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Volume 32(6); June 1998
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Original Articles
Expression of Antigenic Surface Molecules of Pneumocystis Carinii by Immunoelectron Microscopic Examination.
Kun Young Kwon, Seung Che Cho, Sang Pyo Kim, Kwan Kyu Park, Eun Sook Chang
Korean J Pathol. 1998;32(6):393-403.
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AbstractAbstract
This study was carried out to investigate the morphologic characteristics and localization of antigenic molecules of Pneumocystis carinii in experimentally induced P. carinii pneumonia in rats. After six weeks of administration of low protein diet and dexamethasone, Sprague-Dawley rats were sacrificed to submit lungs or bronchoalveolar lavage for the study. Monoclonal (092, 900, 902, and 904) and polyclonal (SP-D) antibodies were used for immunohistochemistry and immunoelectron microscopy (ITEM and ISEM). Immunohistochemically P. carinii organisms were well identified as clusters or separated forms in the alveolar spaces being frequently attached to the alveolar walls. Immunoelectron microscopically the adherences of gold particles were observed on the surface of all stages of the P. carinii. Occasionally positive immunogold labeling was observed in the cytoplasm of the trophozoites and on the pellicle of the intracystic bodies within the cysts. The monoclonal antibodies 092, 900, 902, and 904 reacted mainly with pellicles of P. carinii, whereas SP-D labeled on the pellicles, intracystic bodies, cytoplasms of the alveolar macrophages, and free floated surfactant material in the alveolar spaces. The immunogold particles were observed more diffusely and intensely in the cysts than in the trophozoites. These results indicate that antigen is mainly localized on the pellicles, and accumulated during development from the trophozoite to the cyst stages.
Gastrointestinal Polyposis in Koreans: A Nationwide Survey of Clinicopathologic Analysis of 112 Surgically Resected Cases.
Mee Soo Chang, Hoguen Kim, Woo Ho Kim, Chan Il Park, Eun Kyung Hong, Han Kyeom Kim, In Soo Suh, Byung Kee Kim, Ja June Jang, Woon Sub Han, Hyung Sik Shin, So Young Jin, Dae Young Kang, Yong Il Kim
Korean J Pathol. 1998;32(6):404-412.
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AbstractAbstract
Gastrointestinal polyposis (GIP) is a rare disease characterized by formation of the numerous polyps in the gastrointestinal tract and presenting several extraintestinal manifestations. Most of the diseases are transmitted in an autosomal dominant pattern. In Korea, the epidemiological study as well as the pathological analysis of the GIP is not well established. We therefore analysed 38 items of GIP using surgically resected specimens. The materials in this study were collected from the 12 institutions and case reports in Korean literature between 1980 and 1991. The clinicopathologic findings were reevaluated by several members of the study group for gastrointestinal pathology. The results are as follows: (1) A total of 112 cases were included in this study: 83 cases were collected from 12 institutions and 29 cases were collected from Korean literature. The cases were classified as familial adenomatous polyposis (FAP), 59 cases; Gardner's syndrome, 3 cases; juvenile polyposis, 12 cases; Peutz-Jeghers syndrome, 35 cases; multiple colonic adenomas, 3 cases. (2) Among 59 cases of FAP, the range of age at operation was 14 to 61 years, and a family history was positive in 25 cases. The number of polyps in colorectum was 100~8,000. Of the 37 cases in which the examination of polyp density was available, 16 cases (43%) showed the highest density in the rectum and the sigmoid colon. The carcinomatous change within polyp(s) was present in 18 cases (31%), and associated advanced single or multiple colonic carcinomas existed in 37 cases (63%). Twenty-six (45%) tumors out of total 58 carcinomas were in the rectum. Twenty-five patients were evaluated for the upper gastrointestinal lesions, and 11 patients (44%) had pathologic lesions; multiple fundic gland polyps in 3 cases (12%), gastric and duodenal adenomas in 2 cases (8%), gastric adenomas in 2 cases (8%), duodenal adenomas in 2 cases (8%), gastric carcinoma and adenoma in 1 case (4%), gastric carcinoma in 1 case (4%). (3) Among 3 cases of Gardner's syndrome, the range of age at operation was 25 to 31 years, a family history was identified in 2 cases. One case was associated with an advanced colonic carcinoma and carcinomatous change within polyp. Extra gastrointestinal lesions were sebaceous cyst, epidermal cyst, osteoma and desmoid tumor. (4) Among 12 juvenile polyposis, the range of age at operation was 8 to 51 years and 5 patients had a family history. The carcinomatous change within polyp was found in 2 cases (17%) and associated advanced colonic carcinoma was in 4 cases (33%). The associated different type of polyps was tubular adenomas in 9 cases (75%), hyperplastic polyps in 4 cases (33%) and villous adenomas in 2 cases (17%). (5) Among 35 Peutz-Jeghers syndrome, the range of age at first operation was 6 to 42 years, family history was positive in 11 cases. The carcinomatous change within polyp was found in 1 case (3%), and associated advanced colonic carcinoma in 1 case (3%). The epithelial misplacement was observed in 4 cases (11%), and tubular or villous adenomatous feature in 4 cases (11%). In summary, the most frequent GIP for the surgical resection in Korea is FAP and the FAP is associated with high incidence of coexisting advanced and intramucosal carcinomas. Hamartomatous polyposis syndromes, such as juvenile polyposis and Peutz-Jeghers syndrome are another frequent disease for the surgical resection and are also associated with an increased risk of cancer.
nm23 Protein Immunohistochemical Expression in Colorectal Carcinoma and its Relationship with Other Prognostic Factors.
Shi Nae Lee, Heasoo Koo, Woon Sup Han
Korean J Pathol. 1998;32(6):413-419.
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AbstractAbstract
The purpose of this study was to determine the immunohistochemical expression of nm23-H1, a putative metastatic suppressor gene, and to correlate its expression with clinicopathologic variables in 75 cases of surgically resected colorectal carcinomas. There appeared to be a trend between increasing relative nm23 protein expression and Dukes' stage, vessel invasion, and metastasis of lymph nodes. nm23 was expressed in 67 cases (89.3%) and increased in cases with lower Dukes' stage (P<0.05) and in cases without vessel invasion (P<0.01) or lymph node metastasis (P<0.01). No significant relationship was observed between the nm23 protein expression and other parameters, such as tumor size, location and differentiation of the tumor. The results suggest that the nm23 protein expression plays a role in the suppression of nodal metastasis and vessel invasion in colorectal carcinomas.
Clinicopathologic Analysis of Membranous Glomerulonephropathy.
Seok Hoon Jeon, Moon Hyang Park
Korean J Pathol. 1998;32(6):420-430.
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AbstractAbstract
Membranous glomerulonephropathy (MGN) is the most common primary cause of the nephrotic syndrome in adults, accounting for about 20% of the cases in most series. MGN is idiopathic in the majority of cases, however approximately 25% of adults have identifiable causes (secondary MGN). To evaluate the clinical and pathologic characteristics of MGN, we reviewed the clinical data and renal biopsies from 141 cases of MGN. The mean age of the patients at biopsy was 43 years old, but patients of all age were seen (range from 3 to 76 years of age). There were 88 males and 53 females. There were 99 idiopathic MGN cases and 42 secondary MGN cases. The associated causes of secondary MGN included hepatitis B infection (18 cases), SLE (10 cases), drugs (4 cases), post-transplantation MGN (5 cases), diabetes mellitus (4 cases), syphilis (1 case) and hepatitis B infection associated with rheumatoid arthritis. The prevalence of histologic stages by Ehrenreich and Churg was as follows. Stage I was 24 cases, stage II was 72 cases, stage III was 35 cases, and stage IV was 9 cases. All patients had proteinuria. Nephrotic syndrome was observed in 39%, edema in 73%, microscopic hematuria in 49%, gross hematuria in 28%, hypertension in 13%, and the serum creatinine level above 1.5 mg/dl was in 13%. Cases with glomerulosclerosis was observed in 45 cases with an increased percentage of glomerulosclerosis in the higher grade. Immunofluorescence (IF) examination showed predominantly granular IgG (118 cases) and C3 (84 cases) stainings along the glomerular capillary wall. In idiopathic MGN, sparse mesangial IF staining was noted up to 10% of the cases. However, mesangial IF staining in SLE was observed in 33%, hepatitis B infection in 28% and diabetes mellitus in 50%. An electron microscopic examination revealed subepithelial electron dense deposits of immune complex in all cases. The prevalence of mesangial and subendothelial electron dense deposit in idiopathic MGN was present in 19% and 6%, respectively. In SLE cases, mesangial and subendothelial deposits were observed in 78% and 56%, respectively. In hepatitis B infection, mesangial and subendothelial deposits were observed in 54% and 69%, respectively. In conclusion, immune deposits in the mesangium are scanty in idiopathic MGN, and if pronounced this should increase suspicion of underlying systemic diseases, such as SLE or other infectious diseases.
Castration-induced Apoptosis in the Rat Prostate.
Ki Kwon Kim, Sang Sook Lee
Korean J Pathol. 1998;32(6):431-442.
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AbstractAbstract
This study was carried out to investigate the morphologic findings and process of castration-induced apoptosis in the rat prostate. The experimental group was treated with bilateral orchiectomy followed by sequential sacrifices at 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7 days and 2, 3 weeks (6 rats, respectively). Ventral prostate was extirpated and examined by light microscopic and immunohistochemical, ultrastructural observation. Apoptotic index increased by 4 days after castration and decreased thereafter. ApopTag stain revealed brownish granular pattern in the nucleus of apoptotic cells. DNA fragmentation rate was 0.5% in the control group and began to increase by 1 day after castration and reached to 11.1% by 4 days and decreased thereafter. PCNA stain showed brownish granular pattern in the nucleus of some epithelial cells of the prostatic glands. PCNA labelling index was 2.4% in the control group and reached peak by 3 days after castration and decreased thereafter. Electron microscopically, there was chromatin condensation with margination toward the nuclear membrane by 1 day after castration. Also noted were condensation of cytoplasm, dilatation of RER and nuclear fragmentation. Apoptotic bodies were formed and phagocytosed by adjacent cells and some apoptotic bodies were found in the lumen of acini. Based on these results, it can be concluded that castration-induced prostatic involution is the result of apoptosis. Detection of DNA fragmentation with ApopTag is a more a accurate method to identify not only apoptotic body formation itself but also the previous step of apoptotic body formation. PCNA labelling index to identify the cellular proliferation seems to play an active role in the early step of apoptosis and be a good tool for investigation of apoptosis.
Expression of Androgen Receptor, bcl-2 Protein and Rb Protein in Breast Cancers as Related to Prognostic Factors.
Hyun Deuk Cho, Young Sik Kim, Insun Kim
Korean J Pathol. 1998;32(6):443-452.
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AbstractAbstract
Breast cancer is the most common malignancy of women in industrialized countries and the third in Korean women. There have been a lot of studies on biologic behaviors as well as on the prognostic factors of the breast cancer. In this study, the expression of hormone receptors (estrogen receptor ; ER, progesterone receptor ; PR, and androgen receptor ; AR), bcl-2 and Rb proteins were immunostained on 60 infiltrating ductal carcinomas of the breast. The results were evaluated in relation with the age, histologic grade, tumor size, and status of lymph node metastasis. The expression of ER and PR had a significant inverse correlation with the histologic grade (p<0.001). The expression of AR was significantly correlated with the expression of ER (p=0.039) and PR (p=0.009), but not with other factors such as age, histologic grade, tumor size, and status of lymph node metastasis. There was no relationship between bcl-2 protein expresssion and other prognostic factors, except with the expression of ER. Rb protein expression had a significant positive relationship with PR (p=0.05) and the degree of positivity was correlated with histologic grade (p=0.002). In conclusion, this result suggests that expression of AR is well correlated with ER and PR. bcl-2 has no prognostic value. The significance of Rb protein expression remained to be studied.
The Current Practice of the Autopsy Services and the Autopsy Records at the Seoul National University Hospital.
Jeong Wook Seo, Yoon Sung Lee, Je Geun Chi, Ghee Young Choe, Soong Deok Lee, Chong Jai Kim, In Ae Park, Woo Ho Kim, Ja June Jang, Chul Woo Kim, Seong Hoe Park, Jung Bin Lee, Hyun Soon Lee, Yong Il Kim, Eui Keun Ham, Sang Kook Lee
Korean J Pathol. 1998;32(6):453-459.
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AbstractAbstract
This study outlines the current status of the autopsy practice and the medical records for autopsies at the Department of Pathology, Seoul National University Hospital. Total number of autopsy cases from 1954 to 1995 was 3,131. Adults aged over 17 were 371 cases and children were 2,515 cases. The demographic data in 245 cases was not available. The number of adult autopsies and its proportion among total number of autopsies during 10-year periods decreased from 144 cases (40%) during the 10-year-period from 1956 to 52 cases (3%) during the 10-year-period from 1986. The number of children cases during the same period groups increased slightly from 210 cases (58%) to 393 cases (25%). But the number of fetal cases increased rapidly from 7 cases (2%) to 1,146 cases (72%). Among fetal autopsies the proportion of fetuses died earlier than 24 weeks of gestation increased and this figure exceeds that of fetuses that died later than 24 weeks of gestation from 1992. Forty percent of the cases were submitted from the clinical departments of the Seoul National University Hospital but the remainders were referred from 73 hospitals. Final autopsy diagnoses were analysed according to the Korean Standard Classification of Disease (KCD)-3 coding system and by searching key words for all cases. Common diagnoses as coded among cases from 1990 were P9, P0, P2, Q2 and Q0. Common diseases by key words for adult cases were liver disease, tuberculosis and pneumonia. Common diseases for children cases were pneumonia, hyaline membrane disease, meningitis and tuberculosis. Through this study we could show the importance of autopsy services for fetuses. We could also establish a regular registration system for autopsies at general hospitals.
Case Reports
Malignant Rhabdoid Tumor of the Cerebellum in an Adult: A case report.
Young Min Kim, Jae Hee Suh, Tae Sook Kim, Shin Kwang Khang
Korean J Pathol. 1998;32(6):460-465.
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AbstractAbstract
Malignant rhabdoid tumor (MRT) is a rare and highly aggressive neoplasm of infancy and childhood. Although it was originally described and most frequently reported in the kidney, it may occur in various extra-renal sites such as the liver, thymus, and soft tissue. In the last decade primary central nervous system (CNS) MRTs have been reported in both the supra- and infratentorial compartments. Patients with CNS MRT were generally below the age of two and reports in adults are extremely rare. This is a case of primary cerebellar MRT in a 24-year-old woman, who had presented with intermittent headache, vocal cord palsy, and cerebellar dysfunctions such as abnormal finger to nose test and tandem gait. By magnetic resonance imaging scan, a well-enhancing solid mass was demonstrated at the posterior fossa filling the 4th ventricle, which extended into the medulla and cervical cord via the foramen of Magendie. Histologically, the monotonous polygonal tumor cells were arranged in diffuse sheet with occasional hemorrhagic necrosis. The nuclei were vesicular and eccentrically located due to eosinophilic, PAS-positive, intracytoplasmic inclusions with prominent nucleoli. They were diffusely or focally immunoreactive for vimentin, neurofilament, cytokeratin, GFAP, synaptophysin, and smooth muscle actin, while epithelial membrane antigen and desmin were negative. Ultrastructurally, the polyhedral tumor cells were densely packed with primitive intercellular junctions. Scanty fibrillar intermediate filaments were intermingled with cellular organelles. Postoperatively, craniospinal irradiation and systemic chemotherapy have been done and she has been free of tumor recurrence during the 13 months' follow-up periods.
Acanthamoeba Keratitis: Microscopic and Ultrastructural Findings: A case report.
Hee Jung Lee, Yeong Jin Choi, Tae Won Hahn, Seok Jin Kang, Byung Kee Kim, Sang In Shim
Korean J Pathol. 1998;32(6):466-469.
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AbstractAbstract
Acanthamoeba keratitis is uncommon and rarely reported in Korea. It has been reported in world literature as a very severe, progressive necrotizing stromal keratitis due to a non-parasitic free-living amoeba. It is frequently associated with minimal corneal trauma especially from contact lens but sometimes occurs in patients without any past history. We report a case of acanthamoeba keratitis without a specific past history in a 42-year-old man. Light and electron microscopy demonstrated severe stromal keratitis with numerous thick-walled cysts, 10~15 m in diameter, scattered in the superficial and deep stroma. Because this keratitis is most often mistaken for fungal, bacterial or herpetic keratitis, early confirmatory diagnosis by direct smear, biopsy or culture is essentially required for the prevention of visual loss or devastating eyeball loss.
Wegener's Granulomatosis Involving Lung and Middle Ear: A case report.
Kye Weon Kwon, Yoon Jung Choi, Hee Jeong Ahn, Min Soo Han, Dong Hwan Shin
Korean J Pathol. 1998;32(6):470-473.
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AbstractAbstract
A case of Wegener's granulomatosis is described, with special attention focused on the typical histologic findings and involvement of both middle ear and lung. The patient is a 37-year-old man presented with four-month history of cough and sputum. He had a past history of surgery of both ears because of otitis media followed by left facial palsy. Chest radiographs showed variable sized ill defined nodules in both lower lobes with internal airspace consolidation. Histologic preparations of the open lung biopsy specimens demonstrated a diffusely scattered palisading micro and macrogranulomas with central focus of neutrophils and necrotic collagen surrounded by histiocytes, histiocytic giant cells. Fibrinoid necrosis involved blood vessels and lung parenchyma. Chronic inflammation, diffuse granulation tissue formation and irregular fibrosis are also found in the lung parenchyma. The histologic findings of middle ear which was previously biopsied showed scattered palisading ill defined microgranulomas mixed with fibrotic tissue.
Prolapse of Fallopian Tube into Vaginal Vault after Hysterectomy: A case report.
Yi Kyeong Chun, Hy Sook Kim
Korean J Pathol. 1998;32(6):474-475.
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AbstractAbstract
The prolapse of a fallopian tube into the vagina is a rare complication of hysterectomy. We recently experienced a case of tubal prolapse after a laparoscopic hysterectomy in a 44-year-old woman. The vaginal examination showed a polypoid mass in the vaginal apex. Microscopically, the mass had the typical appearance of a fallopian tube with chronic inflammation. The cytologic finding of a vaginal vault smear was also described.

JPTM : Journal of Pathology and Translational Medicine