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Volume 45(3); June 2011
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Original Articles
The Analysis of Co-authorship and Networks among the Korean Pathologists.
Jin Oh Kang, Seo Hyun Park, Yong Koo Park
Korean J Pathol. 2011;45(3):227-236.
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4132/KoreanJPathol.2011.45.3.227
  • 2,540 View
  • 19 Download
  • 3 Citations
AbstractAbstract PDF
BACKGROUND
To evaluate the characteristics of the co-authorship and its network within the Korean Pathologists' Society.
METHODS
In the KoreaMed database, 11,420 articles and 72,478 authors from 1991 to 2010 were searched. The patterns of co-authorship of the authors and institutions were analyzed to build a network matrix. The network centrality indices were measured with UCINET 6.0 and sociogram, and were drawn with Netdraw 5.0. KeyPlayer 1.44 was used for key player analysis.
RESULTS
The number of articles that pathologist participated in increased; however, the number of articles that the pathologists are the first author did not increase. The centrality degrees from 1991 to 2010 were 4.16% and 0.3% for the institutions and authors network, respectively. From 1991 to 2000, Seoul National University had the highest degree of centrality and was a key player. However, from 2001 to 2010, Ulsan replaced the position. For the authors, Chi, Je Geun was highest centrality author and key player during the 1991 to 2000 time period. From 2001 to 2010, Yoo, Jinyoung had the highest degree of centrality and Kim, Na Rae was a key player. Overall, most of the centrality indices were occupied by only a few institutions and authors.
CONCLUSIONS
The network among the pathologist society is a typical small world society.
Podocyte Expression of Osteopontin and FSP-1/S100A4 in Human Crescentic Glomerulonephritis.
Ghil Suk Yoon, Tae Sook Kim
Korean J Pathol. 2011;45(3):237-246.
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4132/KoreanJPathol.2011.45.3.237
  • 2,609 View
  • 18 Download
AbstractAbstract PDF
BACKGROUND
Osteopontin (OPN) is a cytokine associated with a cell-matrix via integrins. Fibroblast specific protein-1 (FSP-1), known as S100A4, has been implicated in cell migration by non-muscle myosin. We investigated whether the role of OPN and FSP-1/S100A4 expression in their contribution to the podocyte phenotype change to form podocyte bridge and cellular crescent.
METHODS
Glomerular expression of OPN and FSP-1/S100A4 in renal biopsies of 16 patients with crescentic glomerulonephritis (CrGN) and 13 normal renal biopsies were studied by immunohistochemistry.
RESULTS
The expression of OPN and FSP-1/S100A4 was increased in the podocytes of glomeruli, with and without crescents, in patients with CrGN. Neither OPN nor FSP-1/S100A4 was expressed in glomeruli from the normal controls (p<0.01). A significant positive correlation was found between the expression of OPN in glomerular tufts and cellular crescents, and the expression of OPN and FSP-1/S100A4 in glomerular tufts (p<0.05).
CONCLUSIONS
The results suggest that OPN plays a role in early podocyte attachment to Bowman's capsule, and FSP-1/S100A4 potentiate podocyte contribution to cellular crescent formation by inducing cellular migration and growth.
Alteration of Apoptosis-Related Proteins (Apaf-1, Caspase-9, Bcl-2, p53, and Survivin) According to Malignant Progression in Cutaneous Melanocytic Lesions.
Yeo Ju Kang, Ji Han Jung, Kwnag Il Yim, Kyo Young Lee, Youn Soo Lee, Seok Jin Kang, Chang Suk Kang, Si Yong Kim
Korean J Pathol. 2011;45(3):247-253.
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4132/KoreanJPathol.2011.45.3.247
  • 2,669 View
  • 17 Download
AbstractAbstract PDF
BACKGROUND
Apoptosis protease activating factor-1 (Apaf-1), caspase-9, Bcl-2, p53, and survivin are important factors in the pathway of apoptosis, but their clinicopathologic significance remains unclear in human cutaneous melanoma. We investigated the expression of these proteins and their clinical value in human cutaneous melanocytic lesions.
METHODS
We performed an immunohistochemical analysis to examine the expression and distribution of Apaf-1, caspase-9, Bcl-2, p53, and survivin in 36 cases of malignant melanoma (22 cases of primary melanoma and 14 cases of metastatic melanoma) and 41 cases of melanocytic nevus.
RESULTS
The expression of p53 was significantly higher in malignant melanoma than in melanocytic nevus (p<0.01), however the expressions of Apaf-1 and caspase-9 were significantly lower in malignant melanoma compared with melanocytic nevus (p<0.01 and p=0.027, respectively). Also, there was a significant difference for Bcl-2 staining between primary melanomas and metastatic lesions (p=0.004). Nuclear staining for survivin were absent in nevus, but were positive in 14 of 36 melanomas (p<0.01).
CONCLUSIONS
The altered expression of Apaf-1, caspase-9, p53, and survivin are considered to be related to malignant progression in human cutaneous melanocytic lesions. Loss of Bcl-2 can be considered as a prognostic marker of malignant melanomas.
WHO Classification of Malignant Lymphomas in Korea: Report of the Third Nationwide Study.
Jin Man Kim, Young Hyeh Ko, Seung Sook Lee, Jooryung Huh, Chang Suk Kang, Chul Woo Kim, Yun Kyung Kang, Jai Hyang Go, Min Kyung Kim, Wan Seop Kim, Yoon Jung Kim, Hyun Jung Kim, Hee Kyung Kim, Jong Hee Nam, Hyung Bae Moon, Chan Kum Park, Tae In Park, Young Ha Oh, Dong Wha Lee, Jong Sil Lee, Juhie Lee, Hyekyung Lee, Sung Chul Lim, Kyu Yun Jang, Hee Kyung Chang, Yoon Kyung Jeon, Hye Ra Jung, Min Sun Cho, Hee Jeong Cha, Suk Jin Choi, Jae Ho Han, Sook Hee Hong, Insun Kim
Korean J Pathol. 2011;45(3):254-260.
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4132/KoreanJPathol.2011.45.3.254
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  • 62 Citations
AbstractAbstract PDF
BACKGROUND
The aim of study was to determine the relative frequency of malignant lymphoma according to World Health Organization (WHO) classification in Korea.
METHODS
A total of 3,998 cases diagnosed at 31 institutes between 2005 and 2006 were enrolled. Information including age, gender, pathologic diagnosis, site of involvement and immunophenotypes were obtained.
RESULTS
The relative frequency of non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) and Hodgkin lymphoma (HL) was 95.4% and 4.6%, respectively. B-cell lymphomas accounted for 77.6% of all NHL, while T/natural killer (T/NK)-cell lymphomas accounted for 22.4%. The most frequent subtypes of NHL were diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (42.7%), extranodal marginal zone B-cell lymphoma (MZBCL) of mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (19.0%), NK/T-cell lymphoma (6.3%) and peripheral T-cell lymphoma (PTCL), unspecified (6.3%), in decreasing order. The relative frequency of HL was nodular sclerosis (47.4%), mixed cellularity (30.6%), and nodular lymphocyte predominant (12.1%) subtypes. Compared with a previous study in 1998, increase in gastric MZBCL and nodular sclerosis HL, and slight decrease of follicular lymphoma, PTCL, and NK/T-cell lymphoma were observed.
CONCLUSIONS
Korea had lower rates of HL and follicular lymphoma, and higher rates of extranodal NHL, extranodal MZBCL, and NK/T-cell lymphoma of nasal type compared with Western countries. Changes in the relative frequency of lymphoma subtypes are likely ascribed to refined diagnostic criteria and a change in national health care policy.
Telomerase Activity in Urethane-Induced Mouse Lung Tumorigenesis.
Ji Sun Song, Soon Hee Jung, Sang Yeop Yi, Hwa Eun Oh, Mee Yon Cho, Kwang Hwa Park
Korean J Pathol. 2011;45(3):261-270.
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4132/KoreanJPathol.2011.45.3.261
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  • 1 Citations
AbstractAbstract PDF
BACKGROUND
Telomerase activity in precancerous conditions of lung adenocarcinomas has not been well studied. This study is designed to investigate the role of telomerase in premalignant lesions of urethane-induced mouse lung adenocarcinoma.
METHODS
We harvested A/J mouse lung tissues at 3, 6, 9, 12, 28, 41, and 48 weeks after intraperitoneal urethane treatment, and classified each lesion in terms of histologic findings. We examined telomerase activity using a modified version of the telomeric repeat amplification protocol assay using both gel-based and enzyme linked immunosorbent assay methods. An immunohistochemical analysis of proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) was performed.
RESULTS
In urethane-induced mouse lung tissues, it was sequentially developed from hyperplasia, adenoma, and eventually to adenocarcinoma. Telomerase activity began to show a positive level in tissues with no histologically visible nodule after urethane administration. It revealed a statistically significant increase in hyperplasia compared to the "control" lung tissue (p<0.05), which was proportionally elevated relative to adenoma and adenocarcinoma. There was a direct correlation between telomerase activity and the PCNA labeling index (p<0.05).
CONCLUSIONS
The elevation of telomerase activity in normal-appearing lung lesions is thought to be a possible marker of early detection of pulmonary adenocarcinoma.
Copy Number Alterations of BCAS1 in Squamous Cell Carcinomas.
Yu Im Kim, Ahwon Lee, Jennifer Kim, Bum Hee Lee, Sung Hak Lee, Suk Woo Nam, Sug Hyung Lee, Won Sang Park, Nam Jin Yoo, Jung Young Lee, Sang Ho Kim, Su Young Kim
Korean J Pathol. 2011;45(3):271-275.
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4132/KoreanJPathol.2011.45.3.271
  • 2,664 View
  • 12 Download
  • 1 Citations
AbstractAbstract PDF
BACKGROUND
Breast carcinoma amplified sequence 1 (BCAS1), located in 20q13, is amplified and overexpressed in breast cancers. Even though BCAS1 is expected to be an oncogene candidate, its contribution to tumorigenesis and copy number status in other malignancies is not reported. To elucidate the role of BCAS1 in squamous cell carcinomas, we investigated the copy number status and expression level of BCAS1 in several squamous cell carcinoma cell lines, normal keratinocytes and primary tumors.
METHODS
We quantitated BCAS1 gene by real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Expression level of BCAS1 was measured by real-time reverse transcription-PCR and immunoblot.
RESULTS
Seven (88%) of 8 squamous cell carcinoma cell lines showed copy number gain of BCAS1 with various degrees. BCAS1 gene in primary tumors (73%) also showed copy number gain. However, expression level did not show a linear correlation with copy number changes.
CONCLUSIONS
We identified copy number gain of BCAS1 in squamous cell carcinomas. Due to lack of linear correlation between copy numbers of BCAS1 and its expression level, we could not confirm that the overexpression of BCAS1 is a common finding in squamous cell carcinoma cell lines. However, this study shows that the copy number gain of BCAS1 is a common finding in squamous cell carcinomas.
SSTR2A Protein Expression in Neuroendocrine Neoplasms of the Colorectum.
Young Eun Kim, Jeeyun Lee, Young Suk Park, Kyoung Mee Kim
Korean J Pathol. 2011;45(3):276-280.
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4132/KoreanJPathol.2011.45.3.276
  • 2,775 View
  • 13 Download
AbstractAbstract PDF
BACKGROUND
Expression studies of somatostatin receptor type 2A (SSTR2A) in neuroendocrine neoplasms (NENs) led to the development of clinically relevant diagnostic and therapeutic strategies. However, most of these strategies used in-house-developed antibodies and were focused on lung tumors. We evaluated commercially available SSTR2A antibodies in NENs of the colorectum to observe their subcellular localization and distribution within the resected tumor.
METHODS
The immunohistochemistry of 77 NENs located in the colorectum were studied using a commercially available antibody against SSTR2A.
RESULTS
Most neuroendocrine tumors (NET) grade (G)1 and G2 expressed the SSTR2A in the cytoplasm with apical or luminal localization. However, all neuroendocrine carcinomas (NEC) G3 were negative for SSTR2A.
CONCLUSIONS
Our data indicate that SSTR2A immunohistochemistry shows cytoplasmic staining with distinct subcellular localization in most NET G1 in the colorectum using a commercially available antibody. Low or no expression of SSTR2A in NET G2 and NEC G3 raises the possibility that SSTR2A may correlate with histologic differentiation and proliferative activity. Further validation studies in large case series are needed.
Expression of Multidrug Resistance Protein 1 in Human Hepatocellular Carcinoma.
Yun Kyung Kang
Korean J Pathol. 2011;45(3):281-289.
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4132/KoreanJPathol.2011.45.3.281
  • 2,713 View
  • 14 Download
AbstractAbstract PDF
BACKGROUND
Multidrug resistance protein 1 (MDR1) encoded by ATP-binding cassette, sub-family B (Mdr/Tap), member 1 (ABCB1) mediates cross-resistance to antineoplastic drugs, and its expression is related to tumor aggressiveness.
METHODS
MDR1 expression was investigated in 100 hepatocellular carcinomas (HCCs) by immunohistochemical staining. The epigenetic mechanisms underlying ABCB1 transcriptional regulation were investigated in cell lines.
RESULTS
MDR1 was normally localized in the bile canalicular surface of the hepatocytes. Among 100 HCCs, 45 showed canalicular/luminal (CL) staining similar to the normal pattern, another 45 displayed membranous/cytoplasmic (MC) overexpression, and the remaining 10 revealed loss of expression. MC pattern or null staining of HCCs correlated with a higher histological grade and had a poorer prognosis than HCCs with a CL pattern (p<0.05). They also tended to have a poor prognosis by multivariate survival analysis. The ABCB1 promoter was hypomethylated regardless of MDR1 expression or ABCB1 mRNA levels in 10 HCC cell lines. Histone deacetylase inhibitor treatment induced ABCB1 upregulation in 4 cell lines with low or moderate ABCB1 levels.
CONCLUSIONS
Our findings suggest that either an increase or a loss of MDR1 expression may contribute to the poor outcome of HCCs; histone deacetylation may be one of the epigenetic mechanisms directing the ABCB1 expression in HCCs.
The Usefulness of p16INK4a Immunocytochemical Staining in ASC-H Patients.
Kwang Il Yim, Yeo Ju Kang, Tae Eun Kim, Gyeongsin Park, Eun Sun Jung, Yeong Jin Choi, Kyo Young Lee, Chang Seok Kang, Ahwon Lee
Korean J Pathol. 2011;45(3):290-295.
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4132/KoreanJPathol.2011.45.3.290
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AbstractAbstract PDF
BACKGROUND
The grey zone of cervical cytology, and in particular atypical squamous cells, cannot exclude HSIL (ASC-H) causes diagnostic difficulties and increases medical expenses. We analyzed p16INK4a expression in ASC-H liquid-based cytology specimens (LBCS) to develop more effective methods for the management of ASC-H patients.
METHODS
We carried out p16INK4a immunostaining with 57 LBCS of ASC-H diagnostic categories, all of which were histologically cofirmed and 43 cases of which were compared with the results of a human papillomavirus (HPV) chip test.
RESULTS
p16INK4a immunostaining with ASC-H LBCS was positive in 20% (3/15) of cervicitis, 25.0% (3/12) of tissue-low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion, 75.0% (18/24) of tissue-high grade squamous intraepithelial lesion (HSIL), and 100% (6/6) of invasive cancer cases. The positivity of p16INK4a in LBCS was correlated with higher grade of histologic diagnosis (r=0.578, p=0.000). The sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value (PPV), and negative predictive value (NPV) of p16INK4a immunostaining for the prediction of tissue-HSIL+ were 80.0%, 77.8%, 80.0%, and 77.8%, respectively. The sensitivity, specificity, PPV, and NPV of p16INK4a immunostaining plus HPV chip test for predicting tissue-HSIL+ were 71.2%, 86.4%, 84.2%, and 79.2%.
CONCLUSIONS
p16INK4a immunostaining as well as HPV chip testing with remaining LBCS with ASC-H are useful objective markers for the prediction of tissue-HSIL+.
Comparison of Conventional Smear, Cell Block and Liquid-based Preparation in the Evaluation of Bronchial Washing Specimen in Lung Cancer Patients.
Hyunee Yim, Hee Jae Joo, Young Bae Kim, Soon Won Hong
Korean J Pathol. 2011;45(3):296-302.
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4132/KoreanJPathol.2011.45.3.296
  • 3,514 View
  • 105 Download
  • 2 Citations
AbstractAbstract PDF
BACKGROUND
The preparation of conventional smears (CS) from mucoid samples, despite mucolysis, can pose difficulties for cytotechnologists or cytopathologists. In recent years, liquid-based cytology (LBC) devices have been developed in attempts to improve the cytopreparation process. LBC improves both sample collection and sample preparation. Cell block preparations (CB) can be made from residual tissue fluids, and are a useful adjunct to smears.
METHODS
We retrospectively reviewed 3 preparations from 209 patients whose diagnosis was later confirmed via bronchoscopic biopsy, fine needle aspiration, gun biopsy or operation. Each case was categorized into one of three groups: "negative," "atypical or suspicious" and "malignant." RESULTS: When conflating the "atypical" and "malignant" categories into a "positive" category, the sensitivity of each preparation was 74.4% in LBC, 72.9% in CS, and 76.5% in CB preparations. Specificity was 98.7%, 94.7% and 98.7%, respectively. By combining LBC and CB, the sensitivity is 78.2%.
CONCLUSIONS
Among three different preparation methods, sensitivity is highest in the CB method. LBC has many advantages in evaluating cell morphology and by combining CB method, the sensitivity can be improved slightly. The application of all three methods may prove helpful when one or another method proves diagnostically inconclusive.
Case Reports
Mature Cystic Teratoma of the Fallopian Tube: A Brief Case Report.
Woo Jung Sung, Jun Mo Kim, Mi Jin Kim
Korean J Pathol. 2011;45(3):303-305.
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4132/KoreanJPathol.2011.45.3.303
  • 4,778 View
  • 17 Download
  • 1 Citations
AbstractAbstract PDF
Mature cystic teratomas of the fallopian tube are unusual, being almost incidentally identified. Here we describe a case of mature cystic teratoma arising in the fallopian tube, in a 44-year-old female. The mass was found during a regular checkup without complication. Microscopically, components from each germ layer were identified.
Composite Pheochromocytoma or Paraganglioma of Adrenal Gland: A Case Report with Immunohistochemical Studies and Electron Microscopic Examination.
Hyeyoon Chang, Hoiseon Jeong, Younghye Kim, Sung Hye Park, Aeree Kim
Korean J Pathol. 2011;45(3):306-310.
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4132/KoreanJPathol.2011.45.3.306
  • 2,642 View
  • 27 Download
  • 1 Citations
AbstractAbstract PDF
Composite pheochromocytoma or paraganglioma of the adrenal gland is a well-recognized, yet extremely rare tumor with only one case reported in Korea. We report a case of incidentally found composite pheochromocytoma and ganglioneuroma of the adrenal gland in a 44-year-old female composed of intermingled components of pheochromocytom, ganglioneuroma, and cells with intermediate features. On immunohistochemical staining, the pheochromocytoma component was positive for synaptophysin and chromogranin, but negative for S-100 protein. Staining for the S-100 protein revealed sustentacular cells which formed a peripheral coat around the "Zellballen" and Schwann cells. The Fontana-Masson stain defined neuromelanin granules of ganglion cells and the ganglion cells expressed neural markers such as neurofilament proteins. Ultrastructural findings revealed pheochromocytes with a round or ovoid nucleus and occasionally prominent nucleolus containing numerous adrenaline and noradrenaline granules.
A Case of Intimal Sarcoma Arising in the Left Common Iliac Artery.
Ji Young Park, Kun Young Kwon, Hyoung Tae Kim, Sang Sook Lee
Korean J Pathol. 2011;45(3):311-314.
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4132/KoreanJPathol.2011.45.3.311
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AbstractAbstract PDF
Primary tumors of the great vessels are rare. Most encountered cases are sarcomas which most commonly develop in the aorta, pulmonary artery, and inferior vena cava. We experienced an intimal sarcoma arising in the left common iliac artery in a 68-year-old male, who suffered from claudication in his left lower extremity for a year and was diagnosed as arteriosclerosis obliterans, clinically. Bypass surgery was performed on the obstructive lesion. Grossly, the vascular lumen was filled with dark hemorrhagic materials. Microscopically, the lesion showed proliferation of anaplastic spindle cells with a marked nuclear atypia, arranged haphazardly. There were numerous mitotic figures. Foci of cholesterol clefts were also found in the intima. Immunohistochemically, the tumor cells were positive for vimentin, smooth muscle actin, and cytokeratin in certain areas. Stains for CD34, desmin, myosin heavy chain, caldesmon, and S-100 protein were negative. A pathologic diagnosis was made as intimal sarcoma with myofibroblastic differentiation.
Solitary Fibrous Tumor of the Conjunctiva with Heretofore Undescribed Pathologic Findings.
Na Rae Kim, Jae Y Ro, Kyung Hwan Shin, Hae Jung Paik, Jung Suk An, Seung Yeon Ha
Korean J Pathol. 2011;45(3):315-318.
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4132/KoreanJPathol.2011.45.3.315
  • 2,699 View
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  • 1 Citations
AbstractAbstract PDF
A 37-year-old female presented with a conjunctival mass discovered 3 years prior. An excisional biopsy revealed a patternless proliferation of round and spindle-shaped cells with an eosinophilic fibrillary cytoplasm and vesicular nuclei with occasional inclusions. Psammoma bodies were arranged around the dilated irregularly-shaped vessels. Differential diagnoses included conjunctival solitary fibrous tumor (SFT), nevus, glomangioma, ectopic meningioma, and mesectodermal leiomyoma. The tumor cells were immunoreactive for CD34, CD99, bcl-2 and vimentin, and were negative for smooth muscle actin, desmin, glial fibrillary acidic protein, S-100 protein, epithelial membrane antigen, and human melanoma black-45. Ultrastructurally, the tumor cells had rough endoplasmic reticulum, free ribosomes, and scattered mitochondria without basal lamina or cellular junctions, which are features of fibroblasts. A diagnosis of SFT was rendered based on the light microscopic, immunohistochemical, and electron microscopic findings. We report here on the second case of a SFT arising in the conjunctiva, which clinically and histologically mimics conjunctival nevus, glomangioma, ectopic meningioma, and a hybrid neurogenic-myogenic tumor such as mesectodermal leiomyoma.
A Fibroma with Cystic Change Developing in an Accessory Ovary: A Brief Case Report.
Ae Ri Kim, Woo Jung Sung, Mi Jin Kim
Korean J Pathol. 2011;45(3):319-321.
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4132/KoreanJPathol.2011.45.3.319
  • 2,426 View
  • 23 Download
  • 1 Citations
AbstractAbstract PDF
Accessory ovaries are rare entities defined as small portions of ovarian tissue situated near, and connected to, the normally placed ovary. Tumors arising in accessory ovaries are extremely rare. In particular, a fibroma arising from an accessory ovary has not been reported in the literature. We describe such a case with a fibroma developing in an accessory ovary. A 53-year-old multiparous woman presented with abdominal pain for 2 months. Pelvic computed tomography revealed 11.0x8.0x6.0 cm sized cystic mass with a thick septal wall in right adnexa. The preoperative diagnosis was a borderline ovarian tumor. Furthermore, a laparotomy showed a cystic mass connected to the right ovary by stalk. The bilateral eutopic ovaries were completely normal. Histologically, an accessory ovary was replaced by a fibroma accompanied by extensive cystic change.

JPTM : Journal of Pathology and Translational Medicine