Skip Navigation
Skip to contents

JPTM : Journal of Pathology and Translational Medicine



Page Path
HOME > Search
15 "Diseases"
Article category
Publication year
Funded articles
Single-cell and spatial sequencing application in pathology
Yoon-Seob Kim, Jinyong Choi, Sug Hyung Lee
J Pathol Transl Med. 2023;57(1):43-51.   Published online January 10, 2023
  • 958 View
  • 102 Download
AbstractAbstract PDF
Traditionally, diagnostic pathology uses histology representing structural alterations in a disease’s cells and tissues. In many cases, however, it is supplemented by other morphology-based methods such as immunohistochemistry and fluorescent in situ hybridization. Single-cell RNA sequencing (scRNA-seq) is one of the strategies that may help tackle the heterogeneous cells in a disease, but it does not usually provide histologic information. Spatial sequencing is designed to assign cell types, subtypes, or states according to the mRNA expression on a histological section by RNA sequencing. It can provide mRNA expressions not only of diseased cells, such as cancer cells but also of stromal cells, such as immune cells, fibroblasts, and vascular cells. In this review, we studied current methods of spatial transcriptome sequencing based on their technical backgrounds, tissue preparation, and analytic procedures. With the pathology examples, useful recommendations for pathologists who are just getting started to use spatial sequencing analysis in research are provided here. In addition, leveraging spatial sequencing by integration with scRNA-seq is reviewed. With the advantages of simultaneous histologic and single-cell information, spatial sequencing may give a molecular basis for pathological diagnosis, improve our understanding of diseases, and have potential clinical applications in prognostics and diagnostic pathology.
Case Studies
Gastric IgG4-related disease presenting as a mass lesion and masquerading as a gastrointestinal stromal tumor
Banumathi Ramakrishna, Rohan Yewale, Kavita Vijayakumar, Patta Radhakrishna, Balakrishnan Siddartha Ramakrishna
J Pathol Transl Med. 2020;54(3):258-262.   Published online March 4, 2020
  • 4,059 View
  • 138 Download
  • 4 Citations
AbstractAbstract PDF
IgG4-related disease of the stomach is a rare disorder, and only a few cases have been reported. We present two cases that were identified over a 2-month period in our center. Two male patients aged 52 and 48 years presented with mass lesion in the stomach, which were clinically thought to be gastrointestinal stromal tumor, and they underwent excision of the lesion. Microscopic examination revealed marked fibrosis, which was storiform in one case, associated with diffuse lymphoplasmacytic infiltration and an increase in IgG4-positive plasma cells on immunohistochemistry. Serum IgG4 level was markedly elevated. Although rare, IgG4-related disease should be considered in the differential diagnosis of gastric submucosal mass lesions.


Citations to this article as recorded by  
  • CGB5, INHBA and TRAJ19 Hold Prognostic Potential as Immune Genes for Patients with Gastric Cancer
    Bei Ji, Lili Qiao, Wei Zhai
    Digestive Diseases and Sciences.2023; 68(3): 791.     CrossRef
  • IgG4-related diseases of the digestive tract
    J.-Matthias Löhr, Miroslav Vujasinovic, Jonas Rosendahl, John H. Stone, Ulrich Beuers
    Nature Reviews Gastroenterology & Hepatology.2022; 19(3): 185.     CrossRef
  • Clinicopathological characteristics of gastric IgG4‐related disease: Systematic scoping review
    Haruki Sawada, Torrey Czech, Krixie Silangcruz, Landon Kozai, Adham Obeidat, Eric Andrew Wien, Midori Filiz Nishimura, Asami Nishikori, Yasuharu Sato, Yoshito Nishimura
    Journal of Gastroenterology and Hepatology.2022; 37(10): 1865.     CrossRef
  • Utility of gastric biopsy in diagnosing IgG4‐related gastrointestinal disease
    Kaori Uchino, Kenji Notohara, Takeshi Uehara, Yasuhiro Kuraishi, Junya Itakura, Akihiro Matsukawa
    Pathology International.2021; 71(2): 124.     CrossRef
IgG4-Related Disease Presented as a Mural Mass in the Stomach
Chang Gok Woo, Jeong Hwan Yook, Ah Young Kim, Jihun Kim
J Pathol Transl Med. 2016;50(1):67-70.   Published online September 30, 2015
  • 7,563 View
  • 80 Download
  • 20 Citations
AbstractAbstract PDF
Isolated gastric IgG4-related disease (IgG4-RD) is a very rare tumefactive inflammatory condition, with only a few cases reported to date. A 48-year-old woman was incidentally found to have a subepithelial tumor in the stomach. Given a presumptive diagnosis of gastrointestinal stromal tumor or neuroendocrine tumor, she underwent wedge resection. The lesion was vaguely nodular and mainly involved the submucosa and proper muscle layer. Microscopically, all classical features of type I autoimmune pancreatitis including lymphoplasmacytic infiltration, storiform fibrosis, obliterative phlebitis, and numerous IgG4-positive plasma cells were seen. She had no evidence of IgG4-RD in other organs. Although very rare, IgG4-RD should be considered one of the differential diagnoses in the setting of gastric wall thickening or subepithelial mass-like lesion. Deep biopsy with awareness of this entity might avoid unnecessary surgical intervention.


Citations to this article as recorded by  
  • IgG4-related pseudotumours: a series of 12 cases and a review of the literature
    Andrea Maccagno, Bianca Grosser, László Füzesi, Björn Konukiewitz, Dmytro Vlasenko, Dorothea Weckermann, Stephan Raab, Johannes Zenk, Abbas Agaimy, Bruno Märkl
    Pathology.2022; 54(5): 563.     CrossRef
  • IgG4-Related Disease With Gastrointestinal Involvement: Case Reports and Literature Review
    Xinhe Zhang, Xing Jin, Lin Guan, Xuyong Lin, Xuedan Li, Yiling Li
    Frontiers in Immunology.2022;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • Clinicopathological characteristics of gastric IgG4‐related disease: Systematic scoping review
    Haruki Sawada, Torrey Czech, Krixie Silangcruz, Landon Kozai, Adham Obeidat, Eric Andrew Wien, Midori Filiz Nishimura, Asami Nishikori, Yasuharu Sato, Yoshito Nishimura
    Journal of Gastroenterology and Hepatology.2022; 37(10): 1865.     CrossRef
  • Utility of gastric biopsy in diagnosing IgG4‐related gastrointestinal disease
    Kaori Uchino, Kenji Notohara, Takeshi Uehara, Yasuhiro Kuraishi, Junya Itakura, Akihiro Matsukawa
    Pathology International.2021; 71(2): 124.     CrossRef
  • A reappraisal of sclerosing nodular and/or polypoid lesions of the gastrointestinal tract rich in IgG4‐positive plasma cells
    Runjan Chetty
    Histopathology.2020; 76(6): 832.     CrossRef
  • Gastric IgG4-related disease presenting as a mass lesion and masquerading as a gastrointestinal stromal tumor
    Banumathi Ramakrishna, Rohan Yewale, Kavita Vijayakumar, Patta Radhakrishna, Balakrishnan Siddartha Ramakrishna
    Journal of Pathology and Translational Medicine.2020; 54(3): 258.     CrossRef
  • IgG4-related Sclerosing Disease Forming a Gastric Submucosal Tumor Diagnosed after Laparoscopic Endoscopic Cooperative Surgery—Report of a Case—
    Tatsuki ISHIKAWA, Katsunori NAKANO, Masafumi OSAKA, Yayoi KADOTANI, Kaori OKUGAWA, Kiyokazu AKIOKA, Kenta SHIGEMORI, Yohei HOSOKAWA
    Nihon Rinsho Geka Gakkai Zasshi (Journal of Japan Surgical Association).2020; 81(2): 254.     CrossRef
  • Calcifying fibrous tumor of the gastrointestinal tract: A clinicopathologic review and update
    Donald Turbiville, Xu-Chen Zhang
    World Journal of Gastroenterology.2020; 26(37): 5597.     CrossRef
  • A Suspected Case of IgG4-Related Appendiceal Pseudotumor
    Yudai Hojo, Yoshiharu Shirakata, Ai Izumi, Jun Matsui, Tokuyuki Yamashita, Hikaru Aoki, Makoto Kurimoto, Masaaki Hirata, Naoki Goda, Hiroaki Ito, Jun Tamura
    The Japanese Journal of Gastroenterological Surgery.2020; 53(12): 976.     CrossRef
  • Immunoglobulin G4-related gastric pseudotumor – An impostor: Case report
    Manuel Santiago Mosquera, Andrea Suarez Gómez, Hugo Herrera, Karen Moreno-Medina, Alejandro González-Orozco, Carlos J-Perez Rivera
    International Journal of Surgery Case Reports.2020; 75: 333.     CrossRef
  • Imaging and pathological features of gastric lesion of immunoglobulin G4-related disease: A case report and review of the recent literature
    Dai Inoue, Norihide Yoneda, Kotaro Yoshida, Hiromi Nuka, Jun Kinoshita, Sachio Fushida, Fumihito Toshima, Tetsuya Minami, Masayuki Takahira, Shoko Hamaoka, Hiroko Ikeda, Toshifumi Gabata, Mitsuhiro Kawano
    Modern Rheumatology.2019; 29(2): 377.     CrossRef
  • Immunoglobulin G4-Related Gastric Ulcer Mimicking Advanced Stomach Cancer in a Patient with Type I Autoimmune Pancreatitis
    Joung Ha Park, Jin Hee Noh, Jang ho Lee, Goeun Lee, Seung-Mo Hong, Kwang Bum Cho, Myung-Hwan Kim
    The Korean Journal of Medicine.2019; 94(3): 287.     CrossRef
  • Review of IgG4-related disease
    Raquel Sánchez-Oro, Elsa María Alonso-Muñoz, Lidia Martí Romero
    Gastroenterología y Hepatología (English Edition).2019; 42(10): 638.     CrossRef
  • Revisión de la enfermedad relacionada con la IgG4
    Raquel Sánchez-Oro, Elsa María Alonso-Muñoz, Lidia Martí Romero
    Gastroenterología y Hepatología.2019; 42(10): 638.     CrossRef
  • Gastrointestinal manifestation of immunoglobulin G4-related disease: clarification through a multicenter survey
    Kenji Notohara, Terumi Kamisawa, Kazushige Uchida, Yoh Zen, Mitsuhiro Kawano, Satomi Kasashima, Yasuharu Sato, Masahiro Shiokawa, Takeshi Uehara, Hajime Yoshifuji, Hiroko Hayashi, Koichi Inoue, Keisuke Iwasaki, Hiroo Kawano, Hiroyuki Matsubayashi, Yukitos
    Journal of Gastroenterology.2018; 53(7): 845.     CrossRef
  • IgG4-Related Disease Mimicking Crohn’s Disease: A Case Report and Review of Literature
    Fabiana Ciccone, Antonio Ciccone, Mirko Di Ruscio, Filippo Vernia, Gianluca Cipolloni, Gino Coletti, Giuseppe Calvisi, Giuseppe Frieri, Giovanni Latella
    Digestive Diseases and Sciences.2018; 63(4): 1072.     CrossRef
  • IgG4-related Disease in the Stomach which Was Confused with Gastrointestinal Stromal Tumor (GIST): Two Case Reports and Review of the Literature
    Ho Seok Seo, Yoon Ju Jung, Cho Hyun Park, Kyo Young Song, Eun Sun Jung
    Journal of Gastric Cancer.2018; 18(1): 99.     CrossRef
  • Multivisceral IgG4-related disease presenting as recurrent massive gastrointestinal bleeding: a case report and literature review
    Xuexue Deng, Ronghua Fang, Jianshu Zhang, Rongqiong Li
    BMC Gastroenterology.2018;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • IgG4-Related Sclerosing Disease Presenting as a Gastric Submucosal Tumor
    Takashi Masuda, Toshifumi Matsumoto, Yushi Kaishakuji, Hirotada Tajiri, Akinori Egashira, Hirofumi Kawanaka
    The Japanese Journal of Gastroenterological Surgery.2018; 51(10): 599.     CrossRef
  • A rare case of IgG4-related disease: a gastric mass, associated with regional lymphadenopathy
    Dimitar Bulanov, Elena Arabadzhieva, Sasho Bonev, Atanas Yonkov, Diana Kyoseva, Tihomir Dikov, Violeta Dimitrova
    BMC Surgery.2016;[Epub]     CrossRef
Advances in the Endoscopic Assessment of Inflammatory Bowel Diseases: Cooperation between Endoscopic and Pathologic Evaluations
Jae Hee Cheon
J Pathol Transl Med. 2015;49(3):209-217.   Published online May 15, 2015
  • 11,070 View
  • 89 Download
  • 4 Citations
AbstractAbstract PDF
Endoscopic assessment has a crucial role in the management of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). It is particularly useful for the assessment of IBD disease extension, severity, and neoplasia surveillance. Recent advances in endoscopic imaging techniques have been revolutionized over the past decades, progressing from conventional white light endoscopy to novel endoscopic techniques using molecular probes or electronic filter technologies. These new technologies allow for visualization of the mucosa in detail and monitor for inflammation/dysplasia at the cellular or sub-cellular level. These techniques may enable us to alter the IBD surveillance paradigm from four quadrant random biopsy to targeted biopsy and diagnosis. High definition endoscopy and dye-based chromoendoscopy can improve the detection rate of dysplasia and evaluate inflammatory changes with better visualization. Dye-less chromoendoscopy, including narrow band imaging, iScan, and autofluorescence imaging can also enhance surveillance in comparison to white light endoscopy with optical or electronic filter technologies. Moreover, confocal laser endomicroscopy or endocytoscopy have can achieve real-time histology evaluation in vivo and have greater accuracy in comparison with histology. These new technologies could be combined with standard endoscopy or further histologic confirmation in patients with IBD. This review offers an evidence-based overview of new endoscopic techniques in patients with IBD.


Citations to this article as recorded by  
  • Colorectal cancer in inflammatory bowel disease: review of the evidence
    D. S. Keller, A. Windsor, R. Cohen, M. Chand
    Techniques in Coloproctology.2019; 23(1): 3.     CrossRef
  • Probe-based confocal laser endomicroscopy in the differential diagnosis of inflammatory bowel diseases: a case series
    Jung Won Park, Tae Il Kim, Jae Hee Cheon
    Intestinal Research.2018; 16(4): 641.     CrossRef
  • How to Assess and Document Endoscopies in IBD Patients by Including Standard Scoring Systems
    Anna M. Buchner, Gary R. Lichtenstein
    Inflammatory Bowel Diseases.2016; 22(4): 1010.     CrossRef
  • Nodular lymphoid hyperplasia: A marker of low-grade inflammation in irritable bowel syndrome?
    Anna Chiara Piscaglia, Lucrezia Laterza, Valentina Cesario, Viviana Gerardi, Rosario Landi, Loris Riccardo Lopetuso, Giovanni Calò, Giovanna Fabbretti, Massimo Brisigotti, Maria Loredana Stefanelli, Antonio Gasbarrini
    World Journal of Gastroenterology.2016; 22(46): 10198.     CrossRef
Original Articles
Update on the Proposal for Creating a Guideline for Cancer Registration of the Gastrointestinal Tumors (I-2)
Eun Sun Jung, Yun Kyung Kang, Mee-Yon Cho, Joon Mee Kim, Won Ae Lee, Hee Eun Lee, Sunhoo Park, Jin Hee Sohn, So-Young Jin
Korean J Pathol. 2012;46(5):443-453.   Published online October 25, 2012
  • 8,421 View
  • 149 Download
  • 14 Citations
AbstractAbstract PDF

Cancer registries play a fundamental role in cancer control and multicenter collaborative research. Recently, the need for reassessment of cancer registry criteria has arisen due to the newly released 2010 World Health Organization (WHO) classification. Accordingly, development of new coding guidelines for cancer is necessary to improve the quality of cancer registries, as well as to prevent conflicts that may arise when seeking medical insurance compensation.


With funding from the Management Center for Health Promotion, 35 members of the Gastrointestinal Pathology Study Group and the Cancer Registration Committee of the Korean Society of Pathologists (KSP) participated in a second workshop for gastrointestinal tumor registration in Korea.


The topics of gastric epithelial tumor, colonic intramucosal carcinoma, neuroendocrine tumor (NET), gastrointestinal stromal tumor (GIST) and appendiceal mucinous tumor were discussed for new coding guidelines. A survey was then conducted among 208 members of the KSP for a consensus of the guidelines proposed in the workshop.


Although a few issues were set aside for further discussion, such as coding for non-gastric GIST and some types of NET, the members agreed upon most of the proposed guidelines. Therefore, we suggest using the newly revised International Classification of Diseases for Oncology, 3rd edition (ICD-O-3) coding guidelines for registering gastrointestinal tumors in Korea.


Citations to this article as recorded by  
  • Prognostic nomogram and novel risk-scoring system for small cell lung cancer with different patterns of metastases
    Hongli Ruan, Huali Sun, Yu Guo, Yan Ding, Yanmei Liu, Shenpeng Ying, Peipei Lin
    General Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery.2022; 70(12): 1022.     CrossRef
  • Development of a nomogram model to predict survival outcomes in patients with primary hepatic neuroendocrine tumors based on SEER database
    Ziteng Zhang, Xin Zhao, Zhiyan Li, Youchun Wu, Yao Liu, Zhiwei Li, Guobao Li
    BMC Cancer.2021;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • Standardization of the pathologic diagnosis of appendiceal mucinous neoplasms
    Dong-Wook Kang, Baek-hui Kim, Joon Mee Kim, Jihun Kim, Hee Jin Chang, Mee Soo Chang, Jin-Hee Sohn, Mee-Yon Cho, So-Young Jin, Hee Kyung Chang, Hye Seung Han, Jung Yeon Kim, Hee Sung Kim, Do Youn Park, Ha Young Park, So Jeong Lee, Wonae Lee, Hye Seung Lee,
    Journal of Pathology and Translational Medicine.2021; 55(4): 247.     CrossRef
  • Analysis of the Incidence and Clinical Features of Colorectal Nonadenocarcinoma in Korea: A National Cancer Registry-Based Study
    Soomin Nam, Dongwook Kim, Kyuwon Jung, Yoon Jung Choi, Jung Gu Kang
    Annals of Coloproctology.2020; 36(6): 390.     CrossRef
  • Novel Finding of Paired Box 5 (PAX5) Cytoplasmic Staining in Well-differentiated Rectal Neuroendocrine Tumors (Carcinoids) and Its Diagnostic and Potentially Prognostic Utility
    Zhiyan Fu, Chunlai Zuo, Christine E. Sheehan, Deepa T. Patil, Jingmei Lin, Zhaohai Yang, Hwajeong Lee
    Applied Immunohistochemistry & Molecular Morphology.2019; 27(6): 454.     CrossRef
  • Lymphovascular invasion as a prognostic value in small rectal neuroendocrine tumor treated by local excision: A systematic review and meta-analysis
    Ho Suk Kang, Mi Jung Kwon, Tae-Hwan Kim, Junhee Han, Young-Su Ju
    Pathology - Research and Practice.2019; 215(11): 152642.     CrossRef
  • Management Colorectal Gastrointestinal Stromal Tumors (Gists) in Surabaya
    Yuda Handaya, Sutamto Wibowo, Iwan Kristian
    Open Journal of Gastroenterology.2016; 06(04): 97.     CrossRef
  • Non-L-cell Immunophenotype and Large Tumor Size in Rectal Neuroendocrine Tumors Are Associated With Aggressive Clinical Behavior and Worse Prognosis
    Joo Young Kim, Ki-Suk Kim, Kyung-Jo Kim, In Ja Park, Jong Lyul Lee, Seung-Jae Myung, Yangsoon Park, Young Soo Park, Chang Sik Yu, Jin Cheon Kim, Eunsil Yu, Hyeung-Jin Jang, Seung-Mo Hong
    American Journal of Surgical Pathology.2015; 39(5): 632.     CrossRef
  • Diagnostic Coding for Intramucosal Carcinoma and Neuroendocrine Tumor in the Colorectum: Proposal for Avoiding Confusing Coding in Korea
    Dong Soo Han, Jin Hee Sohn, Jeong-Sik Byeon, Hwang Choi, Joon Mee Kim
    Clinical Endoscopy.2015; 48(3): 216.     CrossRef
  • Prognostic Significance of Defining L-Cell Type on the Biologic Behavior of Rectal Neuroendocrine Tumors in Relation with Pathological Parameters
    Jin Hee Sohn, Mee-Yon Cho, Yangsoon Park, Hyunki Kim, Woo Ho Kim, Joon Mee Kim, Eun Sun Jung, Kyoung-Mee Kim, Jae Hyuk Lee, Hee Kyung Chan, Do Youn Park, Mee Joo, Sujin Kim, Woo Sung Moon, Mi Seon Kang, So-Young Jin, Yun Kyung Kang, Sun Och Yoon, HyeSeung
    Cancer Research and Treatment.2015; 47(4): 813.     CrossRef
  • Diminutive and Small Colorectal Polyps: The Pathologist's Perspective
    Yun Kyung Kang
    Clinical Endoscopy.2014; 47(5): 404.     CrossRef
  • Highlights from the 50th Seminar of the Korean Society of Gastrointestinal Endoscopy
    Eun Young Kim, Il Ju Choi, Kwang An Kwon, Ji Kon Ryu, Seok Ho Dong, Ki Baik Hahm
    Clinical Endoscopy.2014; 47(4): 285.     CrossRef
  • Early Colorectal Epithelial Neoplasm in Korea: A Multicenter Survey of Pathologic Diagnosis
    Yun Kyung Kang, So-Young Jin, Mee Soo Chang, Jung Yeon Kim, Gyeong Hoon Kang, Hye Seung Lee, Jin Hee Sohn, Ho Sung Park, Kye Won Kwon, Mi Jin Gu, Young Hee Maeng, Jong Eun Joo, Haeng Ji Kang, Hee Kyung Kim, Kee-Taek Jang, Mi Ja Lee, Hee Kyung Chang, Joon
    Korean Journal of Pathology.2013; 47(3): 245.     CrossRef
  • Expression of metallothionein-1 and metallothionein-2 as a prognostic marker in hepatocellular carcinoma
    Yangsoon Park, Eunsil Yu
    Journal of Gastroenterology and Hepatology.2013; 28(9): 1565.     CrossRef
Grading System for Gastric Epithelial Proliferative Diseases Standardized Guidelines proposed by Korean Study Group for Pathology of Digestive Diseases.
Hoguen Kim, So Young Jin, Ja June Jang, Woo Ho Kim, Sang Yong Song, Kyu Rae Kim, Eun Sil Yu, Hyung Sik Shin, Han Kyeom Kim, Jin Hee Sohn, Eun Kyung Hong, Youn Wha Kim, Jin Sook Jeong, Chang Jin Kim, Shin Eun Choi, In Suh Park, Chan Il Park, Yong Il Kim
Korean J Pathol. 1997;31(5):389-400.
  • 1,537 View
  • 35 Download
AbstractAbstract PDF
The assessment of epithelial changes in gastric mucosal biopsies has been one of the major problems caused by inconsistencies in and disagreements about nomenclature and interpretation. To resolve these issues, members of the Study Group for Pathology of Digestive Diseases reviewed microslides of 50 gastric lesions showing varying degrees of mucosal abnormality and reached the following consensus; 1) the proliferating gastric epithelium can be divided into hyperplastic and neoplastic; 2) the term "dysplasia" is reserved for the microscopic epithelial changes that are unequivocally neoplastic; 3) Biopsy specimens can be categorized as regenerative(negative for dysplasia), indefinite(questionable dysplasia), positive(positive for dysplasia) and overt carcinoma; 4) The positive category can be divided into two subgroups, high grade dysplasia and low grade dysplasia. Criteria for each grade are presented and discussed. We offer these guidelines for establishing the correct diagnosis of the gastric mucosal biopsy specimens and for prospective studies.
Molecular Diagnosis of Cutaneous T Cell Lymphoproliferative Diseases.
Ji Young Park, Myung Hoon Lee, Eun Kyung Kwak, Dong Ja Kim, Tae In Park, Han Ik Bae
Korean J Pathol. 2000;34(11):941-949.
  • 1,681 View
  • 16 Download
AbstractAbstract PDF
It is often problematic to diagnose T-cell lymphoproliferative disorders of the skin because of the difficulty in establishing clonality in paraffin-embedded tissue. We used polymerase chain reaction single strand conformational polymorphism (PCR-SSCP) and heteroduplex analysis in paraffin embedded tissue to detect clonal rearrangement of T-cell receptor gamma (TCRgamma) gene in 17 T-cell lymphoproliferative disorders and 6 atypical lymphoproliferative diseases. We used polymerase chain reaction to detect TCR beta gene rearrangement in 8 of 17 cases which did not show TCRgamma gene rearrangement. Jurkat cell lines were used as monoclonal controls. DNA was extracted from 5 biopsies of T-cell lymphomas, 10 biopsies of mycosis fungoides, 2 biopsies of lymphomatoid papulosis, and 6 biopsies of atypical lymphoproliferative lesions. We detected monoclonality in 5 of 5 T-cell lymphoma cases, 2 of 2 lymphomatoid papulosis cases, 6 of 10 mycosis fungoides cases, and 2 of 6 atypical lymphoproliferative disease cases. We conclude that nonradioactive PCR-SSCP for TCR gene rearrangement analysis is a useful adjunct to routine histological and immunophenotypic methods in the diagnosis of cutaneous T cell lymphoproliferative disorders in paraffin embedded tissue.
Expression of Proliferating Cell Nuclear Antigen (PCNA) of Major Intrahepatic Bile Duct Epithelium in Resected Liver Tissue with Hepatolithiasis and Hepatolithiasis Associated with Cholangiocarcinoma.
Shi Nae Lee, Sun Hee Sung, Woon Sup Han
Korean J Pathol. 2002;36(4):232-237.
  • 1,477 View
  • 12 Download
AbstractAbstract PDF
Histologic progressive changes of bile duct epithelium with hyperplasia, dysplasia and cholangiocarcinoma could be caused by hepatolithiasis. To be clarified as a neoplastic process, this histologic process should be evaluated with various aspects of cell biology.
Immunohistochemical study of proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) was performed on 45 cases (10; normal, 15; hyperplasia, 14; low-grade dysplasia:LGD, 6; high-grade dysplasia: HGD) of hepatolithiasis and 10 cases (all HGD) of hepatolithiasis with cholangiocarcinoma.
In the hepatolithiasis, mean PCNA labelling indices (LI) of normal, hyperplasia, LGD and HGD of major intrahepatic bile duct epithelium were 24.5+/-4.3, 51.5+/-0.1, 62.0+/-.4 and 84.7+/-.3, respectively and gradually increased. Mean LI of PCNA in HGD of major intrahepatic bile duct epithelium of hepatolithiasis with cholangiocarcinoma was 68.7+/-.7, which was similar to that of LGD in hepatolithiasis without cholangiocarcinoma.
Histologic transformation through hyperplasia, dysplasia and carcinoma in major intrahepatic bile duct epithelium of hepatolithiasis may be a neoplastic process if these histologic changes are evaluated in the cellular proliferation aspect.
Age-related Alterations of Normal Ascending Aorta among Koreans with Special Reference to Cystic Medial Necrosis.
Tae Jung Kwon, Dong Hwan Shin, Kyung Moo Yang, Nak Eun Chung
Korean J Pathol. 2002;36(5):281-285.
  • 1,313 View
  • 12 Download
AbstractAbstract PDF
The specificity of aortic alteration in the pathogenesis of aortic dissection has been challenged. To obtain comprehensive morphologic data that may enhance the appreciation of the pathogenesis of aortic disease in normal aorta among Koreans, we performed a morphologic study of aorta with aging.
The histologic and morphometric studies of ascending aorta without cardiovascular disease were carried out on seventy-two autopsy cases. Alcian blue-stained sections were subjected to morphometric study using image analysis system. The age range of the cases was from newborn to those who had been in their eighties.
The most prominent feature of aging aorta was fragmentation and loss of elastic lamellae, and expansion of interlamellar spaces. Cystic medial necrosis of varying degrees was observed in almost every specimen. On the morphometric study, the percentage area of mucoid degeneration revealed no statistically significant differences among the varying age groups. Compared to males, female subjects exhibited significant mucoid degeneration (p<0.05).
The alteration of elastic lamellae is increased with age. Cystic medial necrosis is not considered merely an aging phenomenon, but is enhanced in the aorta of females.
Directional, Vacuum-Assisted Stereotactic Biopsy of Nonpalpable Breast Lesions with Surgical Correlation.
Sung Chul Lim, Young Sook Kim, Sneige Nour
Korean J Pathol. 2002;36(5):314-322.
  • 1,194 View
  • 13 Download
AbstractAbstract PDF
The vacuum suction probe is an alternative to the 14-gauge needle and automatic gun for performing stereotactic core needle biopsies. This study assesses the accuracy of the directional, vacuum-assisted stereotactic biopsy (DVAB) of nonpalpable breast lesions. Materials and METHODS: Four hundred and thirty DVABs were performed on 412 patients between January 1998 and December 2000. Using 11-gauge or 14-gauge needles, six to 22 core samples (mean=13) per lesion were obtained. One hundred and fifty-five lesions were subsequently excised, and 223 patients with benign diagnoses had mammographic follow-ups. The results of the DVABs and surgeries were reviewed and correlated.
The results of the DVABs and surgeries were concordant in 98 of 113 cases and discordant in 15 cases, including 15 cases for which DVAB results indicated ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) but surgery yielded invasive carcinoma. The overall sensitivity, specificity, and positive and negative predictive values of the DVABs were 99.3%, 100%, 100%, and 99.7%, respectively. The positive predictive value for the presence of invasion was 100% and the negative predictive value was 81%. Histologic comparison was performed in 19 of 31 atypical ductal hyperplasias (ADHs) diagnosed with DVAB. Of the 19 ADHs, histologic findings showed DCIS in one, ADH in 9, atypical lobular hyperplasia in one, and no residual lesions in 8. Cases with less than 3 lobules were involved with ADH, or cases with more than 50% of microcalcification retrieved were all adequately diagnosed. Only 17 of 240 benign lesions diagnosed with DVAB were subsequently excised. These were confirmed to be ADH in three of the cases, and other benign diagnoses were confirmed in 14 of the cases. The others were confirmed to be benign lesions upon mammographic follow-up. Lesions less than 1.0 cm in maximal diameter can be removed completely by DVAB.
DVAB reduced the number of underestimated infiltrating tumors, but still, significant cases were found to be invasive. ADH diagnosed with DVAB does not require subsequent surgery for a rule-out diagnosis of carcinoma, if the sampling is adequate and less than 3 lobules are involved with ADH. Lesions less than 1.0 cm in maximal diameter can be removed completely by DVAB. Benign lesions diagnosed with DVAB did not require subsequent surgery, so DVAB can reduce the probability of unnecessary surgery for benign lesions and/or small lesions.
Case Report
Submandibular Soft Tissue Actinomycosis Diagnosed by Fine Needle Aspiration Cytology: A Case Report.
Ho Jung Lee, Dong Hoon Kim, Won Mi Lee, Eun Kyung Kim, Jong Eun Joo
Korean J Cytopathol. 2005;16(1):57-60.
  • 1,420 View
  • 21 Download
AbstractAbstract PDF
A patient with actinomyces infection of the submandibular soft tissue was diagnosed by fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC). A 38-year-old woman presented with a right submandibular mass which slowly grew in size over one month. Clinically and radiologically, the lesion was considered as tuberculous lymphadenitis or cellulitis. The polymerase chain reaction for tuberculosis was done by aspirated specimen but the result was negative. The smears of aspiration cytology showed characteristic colonies(sulfur granules) of actinomyces in inflammatory background. After antibiotic therapy for eight months, the patient has been well, showing no detectable mass. This patient was simply and rapidly diagnosed by FNAC and can avoid unnecessary surgical biopsy.
Multicenter Study
Porposal for Creating a Guideline for Cancer Registration of the Gastrointestinal Tumors (I).
Mee Yon Cho, Yun Kyung Kang, Kyoung Mee Kim, Hee Kyung Chang, Hee Jin Chang, Mee Soo Chang, Joon Mee Kim, Dae Young Kang, Chanil Park, Jin Hee Sohn
Korean J Pathol. 2008;42(3):140-150.
  • 1,805 View
  • 40 Download
AbstractAbstract PDF
Cancer registries are fundamental for cancer control and multicenter collaborative research. However, there have been discrepancies among pathologists in classifying cancer and assigning the codes according to the International Classification of Disease Oncology 3 (ICD-O3). To improve the quality of cancer registries as well as to prevent the conflict with medical insurance compensation, a guideline for the coding of cancer is mandatory.
AND RESULTS: Funded by the Management Center for Health Promotion, 40 members of the Gastrointestinal Pathology Study Group and the Cancer Registration Committee of the Korean Society of Pathologists participated in the 1st workshop for gastrointestinal tumor registration. The subjects of gastric epithelial tumor, intramucosal carcinoma of the colon, carcinoid tumor, gastrointestinal stromal tumor and appendiceal mucinous tumor were discussed to create a guideline. A survey to obtain consensus for the guideline proposed by the workshop was carried out by the members of the Korean Society of Pathologists and 240 members completed the questionnaire.
Although there are some issues to be discussed further, such as coding of high grade dysplasia/adenoma and intramucosal carcinoma of stomach and colon, the members agreed upon most parts of the proposed guideline. Therefore, we suggest using the ICD-O3 coding guideline for gastrointestinal tumor.
Original Articles
Differential Expression of Promyelocytic Leukemia Protein in Autoimmune Liver Diseases.
Hyun Jung Kim, Jung Sun Kim, Yong Sang Lee, Young Hwa Chung, Han Joo Lee, Dong Jin Suh, Chong Jai Kim, Eunsil Yu
Korean J Pathol. 2004;38(6):357-363.
  • 1,411 View
  • 15 Download
AbstractAbstract PDF
Promyelocytic leukemia protein (PML) is a primary biliary cirrhosis (PBC)-specific autoantigen. Anti-PML antibody is analyzed using cultured cells with patient sera, however, PML expression has rarely been examined in liver tissues.
In the present study, PML expression was examined immunohistochemically in paraffin embedded liver needle biopsy specimens obtained from 20 cases of PBC, 10 cases of autoimmune cholangitis, 36 cases of autoimmune hepatitis and from 5 cases of noninflammatory livers.
Variable PML immunopositivity was detected in the bile duct epithelial cells of 18 (90.0%) of 20 PBC cases and in all 10 cases (100.0%) of autoimmune cholangitis, whereas it was only present in 6 (16.7%) of 36 cases of autoimmune hepatitis (p<0.001). In contrast, hepatocyte PML immunopositivity was higher in autoimmune hepatitis (33/36 cases, 90.8%), than in PBC (10/20 cases, 50.0%) or autoimmune cholangitis (3/10 cases, 30.0%) (p<0.05).
Our data indicate that the differential expression of PML is closely related to autoimmune liver diseases type, and suggest that the overexpression of PML protein in bile duct cells is associated with the development of autoantibodies in patients with PBC or autoimmune cholangitis. Furthermore, PML immunoreactivity may be useful for the diagnosis of autoimmune cholangitis and overlap syndrome.
Comparison of Ziehl-Neelsen Stain and TB-PCR on Detection of Mycobacterium tuberculosisin Formalin-fixed, Paraffin-embedded Tissues of Chronic Granulomatous Inflammation.
Min Sun Cho, Shi Nae Lee, Sun Hee Sung, Woon Sup Han
Korean J Pathol. 2003;37(6):379-383.
  • 2,943 View
  • 80 Download
AbstractAbstract PDF
TB-PCR is a faster and more sensitive method to detect mycobacterium than acid-fast bacilli (AFB) stain, which is laborious and time consuming. We compared the sensitivity and specificity of AFB stain and TB-PCR and examined the possibility of TB-PCR as a confirmative test without AFB stain in the diagnosis of tuberculosis.
We performed Ziehl-Neelsen stain and nested PCR using a commercially available TB-PCR kit amplifying IS6110 sequence in 81 cases of paraffin-embedded tissues diagnosed as chronic granulomatous inflammation. In addition, we evaluated the morphology of granuloma and the presence of caseation necrosis.
Of the 81 cases studied, 22 (27.2%) and 40 (49.4%) were positive for AFB stain and TB-PCR, respectively. Of 49 cases accompanying caseation necrosis, 19 (38.8%) were AFB stain positive and 37 (75.5%) were TB-PCR positive; a result that is comparable with that of other reports. Of the 22 AFB-positive cases, 2 were TB-PCR negative.
TB-PCR is very helpful for the diagnosis of tuberculosis in routinely processed, formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tissue samples. Nevertheless, AFB stain should continue to be performed at the same time.
Case Report
Rounded Atelectasis: A Brief Case Report.
Gou Young Kim, Ji Young Park, Joung ho Han, Tae Seong Kim, Jhin gook Kim
Korean J Pathol. 2003;37(4):279-281.
  • 1,631 View
  • 38 Download
AbstractAbstract PDF
Rounded atelectasis is a focal, pleural-based lesion that is the result of pleural and subpleural scarring and atelectasis of the adjacent lung tissue. We experienced a case of asbestosassociated rounded atelectasis that had developed in a 50-year-old male. When examined with routine chest radiography, the patient was shown to have an asymptomatic chest mass.Computed tomography showed a pleural-based mass with a curvilinear shape about 4.2 cmin greatest diameter in the medial basal segment of the right lower lobe. To exclude the possibilityof malignancy the mass was excised by video-assisted thoracotomy. The mass wasround and firm, and was gray and yellow in color. Microscopically, marked pleural fibrosisextended into the underlying lung parenchyme and then resulted in atelectasis. There areferruginous bodies in dense fibrous pleura.

JPTM : Journal of Pathology and Translational Medicine