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Volume 37(3); June 2003
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Original Articles
Experimental Liver Disease Models of Rats: Morphological Characteristics.
Do Youn Park, Kang Suek Suh
Korean J Pathol. 2003;37(3):151-158.
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AbstractAbstract PDF
Experimental liver disease models of rats have many similarities with those of humans, especially in morphological characteristics. Rat liver disease models can be categorized as models of hepatic fibrosis, hepatic stem cell and hepatocarcinogenesis. The purpose of this article is to review experimental liver disease models, with a major emphasis on morphologic features, including routine morphological, immunohistochemical, and electron microscopic features.
Secretion of TNF-alpha via Proteinase-Activated Receptor-2 in Human Astrocyte Cell Line.
Mi Sun Kim, Jin Ah Kim, Ok Hwa Kang, Ok Seon Baek, Jae Young Um, Jin Mu Yi, Ki Jung Yun, Hyung Min Kim, Young Mi Lee
Korean J Pathol. 2003;37(3):159-165.
  • 1,217 View
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AbstractAbstract PDF
BACKGROUND
Proteinase-activated receptor 2 (PAR2) is cleaved, and it is activated by trypsin or mast cell tryptase. PAR2 plays an important role in inflammation. The aim of this study is to examine the potential of PAR2 agonists to modulate TNF-alpha secretion from the human astrocytoma cell line CCF-STTG1.
METHODS
PAR2 expression in CCF-STTG1 was examined using reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction and immunocytochemistry. The potential of PAR2 agonists to modulate TNF-alpha secretion from CCF-STTG1 was examined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays.
RESULTS
CCF-STTG1 expresses PAR2. PAR2 agonists such as trypsin, mast cell tryptase, and activating peptide SLIGKV-NH2 (corresponding to the PAR2 tethered ligand) directly signal CCF-STTG1 to induce the secretion of TNF-alpha but not in the case of the soybean trypsin inhibitor (SBTI) or VKGILS-NH2 (control peptide). Furthermore, the secretion of TNF-alpha was significantly reduced in CCF-STTG1 cells pre-treated with either 50 microM PD98059 (mitogen-activated protein/extracellular signal-regulated kinase kinase (MEK) inhibitor) or 1 microM SB203580 (p38 MAPK inhibitor) 30 min before trypsin stimulation.
CONCLUSIONS
These results show that trypsin may induce TNF-alpha secretion through the activation of MEK and p38 MAPK via PAR2 in astrocytoma cell line CCF-STTG1.
Overexpression of Insulin-like Growth Factor Binding Protein 3 in Colorectal Carcinoma Identified by cDNA Microarray and Immunohistochemical Analysis.
Kyung Un Choi, Do Youn Park, Jee Yeon Kim, Jin Sook Lee, Mee Young Sol
Korean J Pathol. 2003;37(3):166-173.
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AbstractAbstract PDF
BACKGROUND
Insulin-like growth factor binding protein 3 (IGFBP3), a member of six proteins with a high affinity for insulin-like growth factors (IGFs), seems to modulate the effects of IGFs on cells and to regulate cell proliferation through the IGF-independent pathway. We assessed the role of IGFBP3 in the colorectal carcinoma detected by cDNA microarray.
METHODS
To identify molecular alterations in the colorectal carcinoma, we analyzed gene expression profiles of the colorectal adenocarcinoma by means of a cDNA microarray representing 7,500 genes. Of the differentially expressed genes, the author assessed the insulin-like growth factor binding protein 3 (IGFBP3) gene at the protein level using immunohistochemistry.
RESULTS
The expressions of 21 and 16 genes were noted to have more than fivefold increases or decreases in the colonic adenocarcinoma tissue compared with the noncancerous colonic mucosal tissue. The differentially expressed genes include those associated with cell proliferation/apoptosis, signal transduction/transcription, metabolizing enzymes, cytoskeleton, angiogenesis, ion channel, extracellular matrix and others. Of the total 68 cases of colorectal adenocarcinomas observed, 34 cases (50%) showed positive immunohistochemical stainings for IGFBP3.
CONCLUSIONS
In this study, it is suggested that IGFBP3 plays a role in colorectal carcinogenesis. And combining an immunohistochemistry with a cDNA microarray can facillitate the rapid characterization of a candidate novel molecular target.
Methylation Status of Epstein-Barr Virus Major Latent Promoter C in NK/T-cell Lymphoma and Peripheral T-cell Lymphoma.
Ji Eun Kim, Young A Kim, Sung Shin Park, Yoon Kyoun Jeon, Seung Sook Lee, Chul Woo Kim
Korean J Pathol. 2003;37(3):174-179.
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AbstractAbstract PDF
BACKGROUND
Both the Natural killer/T-cell lymphoma (NKTL) and the peripheral T-cell lymphoma (PTCL) are relatively prevalent in the Asian population, and they are strongly associated with the Epstein-Barr virus (EBV). These two diseases have several common pathologic features, but show somewhat different clinical presentations. The critical point in terms of differentiating of these disease groups might be the impact of EBV in pathogenesis, and the variable gene expression of EBV regulated by a major latent C promoter (Cp).
METHODS
We investigated 43 cases of NKTL and 30 cases of PTCL to evaluate EBV associated characteristics. EBV in situ hybridization was performed in all of the submitted cases. In the EBV positive cases, the methylation status of Cp which drives the expression of immunodominant viral nuclear protein, was examined by sensitive methylation specific PCR using paraffin embedded tissue.
RESULTS
EBV was found in 70% (30/43) of NKTL and 43% (13/30) of PTCL. Nasal and gastrointestinal lymphomas were predominantly NKTL. All of the successfully amplified cases of EBV positive NKTL and PTCL were of methylated Cp status.
CONCLUSIONS
The detection rate of EBV is high in NKTL, especially in the nasal area. The constantly methylated EBV Cp reflects the major role of Cp in regulating the EBV latency pattern and in helping EBV to avoid host immune system in both NKTL and PTCL.
Expression of the Thyroid Transcription Factor-1 in Carcinomas of Salivary Gland Type and Pulmonary Adenocarcinomas.
Jong Sun Choi, Jeong Wook Seo, Jin Won Seo, Joungho Han
Korean J Pathol. 2003;37(3):180-185.
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AbstractAbstract PDF
BACKGROUND
Carcinomas of salivary gland type (CSGT) in the low respiratory tract are rare and often difficult to differentiate from pulmonary adenocarcinomas, which are more common and more aggressive than CSGT, especially in the biopsy specimens. Thyroid transcription factor-1 (TTF-1) is a tissue-specific transcription factor expressed in the thyroid gland and the lung. The purpose of this study is to elucidate the diagnostic utility of TTF-1 in discerning CSGT from adenocarcinomas in the low respiratory tract.
METHODS
Immunohistochemical expression of TTF-1 was investigated in 14 CSGT (9 mucoepidermoid carcinomas and 5 adenoid cystic carcinomas) and 19 adenocarcinomas (5 well differentiated, 12 moderately differentiated and 2 poorly differentiated).
RESULTS
Normal alveolar cells as well as bronchial epithelial cells showed the immunoreactivity for TTF-1, but not in the bronchial glands. In tumors, immunoreactivity for TTF-1 was identified in 17 out of 19 cases of adenocarcinomas (89%), but in none of 14 cases of CSGT. In adenocarcinomas, the immunoreactivity for TTF-1 was strongly correlated with the degree of differentiation (p<0.001).
CONCLUSIONS
These results suggest that TTF-1 can be a valuable marker in distinguishing CSGT from adenocarcinomas of the low respiratory tract.
Expression of p53, Rb, bcl-2 Proteins and Ki-67 Labeling Index in Intrahepatic Cholangiocarcinoma .
Mi Jin Gu, Joon Hyuk Choi, Hong Jin Kim, Sung Soo Yun
Korean J Pathol. 2003;37(3):186-192.
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AbstractAbstract PDF
BACKGROUND
The development and progression of a tumor can be determined by a complex multistep process involving the activation of oncogenes and the inactivation of tumor suppressor genes. The purpose of this study is to investigate the expression of p53, Rb, bcl-2 protein and Ki-67 labeling index in the intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma. METHODS: We analyzed 36 cases of intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma obtained by surgical resection. Expression of p53, Rb, bcl-2 proteins and Ki-67 labeling index were evaluated by immunohistochemical study.
RESULTS
Expression of p53 protein was detected in 61.1% (22/36) of cholangiocarcinoma. Rb protein loss and overexpression were observed 27.8% (7/36) and 72.2% (29/36) of cholangiocarcinoma. But bcl-2 protein was not expressed. No significant correlation was found between p53, Rb and bcl-2 protein expression and age, sex, gross type, histologic grade, vascular invasion and lymph node metastases. The Ki-67 labeling index was significantly higher in p53 positive group and Rb overexpression group than in p53 negative group (p<0.01) and Rb loss group (p<0.05). There was a positive correlation between p53 protein and Rb protein expressions, but a negative correlation between Rb protein and bcl-2 protein expressions.
CONCLUSIONS
The overexpression of p53 protein and Rb protein may be closely associated with cholangiocarcinogenesis, while bcl-2 has a less crucial role in cholangiocarcinogenesis.
Isolated Pulmonary Cryptococcosis: Report of Six Cases and Review of the Korean Cases.
Na Rae Kim, Seung Yeon Ha, Dong Hae Chung, Joungho Han, Kyung Soo Lee, O Jung Kwon, Kwan Min Kim
Korean J Pathol. 2003;37(3):193-198.
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AbstractAbstract PDF
BACKGROUND
Isolated pulmonary cryptococcosis is uncommon, and it can be seen in both immunocompetent and immunocompromised individuals. In Korea, twenty cases have been described thus far.
METHODS
We report six additional cases of isolated pulmonary cryptococcosis, which were diagnosed by surgical biopsies or fine needle aspiration cytology. We also reviewed the clinicoradiologic and pathologic findings of all the previously published Korean cases of isolated pulmonary cryptococcosis.
RESULTS
Only two patients out of six cases exhibited mild cough and/or fever. Radiologically, three cases presented with multiple subpleural nodules, two with a solitary pulmonary nodule, and one with patchy pneumonic infiltration. On systemic steroid therapy, one case was in severe immunocompromised status at the time of the diagnoses; but three cases had histories of gastric or uterine cervix carcinomas, raising the initial clinical impression of hematogeneous pulmonary metastatic nodules, and one case was accompanied by synchronous pulmonary adenocarcinoma. After reviewing all twenty-six cases of isolated pulmonary cryptococcosis (twenty reported in Korea and our six additional cases), the most common radiologic finding was solitary pulmonary nodule (50%), followed by subpleurally located, multiple nodules (26.9%), pneumonic infiltrates (19.2%), and pleural effusion with thickened pleura (3.8%). Two cases were also accompanied by hilar lymphadenopathy (7.7%). Clinically, presenting symptoms varied: 18 of 26 cases (69.2%) were accompanied by cough and mild fever, but 8 of 26 cases (30.8%) were entirely asymptomatic.
CONCLUSIONS
Since isolated pulmonary cryptococcosis presents itself with nonspecific clinicoradiologic findings, early recognition and differentiation from malignant tumors and pulmonary tuberculosis -the most common causes of solitary pulmonary nodules in Korea- are important to avoiding unnecessary treatment.
Case Reports
Renal Malakoplakia with Secondary Hepatic Extension: A Case Report.
Dong Eun Sung, Eunsil Yu, Chung Su Kim, Jae Y Ro
Korean J Pathol. 2003;37(3):199-203.
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AbstractAbstract PDF
Renal malakoplakia (RM) with secondary hepatic involvement is extremely rare. There are only two cases reported in literature. We report the first case of RM with secondary hepatic extension in Korea. A 70-year-old woman had a history of long-term oral steroids intake. A radical nephrectomy and a segmental hepatectomy were performed under the clinical impression of a renal cell carcinoma with hepatic extension on the dynamic liver computed tomography. The gross specimen revealed a lobulated yellowish-tan, soft mass (9 X 8 X 5 cm) with hepatic involvement in the upper pole of the right kidney. The hematoxylin and eosin, Prucian blue and von-Kossa stainings, and electron microscopy demonstrated the classical histologic features of malakoplakia with Von Hansemann histiocytes containing Michaelis-Gutmann bodies. The patient is well 5 months after surgery. This case emphasizes that initial diagnoses can be difficult because of the rare occurrence of RM and its resemblance to renal cell carcinoma with hepatic extension.
Primary Mucinous Cystic Neoplasm of the Retroperitoneum: A Report of Three Cases.
Dong Eun Song, Mi Jung Kim, Shin Kwang Shin, Eunsil Yu, Kyung Ja Cho
Korean J Pathol. 2003;37(3):204-209.
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AbstractAbstract PDF
Primary mucinous cystic neoplasms of the retroperitoneum in women are rare and show histologic features similar to their ovarian or pancreatic counterparts. We present three cases of primary retroperitoneal mucinous neoplasms of variable malignant potentials including a cystadenocarcinoma in a 50-year-old woman, a cystic neoplasm of borderline malignancy in a 31-year-old woman, and a cystadenoma in a 67-year-old woman. All cases showed histologic features similar to mucinous tumors of the ovary. Immunohistochemical study demonstrated positivity for calretinin in case 3. The histogenesis of these neoplasms can be assumed most likely to be mucinous metaplasia of the mesothelium or undetected heterotopic pancreatic tissue. Appropriate management is thought to be the same as for analogous ovarian neoplasms.
Pleomorphic Liposarcoma of the Kidney: A Case Report.
Mi Jung Kim, Hyun Lyoung Koo, Sun Young Jun, Jae Y Ro
Korean J Pathol. 2003;37(3):210-213.
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AbstractAbstract PDF
Although the liposarcoma is a common malignant mesenchymal tumor of the retroperitoneum, its occurrence in the kidney is very rare. A few cases involving only the renal parenchyma have been reported. The histologic features of these cases are not different from those of other body sites. We report a case of pleomorphic liposarcoma arising in the kidney of a 36-year-old man. He had been suffering from pain in the right flank for two weeks. A computed tomographic scan demonstrated a large mass in the right kidney. He underwent a radical nephrectomy under the clinical impression of renal cell carcinoma. There was a 11 cm-sized well demarcated solid mass in the lower pole of the right kidney. Microscopically, the tumor consisted of pleomorphic spindle and epithelioid cells with focal areas showing distinct adipocytic differentiation and geographic necrosis. A few diagnostic lipoblasts were present. Despite extensive search on samples, no carcinomatous component was found. Immunohistochemically, all of the tumor cells were negative for cytokeratin but positive for vimentin. Lipoblasts were positive for S-100 protein as well as for vimentin. When the kidney tumor is exclusively sarcomatous, a generous sampling with proper immunohistochemical staining is recommended to differentiate a primary sarcoma of the kidney from a sarcomatoid carcinoma.
Sinonasal Undifferentiated Carcinoma: A Case Report.
Hwal Woong Kim, Gyung Hyuck Ko, Chul Woo Kim
Korean J Pathol. 2003;37(3):214-217.
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AbstractAbstract PDF
Sinonasal undifferentiated carcinoma (SNUC) is a rare, aggressive neoplasm arising in the nasal cavity and paranasal sinuses. We report a case of SNUC in an old woman. The tumor was located at the nasal cavity and ethmoid sinus, extending to the cranial cavity. The nasopharynx was free from the tumor. Microscopically, the tumor formed nests or sheets containing medium-sized cells with small amounts of eosinophilic cytoplasm. High mitotic rates and tumor necrosis were characteristic. There was no evidence of glandular or squamous differentiation. The tumor was focally weak positive for cytokeratin, but negative for vimentin, leukocyte common antigen, S-100 protein, chromogranin, synaptophysin and neuron specific enolase. Epstein Barr Virus EBER-1 was not detected by in situ hybridization. SNUC is a highly aggressive tumor and must be distinguished from less aggressive sinonasal neoplasms.
Primary Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Ovary: A Case Report.
Ho Sung Park, Kyu Yun Jang, Myoung Ja Chung, Dong Geun Lee, Myoung Jae Kang
Korean J Pathol. 2003;37(3):218-220.
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AbstractAbstract PDF
Most cases of primary squamous cell carcinoma of the ovary are associated with mature teratoma or Brenner tumor, and a few cases are related to endometriosis of the ovary. But a few cases of ovarian primary squamous cell carcinoma have occurred without clear associated etiology. Although some of them are concurred with cervical carcinoma in situ, they have not shown clear associations with the ovarian primary squamous cell carcinoma. We report a case of primary squamous cell carcinoma of the ovary appearing in pure form. A left ovarian mass was detected in a 43-year-old woman. A total hysterectomy and bilateral adnexectomy with regional lymph node dissection were performed. Histologically, the tumor was predominantly composed of polygonal tumor cells with keratinization and intercellular bridge, dyskeratotic cells, necrotic cell debris, and inflammatory cells. Also, metastasis to paraaortic lymph node was detected.
Mucinous Adenocarcinoma of the Prostate: A Case Report.
Hyun Jin Son, Jae Sin Jeong, Woo Sung Moon, Myoung Jae Kang
Korean J Pathol. 2003;37(3):221-223.
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AbstractAbstract PDF
The diagnosis of mucinous adenocarcinoma of the prostate (MAP) requires that at least 25% of the tumor consists of pools of extracellular mucin. According to the above criteria, MAP is rare and about 70 cases have been reported in literature. Here we report a case of MAP arising in a 70-year-old man. In the present case, the proportion of the mucinous component was up to 95% of the total tumor volume, and Gleason's score is 8 (4+4). The tumor cells were prostatic specific antigen (PSA)-immunoreactive in mucinous and nonmucinous components. Despite the mucin pools, the tumor cells themselves failed to stain with any of the mucin stains.

JPTM : Journal of Pathology and Translational Medicine