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Volume 40(3); June 2006
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Original Articles
International Society of Nephrology/Renal Pathology Society 2003 Classification of Lupus Nephritis.
Moon Hyang Park
Korean J Pathol. 2006;40(3):165-175.
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AbstractAbstract PDF
The new revised classification of glomerulonephritis in systemic lupus erythematosus under the auspice of the International Society of Nephrology and the Renal Pathology Society (ISN/ RPS) was proposed in 2003. The revised classification preserves the simplicity of the original WHO classification, incorporates selective refinements concerning activity and chronicity from the 1982 and 1995 revisions, and adds a number of new modifications. Overall, it bears a strong similarity to the 1974 classification, but introduces several important modifications concerning quantitative and qualitative differences between class III and IV lesions. The new classification provides a clear and unequivocal description of the various lesions and classes of lupus nephritis as well as definitions for diagnostic terms. This review is introduced the ISN/RPS 2003 classification which will facilitates accurate communication between pathologists and clinicians.
Genetic Analysis of Epstein-Barr Virus Latent Membrane Protein 1 and Immunohistochemical Expression of Transforming Growth Factor (TGF)-beta1, TGF-betaRII, p21, p16, E2F1, Thymidylate Synthase, and NF-kappaB in Epstein-Barr Virus Encoded RNA-positive Gastric Adenocarcinoma
Mee Yon Cho, Minseob Eom, Kwang Hwa Park, Mee Dong Kim, Seung Hoon Sung, Myoung Soo Kim, Dae Sung Kim, Sun Ju Choi
Korean J Pathol. 2006;40(3):176-184.
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AbstractAbstract PDF
BACKGROUND
:Although clinicopathologic differences have been described between Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)-positive and negative gastric adenocarcinomas, the pathogenetic basis for these differences remains unclear. In this study, efforts were made to confirm that expression of EBV-latent membrane protein (LMP1) and immunohistochemical characteristics of EBVpositive gastric adenocarcinomas.
METHODS
We investigated genomic deletion, and RNA & protein expression of the EBV-LMP1, as well as immunohistochemical protein expression of transforming growth factor (TGF)-beta1, TGF-bata RII, p21, p16, E2F1, thymidylate synthase, and NF-kappaB in relation to EBV positive gastric adenocarcinoma.
RESULTS
A total of 38 Epstein-Barr Virus Encoded RNA-positive and 80 negative gastric carcinomas were examined. A 30 bp DNA deletion in the EBV-LMP1 gene, initiating at codon 342, was detected in 94.4% of EBVpositive cases. By RT-PCR and western blotting, EBV-LMP1 mRNA and protein expressions were absent in all cases, re-gardless of DNA deletion. No significant differences in TGF-bata1, TGF-betaRII, p21, NF-kappaB, E2F1, or thymidylate synthase expression were identified. However, the decreased expression of p16 was found in 84.2% of EBV-positive carcinomas, relative to only 57.5% of EBV-negative tumors (p=0.024).
CONCLUSION
EBV-LMP1 DNA deletion, mRNA and protein losses are highly prevalent in EBV-positive gastric adenocarcinoma among Korean patients, along with decreased p16 expression.
Subcellular Localization of p27(kip1) in Breast Cancer and Its Prognostic Significance.
Sook Hee Hong, Dae Choel Kim, Se Heon Cho, Young Seoub Hong
Korean J Pathol. 2006;40(3):185-192.
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AbstractAbstract PDF
BACKGROUND
p27 is a member of the cyclin-dependent kinase (CDK) inhibitors that arrest the progression of the cell cycle; thus, it acts as a tumor suppressor gene. The loss or decrease of p27 protein is frequently seen and this has an independent prognostic potential for many human cancers. p27 is functionally inactivated through accelerated proteolysis and cytoplasmic sequestration. Cytoplasmic mislocalization of p27 by abnormal phosphorylation in the tumor cells doesn't allow it to bind and inhibit nuclear cyclin/CDK targets.
METHODS
We examined the p27 protein expression in 86 cases of invasive ductal carcinoma of the breast via immunohistochemical staining to evaluate the subcellular localization of p27 and its relationship with the clinicopathologic features and the prognostic factors.
RESULTS
The nuclear expression of p27 was noted in 48.9% of the tumors, a combined nuclear and cytoplasmic expression was noted in 20.9%, a cytoplasmic expression was noted in 12.8%, and a negative expression was noted in 17.4%. The decreased nuclear expression and/or cytoplasmic mislocalization of p27 were statistically correlated with the nuclear grade (p=0.001), histologic grade (p=0.036), tumor size (p=0.033), lymph node metastasis (p=0.043), ER (p=0.001), and PR (p=0.001) status, while they were not correlated with patient age, stage, HER2, p53, and Ki67.
CONCLUSIONS
The breast tumors showing both decreased nuclear expression and cytoplasmic mislocalization of p27 are associated with a deranged cell cycle via functional inactivation and also with poor prognostic factors. It is expected that p27 can be a promising anticancer target molecule for the treatment of breast cancer.
A Standardized Pathology Report for Colorectal Cancer.
Hee Jin Chang, Cheol Keun Park, Woo Ho Kim, Young Bae Kim, Youn Wha Kim, Ho Guen Kim, Han Ik Bae, Kyu Sang Song, Mee Soo Chang, Hee Kyung Chang, Yang Seok Chae
Korean J Pathol. 2006;40(3):193-203.
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AbstractAbstract PDF
BACKGROUND
AND METHODS: For standardizing the pathology report and diagnosis of colorectal cancers, the Gastrointestinal Pathology Study Group of the Korean Society of Pathologists has developed a pathology reporting format for colorectal cancer in collaboration with the Korean Society of Coloproctology.
RESULTS
The diagnostic parameters are divided into two parts: the standard part and the optional part. The standard part contains most of the items listed in the Japanese classification, the TNM classification by AJCC, and the WHO classification. We included detailed descriptions on each item.
CONCLUSIONS
The standardized pathology report for colorectal cancers is adequate for its application to routine surgical pathology reports, and it is also helpful to decrease the discrepancies that occur during the pathologic diagnosis of colorectal cancer. Furthermore, this reporting format could encourage nationwide multi-center collaborative studies.
Pathologic Features of Korean Prostate Adenocarcinoma: Mapping Analysis of 83 Cases.
You Jeong Lee, Dong Il Kim, Hee Eun Lee, Jae Kyung Won, Eun Kyung Hong, Geon Kook Lee, Kang Hyun Lee, Weon Seo Park
Korean J Pathol. 2006;40(3):204-209.
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AbstractAbstract PDF
BACKGROUND
:Prostatic adenocarcinoma makes up about 2% of the total cancer incidence and cancer death in Korean men, but the incidence of this malady is continuously increasing. So far, there have been only a few studies describing the pathologic characteristics of the prostatic adenocarcinoma in Korean patients. In this study, we analyzed 83 radical prostatectomy specimens by using mapping analysis to discover the clinico pathologic characteristics of Korean prostatic adenocarcinoma.
METHODS
The resected prostates were serially sectioned and embedded for histologic mapping. The clinico pathologic findings, including the Gleason score, tumor size, prostate intraepithelial neoplasia (PIN) and tumor invasion to the surrounding tissues, were examined.
RESULTS
The mean values were as follows: age, 64.1+/-6.6 years; serum prostate specific antigen (sPSA), 16.6+/-16.2 ng/mL; tumor volume, 22.3+/-22.4%; tumor size, 2.2+/-1.2 cm; and Gleason score, 6.9+/-0.9. The rate of high grade PIN was 79.7%. The Gleason score, tumor extent and T stage were statistically correlated (p<0.05).
CONCLUSIONS
Some prognostic factors such as sPSA and the Gleason scores showed significantly lower levels compared with those of the previous studies on Korean prostate adenocarcinoma (16-36 ng/mL vs 16.6 ng/mL and 7.3-7.7 vs 6.9, respectively). Although these values are still higher than those of the western studies, this study implies that the early detection of prostate adenocarcinoma is increasing in Korea.
Correlations between the Expression of c-Abl, c-Kit, Platelet-derived Growth Factor Receptor (PDGFR)-alpha and PDGFR-beta and Survival in Patients with Ovarian Cancer.
Heejeong Lee, Keun Ho Lee, Kyo young Lee, Chang Suk Kang
Korean J Pathol. 2006;40(3):210-216.
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AbstractAbstract PDF
BACKGROUND
:Protein tyrosine kinases (PTKs) such as c-Abl, c-KIT, PDGFR-alpha and PDGFR-bata are key proteins in the regulation of cell growth. In this study, we evaluated the correlations between the expression of c-Abl, c-KIT, PDGFR-alpha and PDGFR-beta and the survival of patients with ovarian cancer.
METHODS
We performed the immunohistochemistry for 102 patients with ovarian cancer and we retrospectively reviewed the overall and disease free survival and also the response to platinum-based chemotherapy in those patients.
RESULTS
The short disease free survival rate was significantly associated with the increased expression of PDGFR-alpha (p=0.0459). The short overall survival time in patients with advanced (stage III and IV) ovarian cancer was associated with the overexpression of c-Abl (p=0.0268) and the reduced expression of c-KIT (p=0.0307). On multivariate analysis, the tumor stage and c-Abl maintained their prognostic influence. Meanwhile, none of the four PTK expression patterns predicted the response to the platinum-based chemotherapy.
CONCLUSIONS
Our data suggest that for patients with advanced ovarian cancer, the overexpression of c-Abl and the reduced expression of c-KIT might be used as poor prognostic factors for overall survival. It is further noteworthy that the tumor stage and c-Abl may be useful in predicting the patients' survival. Although any of the four PTKs could not predict the response to platinum chemotherapy, the expression of the kinases targeted by tyrosine kinase inhibitor suggests the potential usefulness of imatinib mesylate for the treatment of ovarian cancer.
Expression of Cell Cycle-Regulatory Proteins in Rectal Cancer: Significance of the Tumor Response to Preoperative Radiochemotherapy and for the Prognosis.
Jinyoung Yoo, Jung Ha Shin, Ji Han Jung, Hyun Joo Choi, Seok Jin Kang, Chang Suk Kang, Kyo Young Lee
Korean J Pathol. 2006;40(3):217-224.
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AbstractAbstract PDF
BACKGROUND
Preoperative radiochemotherapy (PRCT) improves the outcomes for patients suffering with locally advanced rectal carcinoma, compared with surgery alone. However, there are no reliable factors predicting the survival and therapeutic benefits.
METHODS
The cell-cycle regulatory proteins were investigated in the pretreatment biopsies from 68 patients who were suffering with rectal cancer by performing immunohistochemical studies of p53, p21, cyclin D1, Rb and p16 protein. The tumor response was graded on a three-scale grading system: no response (NR), partial remission (PR) and complete remission (CR).
RESULTS
The tumors were positive for p53, p21 and cyclin D1 in 46 (67.6%), 32 (47.1%) and 14 (20.6%) cases, respectively. Abnormalities in Rb immunostaining were observed in 9 (13.2%) cases, while an abnormal p16 expression was noted in 59 (86.8%) tumors. Forty-two patients (61.8%) responded to PRCT: 18 (26.5%) cases achieved a CR and 24 (35.3%) cases achieved a PR. None of the above molecular markers were significantly associated with tumor response. However, the altered expression of p16 showed a significant correlation with overall survival (p=0.001). The high expression of p21 demonstrated a trend for longer survival (p=0.061).
CONCLUSIONS
Of the cell-cycle regulatory proteins, p16 may be a valuable marker for to predict rectal cancer patients' survival; however, the role of each cell-cycle regulatory protein for the therapeutic benefits of PRCT needs to be further studied.
Osteopontin Expression and Its Prognostic Significances in Human Renal Cell Carcinoma.
Hee Yeon Hong, Hyang Lan Lee, Tae Sook Kim, Ghil Suk Yoon
Korean J Pathol. 2006;40(3):225-230.
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  • 22 Download
AbstractAbstract PDF
BACKGROUND
Osteopontin (OPN) is a glycoprotein and it participates in cell-cell and cell-matrix interactions. In vitro studies suggest that the OPN expression is associated with tumor metastasis, and especially with the metastasis of osteotropic tumors originating in breast, prostate and lungs. Since no human tissue study has suggested the means by which OPN participates in the tumorigenesis, angiogenesis, progression and metastasis of renal cell carcinoma (RCC), we evaluated the expression and prognostic significance of OPN in RCC.
METHODS
Immunohistochemistry was performed with using the primary antibody for OPN on the archival paraffin-embedded tissue microarray specimens from 51 RCC patients who underwent radical or simple nephrectomy.
RESULTS
In the normal kidney specimens, OPN was expressed in a few compressed distal tubules adjacent to the RCCs. In RCCs, the OPN expression was elevated in larger tumors (p<0.05) and in the tumor with low microvessel density (p<0.01). In the present study, univariate analysis indicated that stage, tumor size, lymph node and distant organ metastasis are significant prognostic factors for disease free survival (DFS) in RCC patients (p<0.01), but OPN is not (p=0.0661). Multivariate analysis indicated lymph node metastasis is the independent prognostic indicator of DFS (p<0.05).
CONCLUSION
Though this study has statistical limitations, these results suggest OPN plays a role in tumor progression and metastasis and it may act as a potential prognostic indicator to predict the prognosis of RCC patients.
Case Reports
Cerebellar Pleomorphic Xanthoastrocytoma: A Case Report.
Seung Baik Han, Suk Jin Choi, Lucia Kim, Jee Young Han, Joon Mee Kim, Young Chae Chu, In Suh Park
Korean J Pathol. 2006;40(3):231-234.
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AbstractAbstract PDF
Cerebellar pleomorphic xanthoastrocytoma (PXA) is a rare tumor. The most common manifestation of PXA is a seizure, as opposed to the headache and dizziness that were present in our reported case; these atypical symptoms were related to the development of tumor in cerebellum. We describe here a case of PXA in the cerebellum of a 49-year-old female and we discuss the radiological, histological and immunohistochemical findings of PXA that occurred in the cerebellum.
Sinonasal Low-Grade Adenocarcinoma: Report of Three Cases with the Clinicopathologic and Immunohistochemical Findings.
Joon Seon Song, Shin Kwang Khang, Jooryung Huh, Bong Jae Lee, Kyung Ja Cho
Korean J Pathol. 2006;40(3):235-240.
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AbstractAbstract PDF
Low-grade adenocarcinomas that primarily arise within the sinonasal tract are uncommon tumors. We report here on three cases of primary sinonasal low-grade adenocarcinomas. The patients were 2 females and 1 male with ages of 48, 57 and 64, respectively. Microscopically, the tumors had a well developed tubulopapillary growth pattern that consisted of columnar or pseudostratified cells with eosinophilic cytoplasm, round to oval nuclei and rare mitotic activity. On immunohistochemistry, the tumor cells were strongly positive for cytokeratin 7, but they were negative for cytokeratin 20, CDX-2 and p53. The Ki-67 labeling index was very low (mean: 1.9%). Two patients developed recurrent tumors at the primary site after the initial surgery, but all the patients are presently alive without metastasis 6 years 8 months, 8 years 8 months, and 11 months after the initial diagnosis. When considering the progress of these tumors, we think that it's important to understand the pathology of this entity to avoid underdiagnosis because a complete excision is required for effective treatment.
Juvenile Xanthogranuloma of the Nasal Cavity: A Case Report and Review of the Literature.
Jung Suk An, Sun Hee Han, Ju Han Lee, Eung Seok Lee, Heum Rye Park, Young Sik Kim
Korean J Pathol. 2006;40(3):241-244.
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AbstractAbstract PDF
Juvenile xanthogranuloma (JXG) is a benign and self-limiting non-Langerhans-cell histiocytosis that generally occurs during infancy and childhood. It develops frequently in the head and neck but is very rare in the nasal cavity. To date, only five cases of JXG in the nasal cavity have been reported. Here, we report the second case of JXG in the nasal cavity in Korea. A 19-year-old male patient presented with a protruding 1.1 cm mass in the left nasal vestibule. Histologically, a dense dermal infiltrate of histiocytes with Touton giant cells was observed. Immunohistochemically, the histiocytes tested positive for CD68 and the S-100 protein but negative for CD1a. This shows that a S-100-positive histiocytic lesion dose not exclude a diagnosis of JXG.
Hydrops Fetalis Due to Parvovirus B19 Infection: Report of Two Autopsy Cases.
Ho Chang Lee, Hee Eun Lee, Pil Gyu Hwang, Je G Chi, Sung Hye Park
Korean J Pathol. 2006;40(3):245-249.
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AbstractAbstract PDF
Hydrops fetalis (HF) is a disease characterized by generalized subcutaneous edema and cavity effusion in the fetal stage. We report here on two autopsy cases of HF that were caused by parvovirus B19 (PVB19) infection. The human PVB19 is an erythrovirus that cause diverse clinical manifestations ranging from an asymptomatic or mild presentation to more severe effects such as hydrops fetalis, and this is the only known human pathogenic parvovirus. The gestational ages of the two fetuses were 21 weeks and 23 weeks, respectively. Both fetuses were hydropic and anemic. Hepatic tissues of both fetuses demonstrated erythroblasts with eosinophilic intranuclear inclusions, the so called "lantern cells". PVB19 was confirmed by electron microscopy and immunohistochemical staining. For the diagnosis of this disease, recognition of parvovirus infection as a cause of hydrops fetalis and careful examination of red blood cells with a high-power view are required.
Nasal Type NK/T Cell Lymphoma with Pseudoepitheliomatous Hyperplasia: A Case Report.
Hoon Kyu Oh, Jeong Kyu Kim, Kwan Kyu Park
Korean J Pathol. 2006;40(3):250-254.
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AbstractAbstract PDF
A case of prominent pseudoepitheliomatous hyperplasia (PEH), that was misdiagnosed as squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) on the frozen section occured in the nasal mucosa of a patient suffering with nasal type NK/T cell lymphoma. To prevent misdiagnosis of this lesion, pathologists should be aware that NK/T cell lymphoma may be associated with overlying mucosal PEH, and so the physician must adhere to strict diagnostic criteria for making the diagnosis of SCC. The pathogenesis of PEH associated with NK/T cell lymphoma is not still clear, but it may be related to the production of growth factors, especially epidermal growth factor and transforming growth factor, by the underlying tumors.

JPTM : Journal of Pathology and Translational Medicine