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Volume 42(3); June 2008
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Editorial
The Korean Journal of Pathology is Selected for Coverage in Science Citation Index Expanded and Journal Citation Reports by Thomson Reuters.
Jeong Wook Seo, Kyung Ja Cho, Han Kyeom Kim, Dae Young Kang
Korean J Pathol. 2008;42(3):131-133.
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AbstractAbstract PDF
No abstract available.
Original Article
Correlation of Expression of galectin-3, skp2, p27 and cyclin D1 in Benign and Malignant Thyroid Lesions.
Soon Auck Hong, Min Eui Hong, Gui Young Kwon, Mi Kyung Kim
Korean J Pathol. 2008;42(3):134-139.
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AbstractAbstract PDF
BACKGROUND
The overexpression of cyclin D1 and galectin-3 and the loss of p27 in thyroid cancers have recently been reported by many studies. The S-phase kinase associated protein 2 (skp2) plays an important role in the degradation of p27. We compared the correlation of the expressions of galectin-3, p27, cyclin D1 and skp2 in thyroid lesions.
METHODS
Sixty five cases were included in this study and immunohistochemical staining for galectin-3, skp2, p27 and cyclin D1 was performed.
RESULTS
The expression of galectin-3 increased in the order of nodular hyperplasia, follicular adenoma, follicular carcinoma and papillary carcinoma (p<0.01). The expression rate of skp2 was 0% for nodular hyperplasia, 16.7% for follicular adenoma, 33.3% for follicular carcinoma and 16.7% for papillary carcinoma. The loss of the expression of p27 was more frequently detected in papillary carcinoma as compared with nodular hyperplasia (p<0.01). The increased expression of cyclin D1 was noted in follicular adenoma and carcinoma as compared with nodular hyperplasia (p=0.043). The expression of galectin-3 was related with the loss of a p27 expression (p<0.01), and the expression of skp2 was related with the expression of the cyclin D1 (p=0.022).
CONCLUSIONS
Galectin-3 appears to be the most useful marker for making the diagnosis of thyroid lesions. The loss of a p27 expression can help differentiate nodular hyperplasia and papillary carcinoma, and the determining the expression of cyclin D1 may be helpful for the differential diagnosis of nodular hyperplasia and follicular neoplasm.
Multicenter Study
Porposal for Creating a Guideline for Cancer Registration of the Gastrointestinal Tumors (I).
Mee Yon Cho, Yun Kyung Kang, Kyoung Mee Kim, Hee Kyung Chang, Hee Jin Chang, Mee Soo Chang, Joon Mee Kim, Dae Young Kang, Chanil Park, Jin Hee Sohn
Korean J Pathol. 2008;42(3):140-150.
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AbstractAbstract PDF
BACKGROUND
Cancer registries are fundamental for cancer control and multicenter collaborative research. However, there have been discrepancies among pathologists in classifying cancer and assigning the codes according to the International Classification of Disease Oncology 3 (ICD-O3). To improve the quality of cancer registries as well as to prevent the conflict with medical insurance compensation, a guideline for the coding of cancer is mandatory.
METHODS
AND RESULTS: Funded by the Management Center for Health Promotion, 40 members of the Gastrointestinal Pathology Study Group and the Cancer Registration Committee of the Korean Society of Pathologists participated in the 1st workshop for gastrointestinal tumor registration. The subjects of gastric epithelial tumor, intramucosal carcinoma of the colon, carcinoid tumor, gastrointestinal stromal tumor and appendiceal mucinous tumor were discussed to create a guideline. A survey to obtain consensus for the guideline proposed by the workshop was carried out by the members of the Korean Society of Pathologists and 240 members completed the questionnaire.
CONCLUSION
Although there are some issues to be discussed further, such as coding of high grade dysplasia/adenoma and intramucosal carcinoma of stomach and colon, the members agreed upon most parts of the proposed guideline. Therefore, we suggest using the ICD-O3 coding guideline for gastrointestinal tumor.
Original Articles
Immunohistochemical Phenotypes of Phyllodes Tumor of the Breast.
Joo Yeon Song, Hye Kyoung Yoon
Korean J Pathol. 2008;42(3):151-156.
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AbstractAbstract PDF
BACKGROUND
The aim of the study is to evaluate the difference of immunophenotypes of stromal cells between the pure phyllodes tumor (PT) type and the co-existent type of phyllodes tumor and fibroadenoma, and between benign and malignant PT.
METHODS
Immunohistochemical staining for actin, CD34, CD10, c-kit, bcl-2, p53 and MIB-1 was performed using tissue microarray blocks that contained 25 cases of pure PT (16 benign tumors, 4, borderline malignant tumors, and 5 malignant tumors) and 6 cases of co-existent type.
RESULTS
The expression rates of CD34 and MIB-1 in the pure PT type were significantly higher and the expression rate of actin in the pure PT was significantly lower than that of the co-existent type. However, there were no significant differences in the bcl-2, CD10, and p53 expressions between the pure PT type and the co-existent type, and no c-kit expression was observed in both types. No significant differences in the CD34, actin, bcl-2, CD10, and p53 expressions between the benign and borderline/malignant PT cases were found. However, a significant difference of the MIB-1 expression rate was noted.
CONCLUSIONS
The stromal cells of the pure PT type are regarded as less mature myofibroblasts, and the CD10 reactivity in some phyllodes tumors suggests a myoepithelial origin. The MIB-1 labeling index would be useful for the grading of phyllodes tumor.
Significance of c-kit and COX-2 Expression in Breast Tissue.
Eun Kyung Kim, Won Mi Lee, Jong Eun Joo, Sook Kyung Ko
Korean J Pathol. 2008;42(3):157-161.
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AbstractAbstract PDF
BACKGROUND
The proto-oncogene c-kit encodes a transmembrane tyrosine kinase growth factor receptor. Studies have shown that c-kit is highly expressed in normal breast epithelium, but expression is decreased in primary breast cancer. Cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) is an inducible enzyme that converts arachidonic acid to prostaglandins. Expression of COX-2 has been reported in malignant tumors including breast cancer. We evaluated the expression of c-kit and COX-2 in benign and malignant lesions of the breast to assess the roles of these proteins in cancer initiation and progression.
METHODS
We characterized 20 benign lesions, 20 intraductal carcinomas and 70 invasive breast carcinomas. Immunohistochemical staining for c-kit and COX-2 was performed.
RESULTS
Expression of c-kit was detected in 75% of the benign breast lesions, 40% of the intraductal carcinomas and 10% of the invasive carcinomas. COX-2 expression was observed in 80% of the benign lesions, 70% of the intraductal carcinomas and 52% of the invasive carcinomas. Expression of c-kit was significantly correlated with tumor size (p=0.02). COX-2 expression was significantly correlated with negative expression of estrogen receptor and progesterone receptor (p=0.02, p=0.04), Her-2/neu expression (p=0.008) and the high proliferation index (p=0.0002).
CONCLUSIONS
Our results suggest that c-kit and COX-2 might be involved in malignant transformation of the mammary epithelium and tumor progression. It is suggested that c-kit and COX-2 can be used as predictive markers and therapeutic targets.
Case Reports
Micropapillary Carcinoma of the Gallbladder.
Dae Woon Eom, Gil Hyun Kang, Hyuk Jai Gang
Korean J Pathol. 2008;42(3):162-164.
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AbstractAbstract PDF
Micropapillary carcinoma (MPC) is a rare variant of carcinoma, and it is composed of small papillary neoplastic cell clusters lying within clear lacunar spaces that simulate lymphovascular channels. This tumor has been described in the several organs such as the breast, lung, urinary bladder and salivary gland and it is known to be frequently associated with a high incidence of lymphatic invasion and metastasis in lymph nodes, resulting in poor clinical outcome. We present here a case of MPC in the gall bladder, and this type of case has not been previously described. Histologically, the tumor was composed of micropapillary carcinoma with tight clusters of micropapillary aggregates in the background of tubular adenoma. Focal invasive micropapillary components were also noted in the submuscular connective tissue. A metastatic lesion in a regional lymph node also showed an entirely micropapillary pattern.
Brown Bowel Syndrome that Developed after Total Gastrectomy: A Case Report.
Sun Ah Lee, Hyung Kyung Kim, Ji Yoon Bae, Hanna Kang, Ha Rin Cheong, Hye Kyung Jung, Min Sun Cho
Korean J Pathol. 2008;42(3):165-168.
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AbstractAbstract PDF
The brown bowel syndrome (BBS) is an uncommon disorder, which is characterized by brown pigmentation of the intestine due to the accumulation of lipofuscin in the smooth muscle cells. Vitamin E deficiency has generally been considered as the cause of this malady. BBS has been reported in a wide variety of malabsorptive diseases involving the pancreas, liver and gastrointestinal tract. We report here on a case of brown bowel syndrome that occurred in a 73-year-old man who had undergone total gastrectomy 11 years ago for gastric adenocarcinoma. He has complained about intestinal obstructive symptoms for several years, and these symptoms were recently aggravated. He showed a low serum concentration of total protein, albumin and cholesterol, and he had been treated for megaloblastic anemia due to vitamin B12 and folate deficiency several months ago. The resected small bowel showed lipofuscin deposition in the muscle layer of the intestine and large vessels. The electron microscopic examination revealed multiple electron dense lipofuscin deposits with irregular shapes and sizes in the cytoplasm.
Florid von Brunn Nests of the Urinary Bladder: A Case Report.
Han Seong Kim, Ji Eun Kwak, Sang Hwa Shim, Mee Joo, Sun Hee Chang, Je G Chi, In Rae Cho
Korean J Pathol. 2008;42(3):169-171.
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AbstractAbstract PDF
Among benign proliferations of the urinary bladder, von Brunn nests and cystitis cystica et glandularis are common. Sometimes florid proliferation of von Brunn nests makes an intravesical mass, which mimics tumorous lesions. We report here on a case of florid von Brunn nests, occurred in the 34-year-old man with hematuria. Radiological and cystoscopic examinations reveal a polypoid-papillary lesion and transurethral resection was then performed. Pathologically, prominent proliferations of urothelial cell nests were found deep in the lamina propria. Neither significant cytologic atypia nor muscle invasion was noted. Florid von Brunn nests should be considered both clinically and pathologically in the differential diagnosis of a intravesical mass.
Oncocytic Type Intraductal Papillary Mucinous Neoplasm Mimicking Mucinous Cystic Neoplasm of the Pancreas: A Case Report.
Tae Jung Jang, Jong Im Lee
Korean J Pathol. 2008;42(3):172-174.
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AbstractAbstract PDF
Oncocytic type intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasm is a newly defined subgroup of intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasms. A 35-year-old woman presented complaining of epigastric pain for one month. Enhanced computed tomography revealed a multilocular cystic mass in the distal body and tail of the pancreas. Endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography showed no communication between the mass and the main pancreatic duct. The patient underwent a distal pancreatectomy and splenectomy. Microscopical examination showed a fibrous cyst wall; polypoid tumors exhibiting thin stalks, with extensive arborizing papillary growths from these stalks; and a focally cribriform pattern, lined by plump cells with abundant eosinophilic and granular cytoplasm. Red granules were detected in the cytoplasm of tumor cells on modified Gomori trichrome stain. Ultrastructurally, the tumor cells contained abundant cytoplasm packed with numerous mitochondria and intracellular and intercellular lumina. We describe an oncocytic type intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasm having the clinical characteristics of a mucinous cystic neoplasm.
Carcinosarcoma (True Malignant Mixed Tumor) of the Parotid Gland: A Report of a Case with Small Cell Carcinoma as the Carcinoma Component.
Hun Soo Kim, Hyang Jung Cho, Yeun Tai Chung, Soon Ah Park, Hae Joong Cho, Jin Man Kim
Korean J Pathol. 2008;42(3):175-180.
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AbstractAbstract PDF
True malignant mixed tumor (carcinosarcoma) of the salivary gland is an extremely rare tumor. By definition, it is a heterologous neoplasm that's composed of both malignant epithelial and mesenchymal components. We report here on a case of an 83 year old female patient with a parotid gland mass. Histologic examination showed a biphasic pattern of growth with both a poorly differentiated epithelial component and a sarcomatous spindle cell background. The immunohistochemical and ultrastructural findings support the diagnosis of a small cell neuroendocrine epithelial tumor and an undifferentiated malignant mesenchymal features. The histologic and ultrastructural features along with the immunohistochemical findings are presented. We also review the literature and we discuss the different opinions on the exact histogenesis of the true malignant mixed tumor of the salivary gland. To the best of our knowledge, this histological pattern has not been previously reported in the English medical literature.
Juxtacortical Glomus Tumor of the Tibia with an Uncertain Malignant Potential.
Dae Woon Eom, Gil Hyun Kang, Hee Jin Lee, Soo Jung Choi, Jae kwang Hwang
Korean J Pathol. 2008;42(3):181-184.
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AbstractAbstract PDF
Glomus tumors are mesenchymal neoplasms that are composed of modified smooth muscle cells of the normal glomus body. Most glomus tumors are benign and they occur in the distal extremities, and particularly the subungual lesions that occur in the hand, the wrist and the foot. We report here on a case of a solid type glomus tumor that had an uncertain malignant potential with a juxtacortical location at the distal tibia, and there were no neoplastic erosion of the cortical surface and no periosteal reaction. The tumor cells showed mild nuclear atypia and moderate mitotic activity (3-5/10HPF). Prominent intranuclear cytoplasmic pseudoinclusions were also observed. This case is interesting due to the very unusual tumor location of the juxtacortical area of the long bone, the atypical histologic features and the unique cytological finding of cytoplasmic intranuclear inclusions throughout the tumor cells.
Synchronous Development of Gastrointestinal Stromal Tumor and Arteriovenous Malformation in the Jejunum: A Case Report.
Sang Hwa Shim, Yoon Hee Han, Ji Eun Kwak, Sun Hee Chang, Hanseong Kim, Je G Chi, Mee Joo
Korean J Pathol. 2008;42(3):185-188.
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AbstractAbstract PDF
Vascular malformations associated with neoplasms are extremely rare. Herein we report an extraordinary coincidence of arteriovenous malformation (AVM) and gastrointestinal stromal tumor (GIST) in the jejunum. A 44-year-old woman presented with melena and anemia. Abdominal computed tomography revealed a highly vascularized, strong early arterial enhancing soft tissue mass in the jejunum, which was confirmed by angiography to be an AVM supplied by the distal jejunal branch of the superior mesenteric artery. An emergency operation was performed due to active gastrointestinal (GI) bleeding. The resected jejunum showed a protruding, mostly solid subserosal mass. The mass was confirmed to be a spindle cell type GIST and was intermingled with the AVM located in the overlying submucosa and muscularis propria. To our knowledge, this is the first reported case of an AVM associated with a GIST. This case masqueraded radiologically as an AVM alone and presented clinically with GI bleeding.
Florid Cystic Endosalpingiosis of the Uterus: A Case Report.
Sang Hwa Shim, Han Seong Kim, Mee Joo, Sun Hee Chang, Ji Eun Kwak
Korean J Pathol. 2008;42(3):189-191.
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AbstractAbstract PDF
A 54-year-old woman presented with vaginal bleeding. On gynecologic and radiologic examinations, bilateral cystic ovarian tumors were suspected. A laparoscopic examination revealed multiple cysts involving both the uterine horns and the posterior surface of the uterus. These were removed by total abdominal hysterectomy and bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy. Microscopically, multiple cysts were identified in the subserosal layer of the uterus, and they were lined with benign tubal type epithelium surrounded by a smooth muscle wall. These features were consistent with "florid cystic endosalpingiosis". Considering the location of the lesion, the lesion has to be distinguished from other benign cystic lesions of the uterus and adnexa, including multicystic mesothelioma, serous cystadenoma and mucinous cystadenoma. Awareness of this lesion will facilitate a correct diagnosis by both the clinician and pathologist.

JPTM : Journal of Pathology and Translational Medicine