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Volume 30(11); November 1996
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Original Articles
Flow Cytometric DNA Analysis in Papillary Carcinoma of Thyroid Gland: comparison with Ki-67 immunohistochemical staining.
Mee Joo, Hye Je Cho
Korean J Pathol. 1996;30(11):959-965.
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Nuclear DNA content was measured using a flow cytometric method to analyze 36 paraffin- embedded and 7 fresh tissues of 43 papillary carcinomas of thyroid gland. DNA aneuploidy was found in 3 cases(6.9%) and diploidy in 40 cases(93.1%). But there were no suggestive findings in clinical history, and cytological and morphological features for aneuploidy. In 40 diploid cases, S-phase fraction(SPF) were analyzed with regard to sex, age, tumor size, presence or absence of capsular invasion, lymph node involvement and ground glass nuclei. Among the multiple factors, only the tumor size, especially the larger sized-group(above 2cm in tumor diameter) was found to have a statistically significant higher SPF than the smaller sized-group (p<0.05). And high SPF groups relatively well corresponded to the high risk group. Thirty nine cases of papillary carcinoma have also been evaluated for proliferative activity with Ki-67 monoclonal antibody. The average Ki-67 labeling index was 0.36% in total cases, and that of the aneuploid cases was 0.73%, which was higher than that of the diploid cases(0.33%). So. We think that the low aneuploid rate and low Ki-67 labeling index relatively well represent the usual good clinical course of this tumor and the high SPF is a suggestive finding for a high risk group.
Benign Epithelial Changes of Endometrium: Based on 450 hysterectomy specimens obtained from Jan. 1994 to Dec. 1994.
Hye Kyung Lee, Myung Jin Joo, Kwang Min Lee, Dong Kyu Chung
Korean J Pathol. 1996;30(11):966-971.
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To evaluate the incidence and clinico-pathologic correlation of benign epithelial changes of endometrium, we tried to classify the changes into squamous cell change, ciliary change, eosinophilic cell change, papillary surface epithelial change, and mucinous cell change by the criteria of Hendrickson. Based on the 450 hysterectomy specimens obtained from Jan. 1994 to Dec. 1994 in PMC, the incidence of the cell changes was as follows: squamous cell change: 1.1%, eosinophilic cell change: 6.8%, mucinous cell change: 6.6%, ciliary change: 10.4%, papillary surface epithelial change: 16.4%. Squamous cell change was noted in severe endometritis or endometrial hyperplasia and papillary surface epithelial proliferation was mainly associated with plasma cell infiltration in adenomyosis or leiomyoma. Eosinophilic change and ciliary change were sometimes concomitantly found in dilated glands of the basal layer or in the invaded glands of adenomyosis. The results of this study suggested a correlation of benign epithelial changes with endometritis, adenomyosis, leiomyoma and dysfunctional uterine bleeding.
c-erbB-2 Oncoprotein Expression in Ductal Carcinoma in situ and Paget's Disease of the Breast.
Jung Yeon Kim, Kyung Ja Cho, Seung Sook Lee, Shin Kwang Khang, Nam Sun Paik
Korean J Pathol. 1996;30(11):972-980.
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A clinico-pathologic study with an immunohistochemical examination for c-erbB-2 expression in 54 cases of ductal carcinoma in situ and 16 cases of Paget's disease of the breast was performed. c-erbB-2 oncoprotein overexpression was observed in 45% (24/54) and 88% (14/16) of ductal carcinoma in situ and Paget's disease, respectively. The overexpression of c-erbB-2 oncoprotein was significantly correlated with the nuclear grade of tumors and inversely with the status of the estrogen receptor. c-erbB-2 was positive in 4 out of 5 patients with metastasis to axillary lymph nodes and 3 out of 4 patients who died of the disease. Prognostic significance of c-erbB-2 oncoprotein in ductal carcinoma in situ was highly suggested. The expression of c-erbB-2 oncoprotein in Paget's disease was well correlated with coexisting infiltrating or in situ ductal carcinoma. The high positive rate of c-erbB-2 oncoprotein in ductal carcinoma with Paget's disease could be understood with a recent hypothesis that c-erbB-2 oncoprotein is involved in promotion of cell motility and the spread of carcinoma cells.
The Effects of Cyclosporine A on Minimal Change Nephrosis and Focal Segmental Glomerulosclerosis Induced by Administration of Puromycin Aminonucleoside in Rats.
Sun Hee Sung
Korean J Pathol. 1996;30(11):981-997.
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Cyclosporine A(CsA) is known as a potent immunosupressive agent, and recently its supressive effects of proteinuria in minimal change nephrotic syndrome, and other glomerular diseases have been demonstrated. But the mechanism of supression of proteinuria is not clear. This study aimed to investigate the mechanism of supression of proteinuria in puromycin aminonucleoside (PAN) induced minimal change nephrosis(MCN), by a single dose of PAN, and focal segmental glomerulosclerosis(FSG) by long term repeated administration of PAN with unilateral nephrectomy in Sprague-Dawley rats, using transmission electron microscopy. We also analysed the effects of CsA on the histopathologic changes such as glomerular sclerosis, and subtypes of infiltrated mononuclear cells in glomeruli and renal interstitium. The results are as follows: Marked proteinuria was developed in MCN and FSG groups. It was significantly reduced by administration of CsA. BUN and creatinine were significantly increased in FSG with the administration of CsA, compared with FSG without CsA. On ultrastructural examination, MCN group showed effacement of foot processes, and microvillous transformation. Occasional focal detatchment of podocytes from the GBM, vacuolar degeneration, and electron dense droplets in the podocytes were also seen. The latter findings were remarkably reduced by CsA. The Above ultrastructural findings, seen in the MCN group, were more severe in the FSG groups. On comparison of ultrastructural fingings of FSG with or without CsA groups, severe vacuolar degeneration, abundant electron dense granules, and focal detatchment of foot processes were more frequently seen in FSG groups and they were significantly reduced by CsA. But irregularity and thickening of GBM were deepend in FSG with CsA group. There were no significant differences of glomerular sclerosis, adhesion to the Bowman's capsules in both the MCN and the FSG groups by administration of CsA. Foamy degeneration of endothelial and mesangial cells, epithelial proliferation, hyalinosis and mononuclear infiltration were significantly reduced by CsA in FSG groups. Microcalcification was commonly seen in CsA administrated groups. The main sutype of infiltrated mononuclear cells in glomeruli and interstitium were monocytes in FSG groups. The proportion of T cells were higher in interstitium by disease progression and it was significantly decreased by CsA. On conclusion the most important ultrastructural changes, regarded as the main mechanism of supression of proteinuria is that the CsA stabilize the podocytes, by preventing vacuolar degeneration and focal detatchment. But CsA does not influence the progression of glomerular sclerosis in PAN induced nephrosis.
A Histologic Classification of Diffuse Interstitial Lung Disease and Its Clinical Significance.
Eun Suk Koh, Dong Wha Lee, So Young Jin, Sang Ho Cho
Korean J Pathol. 1996;30(11):998-1010.
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Diffuse interstitial lung disease(DILD) is a large group of heterogeneous diseases that diffusely involve the pulmonary connective tissues, principally subpleural, interlobular and alveolar wall portions. Terminology and classification of these diseases are not uniform, and the cause and the pathogenesis are unknown in many entities. It is generally accepted that the response to therapy is related to the relative degree of cellularity and fibrosis present, therefore a histologic evaluation of the relative extent and severity of these changes is required. We reviewed 52 cases of DILD from January 1990 to May 1995 diagnosed by open lung biopsy to reappraise classification and quantitative assessment of the histopathologic features. Differential histopathologic features between usual interstitial pneumonia(UIP) and nonspecific interstitial pneumonia(NIP) were examined with a correlation of HRCT findings and clinical findings. Among 52 cases of DILD, 18 cases(34.6%) were UIP, 6 cases(11.5%) were hypersensitivity pneumonia was NIP was 5 cases(9.6%), interstitial lung diseases associated with the connective tissue diseases were 5 cases(9.6%), inorganic dusts were 4 cases(7.7%), infections were 4 cases(7.7%), durgs were 2 cases(3.8%), acute interstitial pneumonia was 1 case(1.9%), sarcoidosis was 1 case(1.9%) in order of frequency plus 6 other cases(11.5%). UIP was the most frequent DILD in this study which seemed to be a criteria bias of patient selection on open lung biopsy. Quantitative assessment of histopathologic features was useful in the differential diagnosis of DILD and differentiation of UIP from NIP was possible based on histopathologic features and supported by HRCT. UIP disclosed a significantly high score of fibrotic changes, especially in the interstitial fibrosis, smooth muscle proliferation and honeycombing, otherwise NIP appeared relatively high score in inflammatory changes. Correlation between histopathologic scores and the clinical outcome after steroid therapy or no therapy in UIP was not evident.
Epstein-Barr Virus in Korean Malignant Lymphomas.
Young Hyeh Ko, Jung Dal Lee
Korean J Pathol. 1996;30(11):1011-1017.
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To determine the prevalence of Epstein-Barr virus infection in lymphoid neoplasms of various histology and location, the paraffin tissues of 74 non-Hodgkin's lymphomas and 13 Hodgkin's diseases were studied by EBER and BHLF RNA in situ hybridization as well as immunostaining using LMP-1, EBNA-2, and ZEBRA. As a control, non-neoplastic lymphoid tissues from the nasal cavity(10), lymph node(38) and Waldeyer's ring(12) were investigated. In non-neoplastic control, EBV genome was detected in none of 10 nasal mucosa, 6 of 38 lymph node, and 1 of 12 Waldeyer's ring. EBV-positive non-neoplastic lymphocytes expressed CD45RO in 2 cases and CD20 in 4 cases. Non-Hodgkin's lymphoma was positive for EBV in 37.8% of the cases in which T-cell lymphoma showed higher rate(56%) than B-cell lymphoma(15%), especially in nasal lymphoma(80%) and angiocentric lymphoma(63.6%). Hodgkin's disease was EBV positive in 38.4% of the cases. EBV genome in tumor tissue existed in latent form as well as in lytic form. LMP-1 was positive in 80% of Hodgkin's disease and 39% of non-Hodgkin's lymphoma in which EBV genome was detected. EBNA-2 was expressed in 3 cases of non-Hodgkin's lymphoma. On the basis of protein expression, most lymphomas belonged to type II latency. These results support that EBV is associated with pathogenesis of malignant lymphoma although its mechanism still awaits to be clarified.
Polymerase Chain Reaction Analysis of Human Papillomavirus in Esophageal Squamous Cell Carcinoma with its Correlation to p53 mutation.
Wan Seop Kim, Eun Kyung Hong, In Kyu Kim, Moon Hyang Park, Jung Dal Lee
Korean J Pathol. 1996;30(11):1018-1026.
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HPV infection has been implicated strongly in the pathogenesis of human squamous cell carcinoma(SCC). We analysed a series of 28 surgically removed, invasive squamous cell carcinoma of the esophagus by polymerase chain reaction to detect HPV DNA using consensus primers and 8 type-specific primers of HPV (6, 11, 16, 18, 31, 33, 35, 51). HPV 6, 31, 35 or 51 DNA were detected in 20 out of 28 cases (71.4%) of the esophageal SCCs. HPV 51 was the most frequently detected type, occuring in 13 out of 28 cases (46.4%). p53 immunohistochemical staining was also performed to demonstrate any relationship to HPV DNA positivity. It showed positivity in 16 out of 28(57.1%) esophageal SCCs, and HPV DNA and p53 positivity were concurrently detected in 11 out of 28 cases of SCCs. There was no significant inverse relation between HPV DNA positivity and p53 expression(p>0.05). Our results supported HPV involvement in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma, and suggested there may be another pathway not related to the p53-binding pathway in the carcinogenesis of esophageal SCCs by HPV.
Case Reports
Common Arterial Trunk: Report of Five Atopsied Cases.
Gil Hyun Kang, Yong Hee Lee, Chong Woo Yoo, Choong Sik Lee, Hong Ryang Kil, Sang Ho Cho, Jeong Wook Seo
Korean J Pathol. 1996;30(11):1027-1033.
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The common arterial trunk is a congenital cardiovascular malformation in which one arterial trunk gives origin to the aortic arch, pulmonary and coronary arteries. Other cardiovascular malformations are often associated, such as ventricular septal defect, aortic arch interruption, patent arterial duct and so on. During the early period of life, the persistence of the increased pulmonary arteriolar resistance results in cyanosis. As the pulmonary vascular resistance decreases, the cyanosis disappears but signs of congestive heart failure become the main problems. We report five cases of common arterial trunk that was confirmed by autopsy at Chungnam National University Hospital, Seoul National University Hospital, and Yonsei University Severance Hospital between 1983 and 1995. The ages of these patients at autopsy were 8-28 days and four of them were male. Pulmonary arteries arose as a pulmonary trunk in two cases but three cases showed two arteries arising separately from the posterior wall of the common trunk. The type of ventricular septal defect was juxtatruncal in every case. All five cases had three leaflet truncal valves but three cases showed dysplasia of the leaflets. Interruption of aortic arch was associated in two cases. The cause of death was renal failure in two cases, cardiac failure after corrective surgery in two cases, and pulmonary edema and failure in one case.
Atypical Polypoid Adenomyomas of the Endometrium: 2 case reports.
Hee Jeong Ahn, Kyu Rae Kim, Yoon Jung Choi, Bok Soo Kim
Korean J Pathol. 1996;30(11):1034-1039.
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Atypical polypoid adenomyoma(APA) is a rare benign polypoid tumor arising in the uterine endometrium which was first designated by Mazur in 1981. Microscopic examination reveals architecturally and cytologically atypical endometrial glands separated by intersecting fascicles of smooth muscle cells. The tumor can be misdiagnosed as endometrial adenocarcinoma with myometrial invasion, especially on microscopic examination of a curettage specimen. However a granulation tissue-like stromal response is absent and the smooth muscle in APA is more cellular than that of normal myometrium. We are reporting 2 cases of APA of the uterine endometrium which are 1.5 cm and 1.7 cm in size, respectively, in a 30 and a 22 year-old women. This is the first report in Korean literature using the immunohistochemical staining for smooth muscle actin and desmin.
Gastrointestinal Adenomatous Polyposis Associated with Small Cell Neuroendocrine Carcinoma of the Rectosigmoid: A case report.
Wan Seop Kim, Eun Kyung Hong, Kang Sik Kim, Kwang Soo Lee, Jung Dal Lee
Korean J Pathol. 1996;30(11):1040-1044.
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In adenomatous polyposis coli there are many colonic and extracolonic manifestations, and various combinations of these induce different clinical presentations and syndromes. We experienced a unique case of adenomatous polyposis of the large intestine and stomach in a 39-year-old man. In the colon, small cell neuroendocrine carcinoma rather than adenocarcinoma had developed, which did not contain adenomatous or carcinomatous foci. The adenomatous polyps in the colon were all small and sessile with no cancerous or precancerous change two years after the resection of the symptomatic gastric adenomas, even though the gastric adenomas were larger and showed dysplastic change. We think this case is another variant of adenomatous polyposis syndrome.
Appendiceal Polyp: A report of two cases.
Ki Hwa Yang, Jung Min Lee, Mi Sook Lee, Sang Ho Park, Young Gun Yoon, Choong Gu Kang
Korean J Pathol. 1996;30(11):1045-1049.
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Varying types of polyps could occur in the vermiform appendix. However, it is very unusual. Collins found 57 cases (0.08%) of benign mucosal polyps in the 71,000 cases of appendectomy specimens. There has been no reported case of appendiceal polyp in the literature in Korea. The authors experienced two cases of polyp in the vermiform appendix. The first case was a 51 year-old male patient who received a left hemicolectomy due to colonic polyposis. The second case was a 71 year-old male patient who was treated by appendectomy under the clinical diagnosis of acute appendicitis. The microscopic type of both cases were hyperplastic polyp.
Leydig Cell Tumor of the Ovary: Report of a case.
Jin Haeng Chung, Kyu Rae Kim, Young Hyeh Ko
Korean J Pathol. 1996;30(11):1050-1052.
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Leydig cell tumor of the ovary is a very rare tumor which usually occurs in the postmenopausal age, and which is frequently associated with virilization. It has been classified as a lipid cell tumor due to the presence of intracytoplasmic lipids. However, since up to 25% of these tumors contain little or no lipid, the new term "steroid cell tumor" is proposed for this type of neoplasm. We report a case of Leydig cell tumor of the ovary in a 16 year old girl. The patient exhibited recently recognized hirsuitism and secondary amenorrhea. Physical examination revealed moderate obesity with moderate amounts of coarse hair over the whole body and a deepening of the voice. Testosterone and dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate levels were markedly elevated in the peripheral blood. Pelvic ultrasonography revealed a right ovarian tumor. The resected ovary showed a well demarcated, golden yellow to orange colored solid mass, measuring 7 cm on the cut surface. Microscopically, the tumor was composed of solid and diffuse sheets of tumor cells having abundant eosinophilic cytoplasm, and large round nuclei with frequent crystalloids of Reinke in the cytoplasm. To our knowledge this is the first case of Leydig cell tumor of the ovary in a young girl in the Korean literature.
Adenoma of Retinal Pigment Epithelium: A case report.
Jae Soo Koh, Je G Chi
Korean J Pathol. 1996;30(11):1053-1056.
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A retinal pigment epithelium tumor is extremely rare, and the distinction from malignant melanoma or reactive hyperplasia of pigment epithelium is mandatory, clinically or pathologically. We report a case of adenoma of retinal pigment epithelium. A 21 year-old female presented with a sudden decrease of visual acuity. She had no previous inflammatory ocular disease. Fundic examination revealed an elevated mass at the temporal side of the right eye. With the suspicion of choroidal malignant melanoma, a right eye enucleation was done. Grossly there was a 0.7x0.5 cm dark soft broad-based elevated lesion in the temporal side. The anterior border was the ora serrata, and the posterior border reached the equatorial area. The tumor was confined to the intraocular portion. Histologically, the tumor mass was composed of the cuboidal or columnar cells arranged in papillary, trabecular, or solid pattern with fine fibrovascular stroma. The tumor cells were heavily pigmented. The cytoplasmic border of the tumor cell was indistinct and there was a finely granular brown pigment diffusely scattered in the cytoplasm. Mild anisokaryosis noted, but hyperchromatism or pleomorphism were negligible. The nucleoli were small. A transition between normal retinal pigment epithelium and tumor mass was noted. Reactive gliosis was noted at the periphery of the tumor.
Intraabdominal Heterotopic Thymus: Report of an autopsy case.
Hye Seung Han, Je Geun Chi
Korean J Pathol. 1996;30(11):1057-1059.
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Ectopic thymus results from the aberrant migration of thymic tissue and is mostly present in the mediastinum, the base of the skull, the tracheal bifurcation and the cervical region. We report the first case of intraabdominal heterotopic thymus incidentally detected and attached to the liver without associated anomalies. This fetus was sent to the Department without any clinical information. The fetus was small for gestational age, but had no external abnormalities. Each organ showed normal development except for the liver. The liver weighed 6 gm(normal 17.064+/-4.143 gm). Gray white heterotopic thymus was attached to the superior surface of the liver in the subdiaphragmatic area. It measured 1.1x0.6x0.5 cm. There was no diaphragmatic defect. The cervical thymic tissue near the thyroid was small and measured 0.2 gm(normal 0.927+/-0.485 gm). There was no thymic tissue in the anterior superior mediastinum. The histologic features of the heterotopic thymus were identical to the orthotopic thymus showing features appropriate for the gestational age. The origin of this subdiaphragmatic heterotopic thymus is speculated.
Decubitoma: A Pseudosarcoma in Decubitus: Report of a case.
Hye Seung Han, Yong Il Kim, Jeong Wook Seo
Korean J Pathol. 1996;30(11):1060-1064.
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Decubitus ulcer is often seen in the skin and underlying tissue of debilitated or immobilized patients as the result of prolonged pressure and impaired circulation. It manifests chiefly as an ulcer over bony prominences, but tumefaction is an extremely unusual presentation. A 53-year old male, a paralytic of the lower extremity for 18 years, developed a recurrent decubital ulcer despite repeated surgical repair, from which a rapidly growing, large fungating mass grew within a month. The last resected mass was bosselated and measured 15x9x3 cm with a major area of cicatrix-like induration, interdigitated with skeletal muscle bundles at the central area. Microscopically, the mass was composed of an upper half of active granulation tissue layer and a deeper half of dense, poorly cellular, fibrocollagenous bundles admixed with florid proliferation of atypical fibroblasts, but the absence of mitosis and the multifocal admixture of active inflammatory process-granulation tissue formation seemed to help exclude genuine fibromatosis, nodular fasciitis or proliferative myositis. We assume that this rapidly growing pseudofibromatosis is an additional manifestation of a prolonged decubitus ulcer, possibly related to the modified reparative process of decubitus ulcer following repeated excisions, for which we propose a term of decubitoma.

JPTM : Journal of Pathology and Translational Medicine