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Suk Keun Lee 15 Articles
Immunohistochemical Array for Clear Cell Type Mucoepidermoid Carcinoma.
Yeon Sook Kim, Sang Shin Lee, Ji Yong Song, Eun Cheol Kim, Suk Keun Lee
Korean J Pathol. 2010;44(3):284-294.
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  • 2 Citations
AbstractAbstract PDF
The protein expression profile of clear cell type mucoepidermoid carcinoma (MEC) is not well known.
We examined a case of clear cell type MEC by immunohistochemical (IHC) array using 59 antibodies against oncoproteins, proliferation-related proteins, apoptosis-related proteins, growth factor-related proteins, angiogenesis-related proteins, and matrix proteins.
MEC tumor cells showed 40 to 60% more expression of BCL-2 and cyclin-dependent kinase 4 than normal gingival tissue, and 20-40% more expression of BCL-2-associated agonist of cell death, deleted in malignant brain tumors 1, E-cadherin, eIF5A, hypoxia-inducible factor, vimentin, and Wnt-1. Expression of other proteins, including p53, epidermal growth factor receptor, proliferating cell nuclear antigen, survivin, carcinoembryonic antigen, beta-catenin, poly-ADP ribose-polymerase, etc. were relatively weak in MEC tumor cells.
The IHC array for our MEC contained strong oncogenic signals involving Wnt-1/adenomatous polyposis coli, tumor necrosis factor a/signal transducer and activator of transcription 3/BCL-2, and pAKT pathways, signals that could result in the prolonged survival of clear tumor cells.


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  • A review: Immunological markers for malignant salivary gland tumors
    P.C. Anila Namboodiripad
    Journal of Oral Biology and Craniofacial Research.2014; 4(2): 127.     CrossRef
    Ji-Sook Jung, Ho-Won Park, Ju-Hyun Lee, Hyun-Woo Seo, Suk-Keun Lee
Odontogenic Gingival Epithelial Hamartoma; with Reference to the Expression of Ameloblastin Gene by in situ Hybridization and Immunohistochemistry.
Na Rae Kim, Yeon Lim Suh, Je G Chi, Young Joon Lee, Suk Keun Lee, Jae Il Lee, Chang Yun Lim, Ji Young Park
Korean J Pathol. 2004;38(2):116-120.
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AbstractAbstract PDF
Odontogenic gingival epithelial hamartoma (OGEH) is an extremely rare lesion characterized by an abnormal proliferation of odontogenic epithelium. This lesion is thought to arise from the rest of the dental lamina lying dormant in the gingival tissue after odontogenesis. Distinguishing OGEH from the granular cell variant of ameloblastoma and central odontogenic fibroma is important. To date, only eleven cases have been reported, and its pathogenesis remains unclear. We report here on a case of OGEH, where the epithelial strands in the lesion were conspicuously positive for the antisera of cytokeratin 19 and ameloblastin. Tumor cells intensely expressed ameloblastin mRNA by in situ hybridization. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first case of OGEH to which ameloblastin immunohistochemical stain and in situ hybridization were applied. Although our study is limited to a single case, the coexpression of cytokeratin 19 and ameloblastin might indicate the origin and specific cytodifferentiation of OGEH is quite different and unique, when contrasted to other odontogenic tumors.
Elafin Expression in Oral Lichen Planus.
Sang Shin Lee, Suk Keun Lee
Korean J Pathol. 2004;38(1):15-22.
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AbstractAbstract PDF
Elafin is a potent anti-elastase in human saliva, and is supposed to play a role in preventing oral ulceration. The expression of elafin was observed in the oral lichen planus (OLP), one of the most common noninfectious oral mucosal diseases, which frequently manifests as extensive ulceration on the involved oral mucosa.
50 OLP, 10 oral leuko-plakia, 3 inflammatory oral ulcers, and 3 normal oral mucosa cases were fixed with 10% buffered formalin, and immunohistochemically stained with monoclonal elafin antibody. Representative specimens were fixed with 4% paraformaldehyde, and RNA in situ hybridization, with an elafin RNA probe, was performed.
With both the immunohistochemistry and RNA in situ hybridization the expression of elafin was more decreased in the OLP compared to the normal mucosa, while in the hyperplastic epithelium of the leukoplakia and inflammatory ulcers the expressions of elafin was more intense. In the thin epithelia of the reticular and atrophic OLPs the expressions of elafin were reduced compared to the normal mucosa, and became almost negative in the epithelium of the erosive OLP.
These data suggested that the extensive ulceration of the OLP was closely relevant to the reduced expression of elafin in the involved epithelium
Prenatal Development of Human Lip with Immunohistochemical Study.
Su Jung Hong, Young Joon Lee, Yeon Sook Kim, Suk Keun Lee, Je G Chi
Korean J Pathol. 2002;36(4):212-221.
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AbstractAbstract PDF
This study is aimed to elucidate the developmental pattern of human fetal lip by histological and immunohistochemical examinations.
Totally 231 normal human lip tissues obtained from autopsied fetuses were fixed with 10% buffered formalin, sectioned in cross and longitudinal directions, routinely stained for H&E and performed for immunohistochemistry with antibodies of S-100 protein, proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA), transglutaminase C (TGase-C), metalloproteinase (MMP)-3, MMP-10, tenascin, KL1, K8.12, E-cadherin, tissue inhibitors of matrix metalloproteinase (TIMP)-1, TIMP-2 and total keratin (TK).
The lip structure first appeared as an orifice of stomodeum around the 7-8th week of gestation, and a major structure of the midface was observed by the 11-12th week. As the squamous epithelium of the lip became thick and was keratinized, the vermilion border became distinguished in the 15-16th week, and the lip structure was almost completed with the presence of orbicularis oris muscle in the lingual side of vermilion border by the 17-18th week. Immunohistochemically, the vermilion border showed strong reactions for tenascin, E-cadherin and MMP-3 and increased positivity for PCNA, cytokeratins (TK, KL1, K8.12), and TGase-C.
With the above findings we suppose that the cytodifferentiation of vermilion border epithelium plays an important role for the development of human fetal lip.
Improved Technique of Digoxigenin Labeled RNA in situ Hybridization.
Suk Keun Lee, Yeon Sook Kim, In Sun Song, Sang Shin Lee, Young Jun Lee, Woo Ho Kim, Je Geun Chi
Korean J Pathol. 2001;35(2):98-110.
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AbstractAbstract PDF
A practical RNA in situ hybridization method using digoxigenin labeled RNA probes is described in order to evaluate the technical difficulties and problems in RNA in situ hybridization.
The paraffin sections, routinely processed in the Pathology Laboratory, were tested for the possibility of RNA in situ hybridization instead of the RNase free paraffin sections, fixed in 4% paraformaldehyde and prepared using RNase protection procedures.
Most of the paraffin sections, fixed in 10% neutral formalin solution in fresh condition, showed relatively good reaction of RNA in situ hybridization, although the necrotic tissue and autopsy specimens showed poor reaction of RNA in situ hybridization. A refixation procedure using a 4% paraformaldehyde solution was evaluated for optimal expression of mRNA in the paraffin sections.
The treatment of 4% paraformaldehyde before the treatment of proteinase K showed better in situ hybridization than did the treatment of 4% paraformaldehyde after the treatment of proteinase K. Also a new Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR)-based method of RNA probe production showed consistently good results.
Molecular Cloning of Novel Genes Related to the Craniofacial Development of Human Embryo.
Young Jun Lee, Tak Soo Go, Hyung Wook Han, Sang Shin Lee, Eun Cheol Kim, Yeon Sook Kim, Suk Keun Lee, Je G Chi
Korean J Pathol. 2000;34(12):961-971.
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AbstractAbstract PDF
In order to obtain novel genes for craniofacial development of human, molecular cloning and sequencing were performed and followed by in situ hybridization in tissue sections. Subtracted cDNA library of craniofacial tissue from 8 weeks old human embryo was made by the subtraction with cDNA of RHEK cells. A total of 231 clones were obtained and their partial sequence data disclosed that 214 clones were nonredundant in Genebank search. We have done in situ hybridization screening on the craniofacial sections of a 10 weeks old human fetus, and found significant positive reaction in 30 clones. Depending on the cell type of similar developmental origin, the positive reactions could be divided into four groups: first group showed an intense positive reaction in neural tube, ganglion, and a part of peripheral nerve tissue, second group relatively diffuse positive reaction in neural tube, cartilage, epithelium, and muscle, third group localized positive reaction in nerve, and muscle, and fourth group positive reaction in almost all kinds of cells of craniofacial tissues. Although every clone showed different expression patterns in the craniofacial development, some of them showed intense mRNA expressions in the characteristic cell type. Because this study also aimed to test a screening methods to find out novel genes related to craniofacial development by the subtracted cDNA library and in situ hybridization, the intense positive reaction of a certain clone by in situ hybridization may indicate its role in the developmental processes. We presumed that 30 clones selected in this study are possibly important new genes for the development of human craniofacial structure.
Gene Expressions of Mouse Submandibular Gland during the Developmental Stage and Their Antisense Inhibition in Organ Culture.
Yeon Sook Kim, Suk Keun Lee, Je G Chi
Korean J Pathol. 2000;34(6):395-412.
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AbstractAbstract PDF
This study is aimed to observe the expressions of different genes, including the extracellular matrix proteins, growth factors, and transcription factors during different developmental stages of mouse submandibular gland. Reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and the antisense inhibition in organ culture system were performed using mouse embryos and newborns. Total 140 mouse embryos (E14(80), E15(20), E16(20), E18(20)) and 30 newborn mice (D2(10), D3(10), D6(10)) obtained from 60 pregnant mice and 3 adult mice (3 weeks old) were used for the cDNA production and the salivary gland organ culture. Syndecan, perlecan, laminin alpha1 chain, TGF beta1, beta 3, and sonic hedgehog mRNAs were expressed in the early stage (E14~E16) of the submandibular gland development, whereas transglutaminase C (TGase C), E-cadherin, epimorphin, laminin beta2 and gamma1 chains, and HGF mRNAs were expressed in the middle and late stages (E16~E18, D2~D6). Antisense inhibition of different genes in the organ culture of E14 mouse embryos of submandibular gland showed specific growth retardation in the development of ductal and acinar cells. Especially, the antisense inhibition of perlecan, E-cadherin, laminin alpha1 chain, laminin beta2 chain, and syndecan mRNA arrested the growth of ductal and acinar cells. While the antisense inhibition of integrin beta5 greatly affected the acinar cell differentiation and also produced cystic dilatation of salivary ducts, the antisense inhibition of fibronectin showed aberrant growth of ectomesenchymal tissues of the mouse submandibular gland.
Pulsating Magnetic Field Effects on in vitro Culture of Human Osteogenic Sarcoma Cell Lines.
Hyo Sook Shin, Jin Young Lee, Suk Keun Lee, Sang Chul Park, Je G Chi
Korean J Pathol. 2000;34(3):169-180.
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AbstractAbstract PDF
In order to elucidate the biological effects of pulsating magnetic field in in vitro culture system we designed a pulsating magnetic apparatus using 120 Hertz, 24 Volt direct current. It can generate 63~225 Gauss in the experimental area of 90 mm petri dish, and has little thermal effect on the culture media in 37.5oC, 5% CO2. Human osteogenic sarcoma (HOS) cells were cultured in the pulsating magnetic field and the nuclear changes of cultured cells were observed routinely by hematoxylin staining, and apoptotic change was detected by ApopTag staining using both peroxidase and fluorescein labelings. Compared to the control group which formed well organized whorling pattern of HOS cell line in 3 days culture, the HOS cells cultured in the pulsating magnetic field for 12 hours or 24 hours grew irregularly and showed increased number of apoptotic cells. When the flow of pulsating magnetic field was interrupted by insertion of strong permanent magnetic bar (1000 Gauss, 5530 mm) beneath the petri dish during in vitro culture, the area of sparse pulsating magnetic field showed active proliferation and aggregation of HOS cells even in 24 hour exposure group. These data suggest that the pulsating magnetic field may play a role in inducing growth retardation and apoptosis of HOS cells. Furthermore, the hazardous effects of pulsating magnetic field can be lessened or nullified by the interruption of pulsating magnetic field with a strong permanent magnetic bar.
Expression of Laminin Chains in the Neuronal Cells of Mouse Brain.
Gi Jin Kim, Yong Jin Choi, Suk Keun Lee, Je Geun Chi
Korean J Pathol. 1999;33(12):1163-1174.
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AbstractAbstract PDF
Laminin-1 is biologically active and can effect cellular proliferation, differentiation, migration, and apoptosis. In the central nervous system, neuronal cells are rarely reported to give positive reaction by laminin antibody staining. However, the original cell type which can produce the laminin molecule has not been well established. Since the neuronal cells of brain are derived from neuroectoderm, we thought that the neuronal cells should be able to produce the laminin molecules as other epithelial cells. In this study we aimed to explore whether the neuronal cells express the laminin chain mRNAs, and further to identify which types of laminin isoform are expressed at the specific sites of the brain structure. We found that neuronal cell was the important cell type in mouse brain, which could produce laminin isoforms. Although immunostainings disclosed reactivity of laminins in the basement membrane of capillaries as well as neuronal cells, mRNA expressions of laminins were intense only in the neuronal cells. It was relatively weak in the endothelial cells. Among neuronal cells the cortical cells of cerebrum, pyramidal cells of hippocampus, and Purkinje cells of cerebellum showed pronounced expression of laminin chain mRNA. Glial cells, especially astrocytes, were negative for laminin subtypes both in immunohistochemistry and in situ hybridization. Taken together, our data indicate that the neuronal cells of mouse brain actively produce laminin isoforms, and the resultant polymerized laminins are accumulated mainly in the basement membrane of capillaries. In conclusion, the results indicate that neuronal cells produce and utilize the different laminin chains to maintain the neurovascular environment of brain.
Morphological Study on the Mechanism of the Central Nervous System Dysfunction Induced by Unipolar Pulsating Magnetic Field in Mice.
Ro Hyun Sung, Gyeong Hoon Kang, Chong Heon Lee, Suk Keun Lee, Young Hae Chung, Yoo Hurn Suh, Jeong Wook Seo, Je G Chi
Korean J Pathol. 1996;30(12):1073-1082.
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AbstractAbstract PDF
The morphologic change of the mouse brain after exposure to magnetic field is studied. Our magnetic field model was a pulsed unipolar magnetic field with the flux density of 0.2 - 0.3 tesla and the frequency of 60 hertz. Twelve adult male mice were exposed to the magnetic field for 2, 4, 8, 12, 18 and 24 hours. After the exposure to the magnetic field mice were anesthetized with chloral hydrate, and paraformaldehyde was infused through the left ventricle for fixation. During exposure to the magnetic field, behavioral and weight changes of mice were observed. Mice became irritable and restless, especially during first 2 hours of the exposure. Microscopic and ultrastructural examination on the brain revealed nuclear chromatin clumping of the neuron in mice exposed to the magnetic field for more than four hours. The change was proportional to the exposed time and more prominent in the cerebral cortex. An immunohistochemical study for amyloid precursor protein (APP) was also performed. There was an increased expression of APP in the neuronal cytoplasm of the mouse brain exposed to the magnetic field for 4 hours or more. But the reaction was not proportional to the exposure time and reactive neuron was diffusely distributed through the whole brain. Anti-APP antibody reactivity was not correlated with the chromatin clumping. The mechanism of APP induction was postulated as stress-induced APP-gene induction, and the role of APP was presumed to protect the neuron against hazardous environment.
Beckwith-Wiedemann Syndrome with Unusual Sialoadenomegaly.
Hye Seung Han, Seung Sook Lee, Suk Keun Lee, Je G Chi
Korean J Pathol. 1996;30(10):939-942.
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AbstractAbstract PDF
Beckwith-Wiedemann syndrome is a rare clinical entity characterized by exomphalos, macroglossia, macrosomia, and renal hyperplasia/dysplasia. Although its entity is established, its etiology and obligatory features have not been settled. We report an autopsy case with the unusual involvement of the salivary gland. This infant was born to a 37-year-old mother as a normal full-term spontaneous delivery. At 11 days of age she developed with purulent eye discharge and weak sucking, and died suddenly. At autopsy the baby weighed 2,630 gm and the head circumference was 35 cm. She showed thick and prominent skin folds, bilateral aural fissures, macroglossia, hepatomegaly, cardiomegaly, dysmorphic kidneys, and nesidioblastosis. Both kidneys showed dysplastic tubules and hyperplastic cortical tissue enclosing the medulla. In this case there were characteristic findings in major and minor salivary glands with both acinar and ductal hyperplasia, and hypertrophy of mammary glands. Besides, she had generalized depletion of subcutaneous fat, immature buccal fat, patent ductus arteriosus, hyperlobation of the right lung, two accessory spleens, and hyperplasia of basophils and chromophobes in the pituitary gland. The lungs showed diffuse interstitial pneumonia and multiple fibrin thrombi. There were no adrenal cytomegaly, umbilical hernia and exophthalmos.
Development and Growth of Tongue in Korean Fetuses.
Suk Keun Lee, Chang Yun Lim, Je G Chi
Korean J Pathol. 1990;24(4):358-374.
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AbstractAbstract PDF
We examined sixty-three human embryos ranged from three weeks to eight weeks of fertilization age and 117 human fetuses from eleven weeks to fourty weeks of gestational age. Anatomical structure of developing tongue could be classified into eight developmental stages. The first is the sgage of mesial swelling of tongue primordium in the fertilization age of 28~40 days (Streeter stage 13~16), the second is the stage of lateral swelling of tongue primordium in the fertilization age of 41~46 days (Streeter stage 17~18), the third is the sgage of vertical positioning of tongue in the fertilization age of 47~53 days (Streeter stage 19~21), the fourth is the transitional stage of tongue from vertical position to horizontal position in the fertilization age of 54~56 days (Streeter stage 22~23), the fifth is the stage horizontal positioning of tongue in the gestational age of 11 weeks, the sixth is the stage of protrusion of tongue in the gestational age of 12 weeks, the seventh is the stage of maturation of tongue muscle in the gestational age of 7-10 months. The development of tongue papilla characteristically progresses into three stages. The first stage is the epithelial ingrowth for the crypt formation, the second stage is the anatomical formation of vallate, fungiform and filiform papillae, and the third stage is the differentiation of taste buds in the vallate and fungiform papillae or the formation of thick spike-like keratinization at the tip of filiform papilla. We observed that the tongue primordium mainly derived from occipital myotome developed more repidly than other oro-facial structures, so it transitionally occuied the spaces of the pharynx and the posterior nasal cavity, and directly affected the formation of palate and the growth of maxilla and mandible. Whereas the tongue papilla development showed continuous developmental sequences during the fetal period.
Holoacardius Hemisomus Acephalus: A case report.
Tae Jin Kim, Chong Jai Kim, Sung Hye Park, Suk Keun Lee, Je G Chi
Korean J Pathol. 1989;23(4):487-489.
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AbstractAbstract PDF
An autopsy case of holoacardius hemisomus acephalus is reported. She weighed 2,190 gm and the height was 38 cm. The head and upper extremities were absent, while the vertebrae and lower extremities were relatively well developed, but severely edematous. The heart, lungs, stomach, liver, spleen, and pancreas were missing, but the lower abdominal organs including kidneys, adrenal, urinary bladder, and genital organs were present. The intestine was blind-ended at jejunal level but opened into a normal anus. The umbilical cord had two arteries and one vein.
Supernumerary Tooth Germs in the Incistive Canal of Five Fetal Maxillas.
Suk Keun Lee, Chang Yun Lim, Je G Chi
Korean J Pathol. 1989;23(2):235-239.
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AbstractAbstract PDF
Five fetal maxillas were obtained from the autopsy file of fetal postmortem examination, and were examined by serial micro-sections of frontal plane and horizontal plane. Especially the area around the incisive canal of the maxilla was carefully observed. The results are as follows. 1) In 5 fetal maxillas extra-dental laminas and supernumerary tooth germs which are severely malformed in shape are found in the dilated incisive canal, where prominent vessels and nerves are distributed. 2) The supernumerary tooth germs disclose almost normal histo-differentiation of odontoblast and ameloblast, and there shows relatively abundant perifollicular fibrosis in the place of perifollicular bone. 3) It is observed that the over-growth of the extradental lamina from the dental ridge of deciduous central incisor frequently tends to direct toward the incisive canal that includes prominent vessels and nerves.
Weekly Development and Growth of Tooth Germ in Korean Fetuses.
Suk Keun Lee, Chang Yun Lim, Je G Chi
Korean J Pathol. 1989;23(1):1-19.
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AbstractAbstract PDF
In order to elucidate the developmental stages of human tooth germ during prenatal period, we examined 254 normal fetuses ranging in gestational age from six weeks to fourty weeks old histologically. Lim's developmental pattern of prenatal tooth germ was divided into three groups, the first group consisting of five grades (I, II, III, IV, V) was for the development of enamel epithelium the second group of three grades was for the deposition of dentin matrix and enamel matrix, and the third group of three grades (A, B, C) was for the growth of perifollicular bone. Some developmental progress between enamel epithelium and dental papilla could be identified by observation of the sequential development of deciduous and permanent tooth germs histologically. The following results were made. 1) The prenatal development of tooth germ showed similar weekly stages in both the maxilla and the mandible. The initial deposition of dentin matrix and enamel matrix (III-1 stage) started at 12-14 weeks of gestational age in the deciduous incisor and canine, and at 16-20 weeks of gestational age in the deciduous molars. And the initial deposition of dentin matrix and enamel matrix in the permanent first molar was at 20-22 weeks of gestational age, and that of the permanent incisor was at 34-36 weeks, and that of the permanent canine was 36-38 weeks, and of the permanent premolar was at 38-40 weeks. 2) The S-shaped curvature was characteristically found where the reciprocal induction of odontoblast and amelobast occurred actively in the developing tooth germ. Primarily pre-ameloblasts which abutted on the dental papilla differentiate the condensed mesenchymal cells into odontoblasts, and secondarily matured odontoblasts which bulged into enamel epithelium produced dentin matrix and differentiated the shrunken pre-ameloblasts into ameloblasts. 3) The mandible grew more rapidly than the maxilla during the early prenatal period. The trabecular bone from both jaws proliferated initially into labial side of developing tooth follicle and gradually circumscribed the tooth follicle lingually and mesio-distally, to form perifollicular bone resultantly.

JPTM : Journal of Pathology and Translational Medicine