10 cases of poorly differentiated adenocarcinoma SC was not demonstrated in 5 cases, and no IgA was present in one case. In 10 cases of signet ring cell carcinoma, 6 cases revealed a negative reaction to antihuman IgA and 6 cases to antihuman SC. The above results suggest that the secretory immunity is not essential in normal gastric mucosa. The intestinal metaplasia in chronic gastritis is considered as an adaptive response to chronic inflammation. The degree of differentiation in adenocarcinoma may be related to the mucosal immunity.
Original Articles
Histologic Variations of Intramural Heterotopic Pancreas in Gastrointestinal Tract Analysis of 15 Cases.
Seung Sook Lee, Yong Il Kim, Woo Ho Kim, Eun Sil Yu
Korean J Pathol. 1991;25(6):520-527.
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We reviewed a total of 15 cases of heterotopic pancreatic tissue within the gastrointestinal wall(intramural type), and compared with 3 extramural ones. Intramural heterotopic pancreatic lesions were located in the antrum(33%), pylorus(20%), and body of stomach(7%), and the remainders in the duodenum(40%). Only two cases presented with chinical symptoms by their existence. Two of them were situated within the submucosa, 3 in the muscularis, 6 in submucosa-muscularis, 2 in the muscularis-subserosa, and 1 in the susbmucosa-subserosa. Intramural type was featured with their structural heterogeneity compared to the extramural ones; 10 cases showed participation of gastrointestinal mucosal elements, and some accompanied tissue elements that were indistinguishable from submucosal epithelial heterotopia or microduplication cyst of the stomach. Langerhans islets were found in 67%, and one developed islet cell tumor. The above results suggest that the initially engrafted heterotopic pancreatic tissue becomes modified and presents with heterogeneity of endodermal and mesodermal tissue-derived components by its intramural growth during the gastrointestinal organogenesis; failure of opening of its drainage system into the gastrointestinal lumen may result in the increase of intraductal pressure with subsequent atrophy of the acinar tissue and various metaplastic changes of ductal epithelium, aside from induction of smooth muscle coat around the heterotopic tissue.
Pathological Predictor for Prognosis in Gastrointestinal Mesenchymal Neoplasms.
Mee Yon Cho, Ho Guen Kim, Chan Il Park, Yoo Bock Lee
Korean J Pathol. 1991;25(6):528-538.
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AbstractAbstract PDF
To evaluate the prognostic predictor and clinicopathologic characteristics of the gastrointestinal (GI) mesenchymal neoplasm, we examined 75 cases of GI mesenchymal tumors surgically resected during 8 years from 1983 to 1990. Various histological parameters referrable to the prognosis, including the Ag-NORs count, were analysed. Fifty cases were followed-up for 1 to 7 years. Sixteen out of these fifty cases died during this period. The location of tumor was the stomach in 33 cases, the small intestine in 31 cases and the large intestine in 11 cases, and the tumor size was variable from 2 to 35 cm in diameter. The GI mesenchymal neoplasm appeared as an extraluminal mass in 50 cases, an intramural mass in 17 cases, and an intraluminal mass in 8 cases. Each tumor was composed of spindle or epithelioid cells, the former cell type being more common than the latter (45 vs 30 cases). Mitotic count of the tumor showed the best correlationship with the survival of patients(p<0.05), although the tumor size and necrosis appeared to have some values. The Ag-NORs count was variable and was not significantly correlated with the patient's prognosis(p>0.05). These results indicate that the mitotic count is the most valuable pathological predictor for the prognosis in GI mesenchymal neoplasms.
An Ultrastructural Study of Bleomycin-Induced Interstitial Pulmonary Fibrosis in the Rat.
Seung Che Cho, Kwan Kyu Park, Kun Young Kwon, Eun Sook Chang
Korean J Pathol. 1991;25(6):539-550.
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AbstractAbstract PDF
This study was carried out to investigate the mechanisms of interstitial pulmonary fibrosis of rats after the intratracheal administration of bleomycin. Both lungs after bleomycin injection were examined by light and electron microscopy. The results are as follows: Light microscopically, 1 or 2 weeks after bleomycin injection acute and chronic inflammatory infiltrates and edema in the interstitium and alveolar spaces were observed. Proliferation of alveolar type II pneumocytes was also found at 4 to 6 weeks after bleomycin injection, chronic inflammatory infiltrates with interstitial fibrous thickening were noted. Electron microscopically, the number of type II pneumocytes and irregular lamellar bodies were increased and blunted microvilli were noted at 2 weeks. 4 to 8 weeks, proliferation of fibroblasts with deposition of abundant collagen fibrils in the thickened interstitium revealing irregular or collapsed alveolar spaces were observed. Based on these findings, it can be concluded that bleomycin-induced interstitial pulmonary fibrosis is considered to pass from an early acute inflammation of the interstitium and alveolar spaces to an interstitial fibroblast proliferation and collagen deposition to the length of the period after injection.
A Pathologic Study of Lymphoproliferative Disorders of the Skin.
Yee Jeong Kim, Kwang Gil Lee, Soo Il Chun, Yun Woong Ko
Korean J Pathol. 1991;25(6):551-562.
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AbstractAbstract PDF
Forty eight skin biopsies obtained from 24 patients were reviewed, and clinical, histological and immunohistochemical findings were analyzed. Results obtained are as follows: 1) Skin manifestation was plaque, erythroderma, scale and hyperpigmentation in mycosis fungoides, and subcutaneous nodule, mass and ulcerated patch in cutaneous lymphoma. The skin of lymphomatoid papulosis revealed hemorrhagic ulcerated and erythematous papules which healed spontaneously. 2) Histologically, mycosis fungoides showed epidermotropism in most cases. Pautrier's micro-abscesses were present in one-fourth of the cases. Malignant lymphoma was different in histology from mycosis fungoides. As compared with mycosis fungoides, it showed less frequent epidermotropism, more compact and diffuse infiltration of atypical lymphocytes, more often association with ulcer and necrosis, and more frequent mitotic figures. Lymphomatoid papulosis showed striking hemorrhage and edema of the papillary dermis. 3) Based on the results of immunohistochemical study, mycosis fungoides and lymphomatoid papulosis were considered as a T cell proliferative disorder of the skin. According to these findings, lymphoproliferative disorders of the skin occurred predominantly in the elderly and males. Clinical and histopathologic findings overlapped and were similar each other. It was difficult to make a definite diagnosis in early lesions, and a sequential follow up biopsy was required. It is concluded that strict criteria such as marked atypia and clustering of atypical cells are necessary for a histologic diagnosis of malignant lymphoproliferative disorder of the skin.
Case Reports
Epithelioid Hemangioendothelioma of the Lung: Report of a case.
Gyeong Hoon Kang, Yong Il Kim, Sung Koo Han, Young Soo Shim, Eui Keun Ham, Sang Kook Lee, Sang Sook Lee
Korean J Pathol. 1991;25(6):563-569.
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AbstractAbstract PDF
Intravascular bronchioloaveolar tumor is now recognized as a pulmonary form of epithelioid hemangioendothelioma, being manifested with bilateral multiple pulmonary nodules in young women. This 34-year-old woman received two occasions of open lung biopsies with interval of 1 year for diffuse nodular infiltrations in both lung fields. Repeated radiographic study 3 year later showed no significant progression of the pulmonary nodular lesions except for pleural effusion. Two occasions of open lung biopsies disclosed similar multiple discrete nodules which consisted of central acellular areas with lacuna-like ghosts and peripheral cellular zone. The tumor cells grew in micropolypoid fashion with preservation of background alveolar frame-works. Ultrastructure disclosed most of neoplastic cells presenting with the features suggestive of endothelial differentiation, and immunohistochemical study revealed the presence of cellular areas which gave positive reaction to factor VIII-related antigen. We support that this is an additional case of epithelioid hemangioendothelioma of the lung that is manifested with a multicetric intrapulmonary vascular endothelial cell growth featuring a vasoformative tendency and participation of topography-specific histologic modification.
Placental Site Trophoblastic Tumor(PSTT) with Vaginal Metastasis: A case report.
Yee Jeong Kim, Kyu Rae Kim, Soon Hee Jeong, Ho Geun Kim, Jang Yeon Kwon
Korean J Pathol. 1991;25(6):570-575.
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PSTT has been established as a separate entity distinct from choriocarcinoma since 1983, because of its different morphological features, biologic behavior and response to chemotherapy. Most cases of PSTT have indolent clinical courses, but there have been several reports showing malignant behavior resulted in death of the patient. We report a case of PSTT showing vaginal metastatis. In biopsy specimen, it was difficult to make differential diagnosis from squamous cell carcinoma of uterine cervix due to uniform and mononuclear cytologic characteristics. Immunohistochemical stains for hPL and hCG were not typical for either PSTT or choriocarcinoma. We suggest that poorly differentiated PSTT may synthesize the lesser amount of hPL than typical PSTT and it may behave more aggressively.
Thymic Cysts: Two cases report.
Seong Nam Kim, Mi Kyung Kim, Yong Wook Park, Jae Hyung Yoo, Kye Yong Song
Korean J Pathol. 1991;25(6):576-580.
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Thymic cyst is relatively rare tumor which usually occurs in the neck or mediastinum. Cervical thymic cyst is usually situated laterally and deep to the anterior border of the sternocleidomastoid muscle, simulating a branchial cyst. Thymic cyst of the mediastinum is usually detected incidentally and differential diagnoses include cystic degeneration of thymoma, and cystic teratoma. Two case of a cervical and a mediastinal thymic cysts were reported. The one was a cervical thymic cyst developed slowly growing mass in a 53-year-old male a for 10 years. The cyst was unilocular and measures 5.4x2.9x2.8 cm with columnar or squamous cell linings. The other is a mediastinal thymic cyst developed in a 37-year-old female with chest discomfort for 7 months. The cyst was uniocular and measures 2.8x2.2x2.0 cm. The epithelial lining of the cyst was largely desquamated and covered by macrophages with cholesterol granuloma. Involutional thymic stissue in their walls were noted in both cysts. In both cases presence of thymic tissue in the wall of the cyst thought to be the most important diagnostic feature.
Clear Cell Sarcoma of the Kidney: Report of two cases.
Woo Hee Jung, Jee Young Han, So Yeon Park, Jae Eok Kim
Korean J Pathol. 1991;25(6):581-588.
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Clear cell sarcoma is a rare malignant rumor of the kidney which occurs in children and is differentiated from Wilms' tumor by its different clinicopathologic features and natural history. Previous studies indicate that this tumor may be of mesenchymal cell origin; however, this has not been proven conclusively. Further accumulation and study need to be conducted in order to clarify the histogenesis of this tumor. We report two cases of clear cell sarcoma of the kidney which occurred in a 2 and a half-year old and a 2-year old boy. This report places special emphasis on the clinicopathologic characteristics of these two cases including electron microscopic and immunohistochemical findings. Attempts were also made to differentiate the clinicopathologic aspects of clear cell sarcoma from Wilms' tumor and speculate on the histogenesis of this rumor.
Necrobiotic Xanthogranuloma with Paraproteinemia: A case report.
Yee Jeong Kim, Kwang Gil Lee, Soo Il Chun, Hyung Soon Lee
Korean J Pathol. 1991;25(6):589-593.
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Necrobiotic xanthogranuloma(NXG) is a characteristic cutaneous manifestation associated with paraproteinemia. A case of NXG associated with an IgG (lambda) monoclonal gammopathy occurred in a 48-year-old man. Skin lesions were dome-shaped, hard palpable nodules, 2x3 cm to 4x4 cm sized, on both arms and forearms. They were arranged in a linear pattern. Also, hard palpable tumors, 1x2 cm to 2x3 cm in size, were present on the left leg and the dorsum of the left foot. They were violaceous, slightly protruded, and hard on palpation. Histologically, the lesion was characterized by inflammatory xanthogranuloma with broad hands of hyaline necrobiosis. Many foreign body type of bizarre giant cells, Touton type of giant cells and foamy histiocytes were infiltrated into the dermis and subcutaneous fat tissue. Three days after medication with ledercort and immuran, the cutaneous masses decreased in size and became soft.
Early Gastric Carcinoma with Hepatoid Differentiation: Report of a case with histotopographic analysis.
Gyeong Hoon Kang, Chong Jai Kim, Yong Il Kim
Korean J Pathol. 1991;25(6):594-600.
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A 56-year-old man received subtotal gastrectomy for an early gastric carcinoma type IIa+IIc with submucosal invasion. The tumor was made up of mixed papillo-tubular adenocarcinoma and solid carcinomatous portion, the latter comprising approximately four-fifths of the total tumor mass. The solid portion was confined within the submucosa and revealed a mixture of trabecular, compact and pelioid patterns of large polyhedra cells, resembling hepatocellular carcinoma of the liver(Edmondson-Steiner grade 2). Sinusoid-like vascular stroma of classical trabecular hepatocellular carcinoma intervened the tumor cell nests but was not associated with endothelial-cell lining. Immunohistochemical stainings with alpha-fetoprotein and alpha1-antitrypsin gave a strong reactivity in those areas of hepatoid differentiation and in the adjacent minute portion of adenocarcinoma. The findings suggest that a portion of gastric carcinoma may transdifferentiate into cells with hepatoid features along the line of endodermal lineage.
Atypical Mesoblastic Nephroma: Report of a case.
Jin Man Kim, Dong Wook Kang, Seung Ki Min, Kwang Sun Suh, Dae Young Kang
Korean J Pathol. 1991;25(6):601-606.
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Congenital mesoblastic nephroma(CMN) is an important differential diagnosis of a renal mass occurring in the newborn or in early childhood. It was first described by Bolande as a separate disease entity distinct form Wilms' tumor. In 1974, Beckwith has predicted that this tumor has a pathologic spectrum with classic congenital mesoblastic nephroma at one extreme, unequivocally mallignant spindle cell sarcomas at the other, and intermediate "gray zone" lesions of indeterminate biologic significanse. In 1986, Joshi has described "atypical mesoblastic nephroma" as a potentially aggressive variant of CMN, which shows atypical gross and microscopic features such as hemorrhage, necrosis, high cellularity, and mitotic index. We report of a case of atypical mesoblastic nephroma presenting in a 38 days-old male infant. Grossly, the tumor involved the upper and midportion of the left kidney. On section, the cut surface was fleshy, grayish-white, and homogeneous. Microscopically, the tumorshowed high degree of cellularity and arrangement of fusiform cells in sheets and vague interlacing bundles. The individual tumor cells showed fusiform to oval nuclei, indistinct scanty pale-eosinophilic cytoplasm and many mitotic figures.
Brain Stem Glioma (An autopsy case).
Doo Hyun Chung, Soong Deok Lee, Hee Jin Yang, Dae Hee Han, Je G Chi
Korean J Pathol. 1991;25(6):607-610.
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We report an autopsy case of the brain stem glioma that extended extensively in the brain stem itself and cephalad. This 18-year-old boy first presented with dizziness, vomiting and left side weakness with left facial palsy. Brain MRI revealed a diffusely infiltrative tumor involving whole medulla, pons and lower midbrain. A total of 4000 R was given with some alleviation of respiratory difficulty. He died one year after the onset. Autopsy revealed the tumor involving pons, a portion of medulla oblongata, and cerebellum. The tumor showed diffusely infiltrative pattern and extended along the periventricular area to the thalamus and corpus callosum. The cut surface was grayish white and solid. It also showed areas of myxoid degeneration and necrosis probably related to radiation therapy. Microscopically the tumor was a cellular and pleomorphic glioma that showed some astrocytic differentiation. It was diffuse without geographic necrosis.

JPTM : Journal of Pathology and Translational Medicine