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Volume 33(12); December 1999
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Original Articles
Histopathologic Features and Immunophenotype of 19 Primary Cutaneous Lymphomas.
Hee Sung Kim, Young Hyeh Ko, Howe J Ree
Korean J Pathol. 1999;33(12):1111-1119.
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The diagnosis of primary cutaneous lymphoma is based on a combination of clinical, histological, immunophenotypic and genetic criteria. Nineteen cases of primary cutaneous lymphomas were studied for clinicopathologic, immunophenotypic, and genetic features. Seventeen (89%) cases were T cell origin and two cases (11%) were B cell origin. CD30-positive cutaneous lymphoproliferative disorder was the most frequent subtype, occupying 42% (8 cases) of the cases. CD8 was positive in 5 cases consisting of 3 cutaneous T cell lymphomas and 2 anaplastic large cell lymphomas. CD4 was positive in 2 cases of mycosis fungoides and 3 cases of lymphomatoid papulosis. Six (67%) of 9 cases of cutaneous T cell lymphoma were positive for TIA-1. Ten (83%) out of 12 cases showed clonal rearrangements of TCR gamma genes, however, one T/NK cell lymphoma and one anaplastic large cell lymphoma did not. EBV association was detected only in T/NK cell lymphomas among 10 cases examined. In conclusion, our study showed higher proportion of CD30-positive lymphoproliferative disorders and less frequent mycosis fungoides in Korea compared to the incidences in Western countries. Our immunostaining results suggested that mycosis fungoides and lymphomatoid papulosis are CD4-positive T cell origin, however, the remaining primary cutaneous T cell lymphoma is predominantly CD8-positive cytotoxic T cell origin.
Relationship among the Expression of Cyclin D1, p21, and p53 Protein, and Prognosis in Non-Small Cell Lung Carcinomas.
Seok Woo Yang, Sang Ho Cho, Woo Ick Yang, Woo Hee Jung, Chul Min Ahn, Doo Yun Lee
Korean J Pathol. 1999;33(12):1120-1130.
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AbstractAbstract PDF
Recently, cell cycle regulators have been suggested as new prognostic factors of the lung cancer. In this study, we evaluated the expression of cyclin D1, p21, and p53 using the X2-test, with regard to the stage of the patients, histologic type, and histologic differentiation in the 135 cases of non-small cell lung carcinomas (NSCLC). To evaluate the confounding effects among cyclin D1, p21, and p53 on X2-test analysis, we used the Mantel-Haenzel test. The NSCLC in this study included 82 cases of squamous cell carcinoma and 53 cases of adenocarcinoma. Each nuclear staining of cyclin D1, p21, and p53 was observed in 65 cases (48.1%), in 54 cases (40.0%), and in 81 cases (60.0%) of NSCLCs, respectively. Only p53 expression was significantly associated with the stage (stage I, II, IIIa) (p<0.05) and squamous cell carcinoma (p<0.05). On the other hand, cyclin D1 expression was significantly associated with the histologic differentiation. The confounding effects among cyclin D1, p21, and p53 revealed that only p21 expression changed the relationship between p53 and stage. In this regard, further study is needed.
E-Cadherin Expression in Renal Cell Carcinoma according to the Mainz Classification.
Ju Han Lee, Hyun Deuk Cho, Dale Lee, Nam Hee Won
Korean J Pathol. 1999;33(12):1131-1138.
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According to the Mainz classification, renal cell carcinoma (RCC) consists of three subtypes: each has characteristic genetic alterations within the chromosomal or mitochondrial DNA. The three subtypes are: clear cell type, chromophil type, and chromophobe type. E-cadherin is a Ca++-dependent adhesion molecule which plays a major role in the maintenance of intercellular adhesion in epithelial tissues. In a normal kidney, E-cadherin is expressed in the distal tubule and the collecting duct, but not in the proximal tubule. We reclassified 110 cases of RCC according to mainz classification. Immunohistochemical staining for E-cadherin was done on twenty eight cases of RCC, including 18 cases of clear cell type, four cases of chromophil type, and six cases of chromophobe type. The results were as follows: 1) of the 110 cases of RCC, 96 cases (87.3%) were of clear cell type, four cases (3.6%) of chromophil type, and ten cases (9.1%) of chromophobe type, 2) there was no significant correlation between the nuclear grade and clinical stage according to each subtype, 3) E-cadherin expression showed a strong positive reaction along the cell membranes in all six cases of chromophobe type. The differential expression of E-cadherin in RCC may suggest that the chromophobe type may have different biologic characteristics from other types of RCC.
p27Kip1 Expression and Apoptotic Index in Prostatic Adenocarcinoma.
Eun Sook Nam, Duck Hwan Kim, Hyung Sik Shin, Young Euy Park, Dae Yul Yang
Korean J Pathol. 1999;33(12):1139-1145.
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AbstractAbstract PDF
p27kip1, a cyclin dependent kinase inhibitor, has been recognized as a negative regulator of cell cycle. To investigate the role of p27kip1 on progression of cancer and apoptotic pathway, we analyzed p27kip1 expression using immunohistochemical stain in 40 cases of prostatic adenocarcinoma and apoptotic index by TUNEL method in 30 cases of prostatic adenocarinoma. Both were correlated with Gleason grade and Gleason score. Loss of p27kip1 expression was more frequent in prostatic adenocarcinomas of higher score (Gleason score 7 to 10) (60.7%) than in those of lower score (Gleason score 4 to 6) (33.3%) (p<0.05). The value of mean apoptotic index of carcinoma was 1.13+/-0.26, 1.80+/-0.91, 2.06+/-0.79, and 2.12+/-0.82 in grade 2, 3, 4, and 5, respectively, and was positively correlated with grade of carcinoma (p<0.05). Mean apoptotic index of higher Gleason score (score 7 to 10; 2.05+/-0.63) was also significantly increased than in lower Gleason score (score 4 to 6; 1.34+/-0.39) (p<0.05). Mean apoptotic index in cases with and without p27kip1 expression was 1.92+/-0.86 and 1.89+/-0.81, respectively (p>0.05). These results suggest that loss of p27kip1 expression and increased apoptotic index may be the morphologic markers to predict the behavior of prostatic adenocaricnoma. The role of p27kip1 on apoptotic pathway seems to be meager in this study and needs further study.
Expression of MIB-1 in Endometrial Adenocarcinoma: Correlation with p53 Protein Expression and Histologic Prognostic Factors.
Mi Jin Kim, Young Ran Shim, Dong Sug Kim
Korean J Pathol. 1999;33(12):1146-1151.
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The evaluation of the proliferative potential of malignant neoplasm is of major interest for predicting their biological behavior. MIB-1, a monoclonal antibody against the Ki-67 antigen, is a marker of cell proliferation, which is widely applied to human cancers recently. To assess the growth potential of uterine endometrial carcinoma, we performed immunohistochemical staining of MIB-1 in 34 cases of endometrial adenocarcinoma (endometroid type) from the paraffin sections. We evaluated its correlation with p53 overexpression and known prognostic factors including FIGO grade, nuclear grade, myometrial invasion, and estrogen and progesterone receptors. As a result, the MIB-1 labelling index was significantly correlated with FIGO grade, nuclear grade and myometrial invasion (p<0.05) and there was no significant correlation between MIB-1, ER or PR status. The expression of p53 protein showed significant correlation with FIGO grade and nuclear grade (p<0.05) and there was no significant correlation among p53 protein, myometrial invasion, ER and PR status. The MIB-1 labelling index revealed striking difference between p53 positive and p53 negative group (p<0.05). We concluded that MIB-1 labelling index is associated with poor prognostic parameter in endometrial adenocarcinoma, and may be a useful marker for predicting tumor of high grade and deep myometrial invasion, if MIB-1 labelling index is more than 50% and is accompanied by p53 overexpression.
Correlation of Expression of CD44, p53 and bcl-2 Protein, DNA Ploidy Pattern, and Clinicopathologic Prognostic Factors in Invasive Ductal Carcinoma of the Breast.
Mi Ja Lee, Ho Jong Jeon, Kweon Cheon Kim
Korean J Pathol. 1999;33(12):1152-1162.
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AbstractAbstract PDF
In this study of 64 cases of breast cancer with a clinical follow-up period of more than 5 years, several prognostic factors were evaluated. The purpose of this study was to determine whether any one parameter or group of parameters serves as adequate predictors of tumor behavior and patient's prognosis. Several prognostic factors included clinicopathological variables (patient's age, histologic grade, status of lymph node (LN) metastasis, and tumor size), expression of estrogen receptor (ER), progesterone receptor (PR), p53, bcl-2 and CD44 by immunohistochemistry, and DNA ploidy pattern. The results showed that the expression of ER and PR had a significant inverse correlation with the histologic grade (ER, p=0.05; PR, p<0.05). The expression of p53 protein showed a significant relationship with high histologic grade of tumor (p<0.05). The expression of bcl-2 protein was preferably seen in low histologic grade of tumor (p<0.05) and significantly associated with ER positive or PR positive tumors (ER, p<0.05; PR, p<0.05). This results suggest that bcl-2 protein might play significant roles in ER and PR. The CD44 expression showed a significant relationship with tumor size (p<0.05). The large size and aneuploidy pattern of tumor had a tendency to be associated with shorter patient survival. Cox's multivariate analysis showed that overall survival was affected by LN metastasis because of the shorter survival in patients with LN metastasis. In conclusion, tumor size, DNA ploidy pattern, and LN metastasis were themselves significant predictors of breast cancer survival rate.
Expression of Laminin Chains in the Neuronal Cells of Mouse Brain.
Gi Jin Kim, Yong Jin Choi, Suk Keun Lee, Je Geun Chi
Korean J Pathol. 1999;33(12):1163-1174.
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Laminin-1 is biologically active and can effect cellular proliferation, differentiation, migration, and apoptosis. In the central nervous system, neuronal cells are rarely reported to give positive reaction by laminin antibody staining. However, the original cell type which can produce the laminin molecule has not been well established. Since the neuronal cells of brain are derived from neuroectoderm, we thought that the neuronal cells should be able to produce the laminin molecules as other epithelial cells. In this study we aimed to explore whether the neuronal cells express the laminin chain mRNAs, and further to identify which types of laminin isoform are expressed at the specific sites of the brain structure. We found that neuronal cell was the important cell type in mouse brain, which could produce laminin isoforms. Although immunostainings disclosed reactivity of laminins in the basement membrane of capillaries as well as neuronal cells, mRNA expressions of laminins were intense only in the neuronal cells. It was relatively weak in the endothelial cells. Among neuronal cells the cortical cells of cerebrum, pyramidal cells of hippocampus, and Purkinje cells of cerebellum showed pronounced expression of laminin chain mRNA. Glial cells, especially astrocytes, were negative for laminin subtypes both in immunohistochemistry and in situ hybridization. Taken together, our data indicate that the neuronal cells of mouse brain actively produce laminin isoforms, and the resultant polymerized laminins are accumulated mainly in the basement membrane of capillaries. In conclusion, the results indicate that neuronal cells produce and utilize the different laminin chains to maintain the neurovascular environment of brain.
Comparison of Pathologic Findings of Cortical Lobectomy for Intractable Seizures between Children and Adults: An Analysis of 164 Cases.
Na Rae Kim, Yeon Lim Suh
Korean J Pathol. 1999;33(12):1175-1181.
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Many pathological surveys of brain tissue in patients with intractable epilepsy have been reported. There have been, however, few studies focused on the differences between childhood and adults in pathological alterations of brain. We retrospectively analyzed histopathology of 164 lobectomy specimens for intractable epilepsy in view of the differences between children and adults. Among 164 cases, 28 cases were children (less than 15 years) and 136 cases adults. We compared frequency of histopathologic features, distribution of involved cortex (temporal or extratemporal lobe), previous injury histories, such as brain trauma, encephalitis or febrile seizure, and coexistence of other lesions (dual pathology) between two groups. Pathologic alterations were encountered in 92% of 164 patients. In children focal cortical dysplasia (n=16, 57.1%), neoplasm (n=8, 28.6%), hippocampal sclerosis (n=6, 21.4%), cortical tuber (n=1, 3.6%), leukomalacia (n=1, 3.6%), and Rasmussen's encephalitis (n=1, 3.6%) were observed, whereas focal cortical dysplasia (n=81, 59.6%), hippocampal sclerosis (n=80, 58.8%), neoplasm (n=19, 14%), and cerebral cysticercosis (n=3, 2.2%) were found in adults. Pediatric patients had a higher proportion of severe focal cortical dysplasia (17.9% in children, 0.7% in adults). Neoplasia and extratemporal lobe involvement were more commonly found in children (28.6%, 50%) than in adults (14.0%, 24.3%), whereas hippocampal sclerosis and dual pathology were more common in adults (58.8%, 44.9%) than in children (21.4%, 17.9%). Previous injury history was statistically significant in patients with hippocampal sclerosis, and lent support to the hypothesis that hippocampal sclerosis is related with acquired lesions. Incidence of focal cortical dysplasia was nearly similar in both adult (59.6%) and pediatric groups (57.1%), and supported the hypothesis that focal cortical dysplasia is developmental abnormality occurring during a prenatal period.
Quality Assurance of Frozen Section Diagnosis An analysis of 5,273 consecutive cases .
Sang Yong Song, Geunghwan Ahn
Korean J Pathol. 1999;33(12):1182-1190.
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Quality assurance analysis of frozen section diagnosis is very important for the pathologists to improve the diagnostic ability and the quality of medical service. We analysed 5,273 consecutive cases of frozen section diagnosis which were done in Samsung Medical Center during 10 months from June 1, 1998 to March 31. 1999 with special reference to the discordance between frozen section diagnosis and final diagnosis. The concordance rate was 97.65%, discordance rate 1.34%, and deferred diagnosis (type 1) rate 1.01%. Category A (discordant diagnosis without any effect on the patients) was 53 cases (1.01%), category B (discordant diagnosis with minimal but no serious effect on the patients) was 10 cases (0.19%), and category C (discordant diagnosis with serious effect on the patients) was 8 cases (0.15%). Type 2 (discordant diagnosis by extra-pathologist problem) was 22 cases (0.42%) and type 3 (discordant diagnosis by pathologist problem) was 49 cases (0.93%). The most frequent causes of type 2 and 3 discordant diagnosis were presence of new lesions on deeper sections and the misinterpretation of lesions. Discordant diagnosis was noted in lymphoreticular system, central nervous system, thyroid, gastric resection margin, breast, female genital organs, intestine, hepatobiliary system, upper aerodigestive tract, urinary tract, lung, and soft tissue in descending order of frequency. Frozen section diagnosis was deferred in central nervous system, lymphoreticular system, gastric resection margin, female genital organs, thyroid, intestine, upper aerodigestive tract, lung, and soft tissue in descending order of frequency. The most important cause of discordant diagnosis was a misinterpretation of the lesions. Based on our results, a continuous and careful follow-up of quality assurance analysis of frozen section diagnosis and a share of experience of problematic cases are mandatory for the pathologists to improve the quality of medical services.
Maximal Diagnostic Accuracy in Virtual Telepathology System according to Input Device and Video Signal.
Rae Woong Park, Hee Jae Joo, Hyunee Yim, Yoon Mi Jin, Kyi Beom Lee
Korean J Pathol. 1999;33(12):1191-1198.
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Varieties of telepathology system had been developed and in use, but their functional capability and diagnostic accuracy are considered to be inferior to those of conventional optical microscope. This study is intended to find out: 1) the diagnostic accuracy and reproducibility rate according to the input devices and the video signals; 2) any potential technical problems of the telepathology system; 3) any possible physical and psychological impacts. We devised a virtual telepathology system using our existing microscope equipped with CCD camera unit that has no restriction of network speed. Total fifty-five surgical pathology cases from 11 different organs were selected. Three pathologists were involved in making diagnoses. The resulting diagnostic accuracies were: 1 CCD camera with composite video signal was 86.2%; 3 CCD camera with composite video signal was 93.1%; 3 CCD camera with component video signal was 95.0%. The 3 CCD camera with component video signal resulted in 95.0% diagnostic accuracy and was superior to 1 CCD camera with composite video signal. Some technical problems noted during this study were: the visual field of the virtual telepathology system was smaller by 43% than that of microscope; the difference of cell sizes between microscope and monitor; low resolution of image. Some physical and psychological symptoms were noted.
Case Reports
Mesothelial/Monocytic Incidental Cardiac Excrescences, So-called "Cardiac MICE": A case report .
Nahye Myong, Min Chul Lee, Myung Yong Lee
Korean J Pathol. 1999;33(12):1199-1202.
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A rare case of mesothelial/monocytic incidental cardiac excrescences (cardiac MICE) is described in the aspect of pathological interest. This cardiac lesion is pathologically characterized by exuberant proliferation of mixed mesothelia and monocytes and might be misdiagnosed as metastatic carcinoma, rhabdomyosarcoma, and histiocytoid hemangioma, if the disease is not in the minds of pathologists. The reactive nodular hyperplasia due to irritation to mesothelia by various causes is a most prevailing pathogenetic mechanism. About 20 cases have been reported in the worldwide literature. A 67-year-old female patient presented with cough and dyspnea for 2 months, without any history of previous cardiac operation. 2D echocardiography of the heart revealed moderate amount of pericardial effusion with posterior wall thickening. Under the impression of metastatic malignancy, pericardiostomy was performed. Grossly, the tissue was dark hemorrhagic and friable and the histologic sections revealed the solid tumor-like proliferation of round to polygonal histiocytic cells admixed with small cuboidal mesothelial cells which formed strips and tubular arrays. They were found within the fibrinous network and there were scattered empty vacuolar spaces. Immunohistochemical staining confirmed their biphasic nature with the CD68 positivity of the histiocytes and the cytokeratin positivity of the cuboidal cells. Factor VIII positivity was not detected in any cell components. The lesion was considered the monocytic and mesothelial proliferation of reactive nature, so-called cardiac MICE in the pericardial cavity. We report a typical case of so-called MICE first in the Korean literature.
Rosai-Dorfman Disease of the Nose and Salivary Gland: A case report.
Mee Sook Roh, Jin Sook Jeong, Sook Hee Hong
Korean J Pathol. 1999;33(12):1203-1206.
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Rosai-Dorfman disease (RDD) is a rare type of benign histiocytosis characterized histologically by intracellular engulfment of lymphocytes. Extranodal RDD may occur as a part of generalized process involving lymph nodes or may involve extranodal sites independent of the lymph node status. We have experienced a case of extranodal Rosai-Dorfman disease of the nose as an initial lesion prior to nodal involvement. The patient was a 20-year-old woman who complained of nasal obstruction for 4 years, remotely, and left submandibular mass for 3 months, recently. Histologically, the lesion taken from nasal cavity, submandibular gland and left upper jugular lymph node all showed an heavy infiltrate consisted of plasma cells, lymphocytes and sheets of macrophages with abundant pale cytoplasm, which replaced organ architecture. The associated focal fibrosis made it difficult to differentiate from inflammatory pseudotumor. Some macrophages demonstrated phagocytosis of lymphocytes, plasma cells and occasionally neutrophils. The macrophages were strongly positive for S-100 protein.
Bleeding from Dieulafoy's Vascular Malformation of the Proximal Ileum: A case report .
Hee Jung Kim, Jun Keun Jung, Young Min Suh, Kyung Sook Kim, Hoguen Kim
Korean J Pathol. 1999;33(12):1207-1210.
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AbstractAbstract PDF
Dieulafoy's vascular malformation is a rare cause of massive gastrointestinal bleeding. Most often it occurs in stomach within 6 cm from the gastroesophageal junction. Only a few cases have been reported to occur in the small intestine and colon. Occasionally, Dieulafoy's lesion of small intestine is difficult to recognize because of rarity, a paucity of symptoms and negative findings on barium studies. Therefore, this lesion needs to be considered in a patient with massive lower gastrointestinal bleeding. We report a case of Dieulafoy's vascular malformation in ileum 2 m proximal to ileocecal value in a 41-year-old woman who visited emergency clinic because of hematemesis, dizziness and vomiting. Small intestine revealed a wide-caliber artery within the submucosa showing intimal thickening, medial muscular hypertrophy and thrombosis.
Squamous Cell Carcinoma Arising from Mature Cystic Teratoma of the Ovary: A report of three cases .
Mee Joo, Han Nae Min, Yun Kyung Kang, Hye Kyung Lee, Young Chae Cho, Eung Soo Lee
Korean J Pathol. 1999;33(12):1211-1215.
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Malignant transformation develops in a little less than 2% of mature cystic teratomas. A wide variety of malignant tumors may arise within benign mature cystic teratomas, and the most common of these is squamous cell carcinoma, which account for 75~85%. In general, the tumors are in an advanced stage and the prognosis is poor as most patients die within a year. However, when the tumor is confined to the ovary, they have a good prognosis and the 5-year survival rate is 63~83%. We experienced three cases of squamous cell carcinoma arising in mature cystic teratoma. Two of the carcinomas occurred in postmenopausal women: 58-(case 1) and 66-(case 2) year-old, and were confined to the ovaries. They were alive 37 months and 18 months after the operation, respectively. The third case was a 45-year-old premenopausal woman who had an extraovarian extension of the tumor and early recurrence within two months. Histologically, cases 1 and 3 were conventional well to moderately differentiated squamous cell carcinomas and case 2 showed a well-differentiated squamous cell carcinoma with exuberant proliferating trichilemmal tumor-like areas.

JPTM : Journal of Pathology and Translational Medicine