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Volume 30(12); December 1996
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Original Articles
Morphological Study on the Mechanism of the Central Nervous System Dysfunction Induced by Unipolar Pulsating Magnetic Field in Mice.
Ro Hyun Sung, Gyeong Hoon Kang, Chong Heon Lee, Suk Keun Lee, Young Hae Chung, Yoo Hurn Suh, Jeong Wook Seo, Je G Chi
Korean J Pathol. 1996;30(12):1073-1082.
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AbstractAbstract PDF
The morphologic change of the mouse brain after exposure to magnetic field is studied. Our magnetic field model was a pulsed unipolar magnetic field with the flux density of 0.2 - 0.3 tesla and the frequency of 60 hertz. Twelve adult male mice were exposed to the magnetic field for 2, 4, 8, 12, 18 and 24 hours. After the exposure to the magnetic field mice were anesthetized with chloral hydrate, and paraformaldehyde was infused through the left ventricle for fixation. During exposure to the magnetic field, behavioral and weight changes of mice were observed. Mice became irritable and restless, especially during first 2 hours of the exposure. Microscopic and ultrastructural examination on the brain revealed nuclear chromatin clumping of the neuron in mice exposed to the magnetic field for more than four hours. The change was proportional to the exposed time and more prominent in the cerebral cortex. An immunohistochemical study for amyloid precursor protein (APP) was also performed. There was an increased expression of APP in the neuronal cytoplasm of the mouse brain exposed to the magnetic field for 4 hours or more. But the reaction was not proportional to the exposure time and reactive neuron was diffusely distributed through the whole brain. Anti-APP antibody reactivity was not correlated with the chromatin clumping. The mechanism of APP induction was postulated as stress-induced APP-gene induction, and the role of APP was presumed to protect the neuron against hazardous environment.
Prevalence of Lymphoid Follicles in Helicobacter Pylori Associated Peptic Ulcer and Non-ulcer Dyspepsia in Human Stomach.
Tae Jung Jang, Jung Ran Kim
Korean J Pathol. 1996;30(12):1083-1090.
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AbstractAbstract PDF
To determine the prevalence of lymphoid follicles in Helicobacter pylori(H. pylori) positive and negative gastritis and its relationship to age, biopsy site, gastritis activity, degree of gastritis, number of H. pylori and gastritis score in H. pylori associated gastritis, we examined the gastric tissue of patients with 121 nonulcer dyspepsia and 99 peptic ulcers. The gastritis score was obtained by adding together the figures for gastritis degree, gastritis activity and number of H. pylori. H. pylori was detected in 75.2% of nonulcer dyspepsia, 84.5% of gastric ulcers and 90.3% of duodenal ulcers. Lymphoid follicles were found in 63.3% of H. pylori associated gastritis and 4.7% of H. pylori negative gastritis, and there was a strong relationship between the prevalence of lymphoid follicles and H. pylori infection(P<0.01). Lymphoid follicles were found in 100% of H. pylori associated gastritis, showing severe chronic inflammatory cell infiltration, and strong relationship between the prevalene of lymphoid follicles and the degree of gastritis (P<0.01). There was no significant difference among lymphoid follicles, age, biopsy site, clinical diagnosis, gastritis activity and number of H. pylori. Lymphoid follicles were found in 58.3% of gastritis score 4, 67.6% of gastritis score 7 and 100% of gastritis score 9, and there was significant correlation between the prevalence of lymphoid follicles and a gastritis score(P<0.01, R=0.85). In summary, gastric lymphoid follicle is significantly associated with H. pylori infection and its presence in H. pylori associated gastritis is related to chronic inflammatory cell infiltration.
Clinicopathologic Characteristics of Ulcerative Colitis Diagnosed by Endoscopic Biopsy Specimen: An analysis of discrepancy between clinical and pathologic diagnosis.
Jong Yup Bae, Ho Guen Kim
Korean J Pathol. 1996;30(12):1091-1098.
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AbstractAbstract PDF
Chronic ulcerative colitis is a systemic inflammatory disease with uncertain etiology primarily involving the colonic mucosa. The mucosal biopsy interpretation is important for an evaluation of the disease state and further medical or surgical treatment. However, few clinical and pathological studies of the endoscopic diagnosis of this disease are available in Korea. Therefore, we evaluated the clinical and pathological characteristics of it diagnosed by endoscopic biopsy and analysed the reasons for the discrepancy between clinical and pathologic diagnosis for a more accurate endoscopic mucosal biopsy diagnosis in the future. A total of 702 cases of colonic mucosal biopsy specimens during Feb. 1994 and Jan. 1995 at Severance hospital, Yonsei University College of Medicine were reevaluated for the study. A clinical diagnosis of ulcerative colitis, after endoscopic examination, was made in 61(8.7%) cases. A pathological diagnosis was made when there is an increased inflammatory cell infiltration in the mucosa with evidences of a chronic crypt injury in the biopsy specimens. Using this criteria, a diagnosis was made in 32(52.3%) cases. In 29 cases the diagnosis was made in the first biopsy specimen and in the remaining 3 cases the diagnosis was made in the second or third biopsy specimens. No pathologic diagnosis of ulcerative colitis was made in the cases that clinical diagnosis was not. In the 32 cases diagnosed as ulcerative colitis, 14 cases were involved the rectum and sigmoid colon, 9 cases were involved up to the descending colon, 1 case was involved up to the transverse colon and 8 cases showed pancolonic involvement. In 29 cases, which ulcerative colitis was suspected clinically but was not consistent with it pathologically, 8 cases were proved to be ischemic colitis, 5 cases were acute infectious colitis and one case was Crohn's disease by repeat examination and follow up. Ten cases were histologically within normal range and lesions subsided spontaneously with no recurrence. A conclusive diagnosis could not be made in 5 cases during this study period. From these results, we conclude that ulcerative colitis can be diagnosed accurately by endoscopic biopsy, and clinical follow up and repeat examination are valuable in the differential diagnosis of this disease.
A Study on Expression of p53 Protein according to Histologic Types, Degree of Malignancy and Differentiation of the Ovarian Surface Epithelial Tumors.
Young Ju Kim, Mi Yeong Jeon, Hye Kyoung Yoon, Mi Young Sol
Korean J Pathol. 1996;30(12):1099-1105.
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p53 gene alterations in the ovarian cancers are regarded as early events in the whole process of carcinogenesis. This study is intended to compare p53 protein expression rate in the ovarian surface epithelial tumors according to histologic types, degree of malignancy and differentiation. 134 cases of ovarian epithelial tumors including 26 cases of serous cystadenoma, 7 cases of serous borderline malignancy, 15 cases of serous cystadenocarcinoma, 40 cases of mucinous cystadenoma, 21 cases of mucinous borderline malignancy, 20 cases of mucinous cystadenocarcinoma, 4 cases of endometrioid carcinoma, and 1 case of clear cell carcinoma were studied. Immunohistochemistry using monoclonal p53 antibody(DO-7) was applied to the routine formalin-fixed paraffin embedded tissue. The results were as follows; 1. No immunohistochemical positivity of p53 protein was found in all 66 cases of benign serous and mucinous tumors studied. 2. There was no significant difference of p53 protein expression between serous and mucinous malignant tumors. 3. The expression rate of p53 protein exhibited a statistically significant difference between borderline(42%) and malignant(74%) ovarian surface epithelial tumors (p<0.05). 4. The expression rate of p53 protein of poorly differentiated carcinomas(100%) was higher than those of moderately (88%) and well differentiated carcinomas(60%), but there was no statistical significance. In summary, p53 protein expression might be a good indicator of malignant transformation of the ovarian surface epithelial tumors.
Analysis of Histological Findings and Estrogen and Progesterone Receptor Status in Luteal Phase Defect Caused by Delayed Ovulation and Clomiphen Treatment.
Kyu Rae Kim, Hee Jeong Ahn, Jai Hyang Go, Dong Hee Choi, Byoung Goo Yoon
Korean J Pathol. 1996;30(12):1106-1115.
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AbstractAbstract PDF
Luteal phase defect (LPD) is an ovulatory disorder of considerable clinical importance that leads to delayed endometrial maturation and inadequate endometrium for blastocyst implantation. This disorder is implicated in infertility and recurrent spontaneous abortion. We analyzed the endometrial histological maturation, and the estrogen receptor(ER) and progesterone receptor(PR) status in patients with unexplained delayed ovulation, and in patients with ovulation induction by clomiphen citrate. The purpose of this study was to determine whether the length of the follicular phase influences the endometrial histological maturation and the hormonal receptor status, and to know the effect of clomiphen citrate on the endometrium. In the delayed ovulation group, the endometrium was characterized by an irregular outpouching and dilated lumina of the glands, a decreased secretory activity and predecidualization, and a decreased number of granulocytes in the stroma. In the clomiphen citrate-ovulation induction group, glandular proliferation was markedly diminished with poorly convoluted and narrow glands, secretory activity was decreased, stroma was undecidualized, and there was an absence of granulocytes. ER expression was increased in the glandular epithelium in the delayed ovulation group, and both ER and PR expressions were markedly decreased in the glandular epithelium and stromal cells in the ovulation induction group. Endometrial maturation and differentiation may be diminished by increased estrogenic and relatively deficient progesterone effects in patients with delayed ovulation. The hormonal receptor status might also be influenced by hormonal changes. Clomiphen citrate successfully induced ovulation in patients with delayed ovulation, however, endometrial proliferation and maturation were markedly suppressed. This might be related to the lower pregnancy rate and higher abortion rate in patients with clomiphen citrate induced ovulation.
Obstructive Colitis: A Clinicopathologic Analysis of 7 Cases.
Jung Sun Kim, Yong Il Kim
Korean J Pathol. 1996;30(12):1116-1122.
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AbstractAbstract PDF
Obstructive colitis is an ulceroinflammatory lesion of the large intestine at a distance proximal to the obstructing or potentially obstructing lesion of any etiology. It has been suggested that a rise in the intraluminal pressure related to the obstruction results in a fall in the intramural blood flow with subsequent ischemic necrosis. We examined 7 cases of surgically resected obstructive colitis associated with distal constrictive adenocarcinoma of the large intestine. Two cases of the obstructive colitis were radiologically suspected prior to surgery either as a separate tumor mass or diverticulosis, and another case was suggested to be a tumor seeding by colonoscopy. Grossly, five cases presented with single or multiple, shallow, well-demarcated ulcerative lesions, and the remaining two were featured with a segmental ulcerative lesion the with pseudopolypoid area. The ulceroinflammatory lesions were separated from the distal obstructive carcinoma by a skipped zone of relatively normal mucosa measuring 4-43 cm. The proximal colon to the obstructive lesions were obviously dilated except in one case. Microscopically, mucosa and submucosa were replaced by granulation tissue, and showed inflammatory cell infiltration and fibrin exudates. Muscle coat often accompanied ischemic contraction. Fissuring was noted in one case. The recognition of these lesions prior to or during surgery is stressed based on the morphological features corresponding to an ischemic change in the proximal mucosa to the primary obstructive lesion.
Incidence of Acute Placental Inflammation through Histopathological Analysis: One year experience in 1995 at Seoul National University Hospital.
Hyun Ju Yoo, Yun Kyung Kang, Chong Jai Kim, Jung Sun Kim, Tae Sook Kim, Kyung Cheun Jung, Kyo Hoon Park, Jong Kwan Jun, Bo Hyun Yoon
Korean J Pathol. 1996;30(12):1123-1128.
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AbstractAbstract PDF
The diagnosis of acute inflammation of the placenta, represented as acute chorioamnionitis, is important in that it is associated with a poor clinical outcome for both the mother and the fetus, including major perinatal morbidities such as sepsis, respiratory distress syndrome, and CNS damage. However, current medical trends in Korea seem to overlook the significance of a histopathological diagnosis of acute placental inflammation, mainly due to the indifferences of clinicians and pathologists. Since late 1993, histopathological examinations have been performed on preterm placentas at Seoul National University. These examinations have demonstrated acute placental inflammation in a significant number of cases. In the present study the incidence of acute placental inflammation was analyzed in 521 placentas which were submitted for pathological examinations in 1995. Examinations were performed to provide basic information on the incidence and profile of acute placental inflammation in this hospital and, thereby, to emphasize the significance of histopathological examinations of the placenta in the routine surgical pathology service. Among the 521 placentas, acute inflammation was found in 194 cases (37.2%). In preterm placentas acute inflammation was found in 39.6% of the cases (67/169), while 36.1% (127/352) of term placentas showed acute inflammation. Taking the delivery mode into account, 26.3% (49/186) of the placentas delivered by cesarean section showed acute inflammation, while 43.3% (145/335) of the transvaginally delivered placentas showed inflammation. The present analysis demonstrates the existence of acute inflammation in a significant proportion of placentas with different clinical settings. The importance of a histopathological examination in routine hospital practice should be emphasized.
Case Reports
Carcinoid Tumor Arising in a Horseshoe Kidney: A case report.
Yoo Jin Kim, Bang Hur, Man Ha Hur
Korean J Pathol. 1996;30(12):1129-1137.
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Primary carcinoid tumor of the kidney is extremely rare ; only 29 previous reports have been described in the world literature, 3 cases of which were known to arise in horseshoe kidneys. Because of the scarcity of primary renal carcinoid tumor, its clinicopathologic features and prognosis are not well characterized, and its histogenesis is unknown. We present a case of primary carcinoid tumor arising in the horseshoe kidney of a 43-year-old man. The lesion is morphologically identical to those of gastrointestinal or respiratory tracts. In addition, this tumor contains clusters of intestinal epithelium with goblet cells and mature bony trabeculae. The cytoplasm of the tumor cells are immunoreactive for keratin, NSE, and synaptophysin, but are negative with Grimelius and Fontana-Masson stains. Membrane-bound cytoplasmic neurosecretory granules are observed by electron microscopic examination. This is the first case of primary renal carcinoid tumor arising in a horseshoe kidney documented in Korea. We describe the gross features, light and electron microscopic, and immunohistochemical findings of renal carcinoid and review the literature, with speculations on the possible histogenesis of this unusual neoplasm.
Clear Cell Sarcoma of the Kidney: A case in 39 year old man.
Hyun Ju Yoo, Yun Kyung Kang, Mee Joo, Hye Kyung Lee, Dae Woo Kim, Suk San Park
Korean J Pathol. 1996;30(12):1138-1143.
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AbstractAbstract PDF
Clear cell sarcoma of kidney(CCSK) is a rare pediatric neoplasm characterized by a predominating component of clear cells, a predilection for metastases to bone, and a poor prognosis. The incidence of CCSK peaks during the 2nd year of life and adult cases are very rare. We report a case of CCSK encountered in the right kidney of a 39-year-old man. Grossly, it was a lobulated mass showing infiltrative margin, measured 7x5.5x5cm and had a homogeneous gray-tan color with a soft, fish-flesh consistency. Microscopically, about half of the tumor revealed the classic pattern of CCSK, having tumor cell cords or nests separated by the characteristic alveolar capillary networks. The tumor cells had clear pale cytoplasm, bland looking round nuclei and inconspicuous nucleoli. The other half showed the epithelioid-trabecular pattern forming pseudorosette or cord-like structures. Immunohistochemically, there was only a focal positive reaction to vimentin. Ultrastructurally, the tumor cells showed the primitive nephrogenic mesenchymal differentiation such as electron lucent cytoplasm, a small amount of organelles, scanty heterochromatin, inconspicuous nucleoli, and a lack of flocculant basal lamina material around the cytoplasmic membrane. We consider that this is a case of CCSK occuring in the oldest patient ever reported, confirmed by both immunohistochemistry and electron microscopy.
Sarcomatoid Carcinoma with Heterologous Osteosarcomatous Component of the Prostate: A case report.
Eun Sun Jung, Young Jin Choi, Seok Jin Kang, Byung Gee Kim, Sun Moo Kim, Sang In Shim
Korean J Pathol. 1996;30(12):1144-1149.
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AbstractAbstract PDF
Sarcomatoid carcinoma of prostate has been rarely reported and occasionally difficult to distinguish from a true sarcoma or carcinosarcoma. A case of sarcomatoid carcinoma of the prostate, which has been occured in 61-year-old male patient is presented. The tumor consists of carcinomatous areas with epithelioid cells, sarcomatoid areas with spindle cells and foci of heterologous osteosarcoma component. The phenotypic nature of the tumor was confirmed immunohistochemically by positive reaction for cytokeratin, epithelial membrane antigen, vimentin and prostate specific acid phosphatase in both sarcomatous and carcinomatous components.
Primitive Neuroectodermal Tumor Associated with Mature Cystic Teratoma of the Ovary: A case report.
Young Ju Kim, Mi Yeong Jeon, Mi Sun Kang, Chan Hwan Kim
Korean J Pathol. 1996;30(12):1150-1154.
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AbstractAbstract PDF
Malignant transformation of benign cystic teratomas of the ovary is rare, with an incidence rate of 1-3%. The most common malignancy associated with benign cystic teratoma of the ovary is squamous cell carcinoma, which represents 90% of malignant transformations, followed by adenocarcinoma and carcinoid. Primary malignant neuroectodermal tumor in a mature cystic teratoma is extremely rare and microscopically can be subclassified as differentiated, primitive, and anaplatic. We experienced a case of primitive neuroectodermal tumor (PNET) associated with mature cystic teratoma of the ovary in a 11-year-old girl. Grossly, the ovary was a unilocular cyst which contained sebum material and disclosed several large, yellow to gray-tan polypoid excresences attached to the inner cystic wall. Except a large, fish-flesh, soft mass, the other polypoid masses were covered with sebum and contained small pieces of cartilage and tooth, and microscopically represented as mature teratoma. The large, fish-flesh, soft mass disclosed sheets and lobules of closely packed small cells with thin fibrovascular septa, which frequently replacing and encroaching the mature cystic teratoma. The small tumor cells were uniform and made up of round to oval nuclei with coarse chromatin and prominent nucleoli, very similar to those of PNET of the central nervous system.
Pneumocystis carinii Pneumonia Presented as Diffuse Alveolar Damage: Report of a case.
Sook Kim, Jeong Ja Kwak, Dong Won Kim, So Young Jin, Dong Wha Lee
Korean J Pathol. 1996;30(12):1155-1158.
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AbstractAbstract PDF
Pneumocystis carinii is the most common cause of diffuse pulmonary infiltrates in the immunocompromised patients. Microscopically, Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia(PCP) shows characteristic frothy intraalveolar exudate and interstitial lymphocytic and plasma cell infiltrate. However, sometimes the only histologic finding of PCP on routine hematoxylin-eosin stain is that of diffuse alveolar damage(DAD), when we can miss the diagnosis without aid of special stains. We report a case of Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia presenting as DAD in a 50-year old man after chemotherapy due to malignant lymphoma. Open lung biopsy specimen reveals the early stage of DAD without any characteristic findings, such as foamy exudate. However many cysts of Pneumocystis carinii were found on Gomori's methenamine silver(GMS) stain. Therefore, GMS stain should be routinely performed on all biopsy specimens obtained from immunocompromised patients.
Diffuse Leiomyomatosis of the Esophagus: A case report.
Ok Jun Lee, Hwa Sook Jeong, Jong Myeon Hong, Ro Hyun Sung
Korean J Pathol. 1996;30(12):1159-1162.
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Diffuse leiomyomatosis of the esophagus is a rare condition and usually extends from the mid-esophagus to the proximal third of the stomach. Macroscopically, there is a marked diffuse thickening of the esophageal wall, with or without nodularity, predominantly affecting the circular muscle coat. Microscopically, the disorder is characterized by the loss of the normal orientation of the smooth muscle fibers of all three layers. We report a case in a 37-year-old woman which was incidentally discovered at exploratory thoracotomy.

JPTM : Journal of Pathology and Translational Medicine