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Boram Lee 4 Articles
Non-small Cell Lung Cancer with Concomitant EGFR, KRAS, and ALK Mutation: Clinicopathologic Features of 12 Cases
Taebum Lee, Boram Lee, Yoon-La Choi, Joungho Han, Myung-Ju Ahn, Sang-Won Um
J Pathol Transl Med. 2016;50(3):197-203.   Published online April 18, 2016
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  • 55 Citations
AbstractAbstract PDF
Although epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), v-Ki-ras2 Kirsten rat sarcoma viral oncogene (KRAS), and anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK) mutations in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) were thought to be mutually exclusive, some tumors harbor concomitant mutations. Discovering a driver mutation on the basis of morphologic features and therapeutic responses with mutation analysis can be used to understand pathogenesis and predict resistance in targeted therapy.
In 6,637 patients with NSCLC, 12 patients who had concomitant mutations were selected and clinicopathologic features were reviewed. Clinical characteristics included sex, age, smoking history, previous treatment, and targeted therapy with response and disease-free survival. Histologic features included dominant patterns, nuclear and cytoplasmic features.
All patients were diagnosed with adenocarcinoma and had an EGFR mutation. Six patients had concomitant KRAS mutations and the other six had ALK mutations. Five of six EGFR-KRAS mutation patients showed papillary and acinar histologic patterns with hobnail cells. Three of six received EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitor (TKI) and showed partial response for 7–29 months. All six EGFR-ALK mutation patients showed solid or cribriform patterns and three had signet ring cells. Five of six EGFR-ALK mutation patients received EGFR TKI and/or ALK inhibitor and four showed partial response or stable disease, except for one patient who had acquired an EGFR mutation.
EGFR and ALK mutations play an important role as driver mutations in double mutated NSCLC, and morphologic analysis can be used to predict treatment response.


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PHH3 as an Ancillary Mitotic Marker in Gastrointestinal Stromal Tumors
Yooju Shin, Jiyeon Hyeon, Boram Lee, Sang Yun Ha, Min Eui Hong, In Gu Do, Kyoung-Mee Kim
J Pathol Transl Med. 2015;49(1):23-29.   Published online January 15, 2015
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  • 68 Download
  • 7 Citations
AbstractAbstract PDF
Counting mitoses is subjective and time-consuming. The adjunctive diagnostic utility of a recently reported mitotic marker, phosphohistone H3 (PHH3), was investigated in gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GISTs). Methods: We reviewed 77 GISTs for several proliferative indices. These included the mitotic count per 50 high power fields (HPFs), the immunohistochemical Ki- 67 labeling index and the immunohistochemical PHH3 mitotic index (MI). For comparison, Spearman’s rank correlation and interclass correlation coefficient were used. Results: Mitotic counts ranged from 0–138 (mean, 7.57±2.34) and the PHH3 MI ranged from 0–126 per 50 HPFs (mean, 9.61±2.27). We found a positive correlation between mitotic counts and PHH3 MI (r=0.810, p<.001). The inter-observer correlation coefficient for three participants was 0.975 for mitotic counts and 0.940 for the PHH3 MI. When using the PHH3 MI instead of mitotic counts in the Armed Forces Institute of Pathology (AFIP) stratification criteria, 10 cases were reclassified. In one patient with a mitotic count of 2 and a PHH3 MI of 6 per 50 HPFs, distant metastasis occurred. Conclusions: In GISTs, the PHH3 MI correlated adequately with mitotic counts and can be used as a useful adjunctive to count mitotic figures efficiently.


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KRAS Mutation Detection in Non-small Cell Lung Cancer Using a Peptide Nucleic Acid-Mediated Polymerase Chain Reaction Clamping Method and Comparative Validation with Next-Generation Sequencing
Boram Lee, Boin Lee, Gangmin Han, Mi Jung Kwon, Joungho Han, Yoon-La Choi
Korean J Pathol. 2014;48(2):100-107.   Published online April 28, 2014
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  • 16 Citations
AbstractAbstract PDF

KRAS is one of commonly mutated genetic "drivers" in non-small cell lung cancers (NSCLCs). Recent studies indicate that patients with KRAS-mutated tumors do not benefit from adjuvant chemotherapy, so there is now a focus on targeting KRAS-mutated NSCLCs. A feasible mutation detection method is required in order to accurately test for KRAS status.


We compared direct Sanger sequencing and the peptide nucleic acid (PNA)-mediated polymerase chain reaction (PCR) clamping method in 134 NSCLCs and explored associations with clinicopathological factors. Next-generation sequencing (NGS) was used to validate the results of discordant cases. To increase the resolution of low-level somatic mutant molecules, PNA-mediated PCR clamping was used for mutant enrichment prior to NGS.


Twenty-one (15.7%) cases were found to have the KRAS mutations using direct sequencing, with two additional cases by the PNA-mediated PCR clamping method. The frequencies of KRAS mutant alleles were 2% and 4%, respectively, using conventional NGS, increasing up to 90% and 89%, using mutant-enriched NGS. The KRAS mutation occurs more frequently in the tumors of smokers (p=.012) and in stage IV tumors (p=.032).


Direct sequencing can accurately detect mutations, but, it is not always possible to obtain a tumor sample with sufficient volume. The PNA-mediated PCR clamping can rapidly provide results with sufficient sensitivity.


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