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Volume 54(3); May 2020
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Editorial
New insights into classification and risk stratification of encapsulated thyroid tumors with a predominantly papillary architecture
Chan Kwon Jung, So Yeon Park, Jang-Hee Kim, Kennichi Kakudo
J Pathol Transl Med. 2020;54(3):197-203.   Published online May 14, 2020
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4132/jptm.2020.04.29
  • 3,254 View
  • 168 Download
  • 1 Citations
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Reviews
Current status and future perspectives of liquid biopsy in non-small cell lung cancer
Sunhee Chang, Jae Young Hur, Yoon-La Choi, Chang Hun Lee, Wan Seop Kim
J Pathol Transl Med. 2020;54(3):204-212.   Published online April 15, 2020
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4132/jptm.2020.02.27
  • 5,641 View
  • 248 Download
  • 10 Citations
AbstractAbstract PDF
With advances in target therapy, molecular analysis of tumors is routinely required for treatment decisions in patients with advanced non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Liquid biopsy refers to the sampling and analysis of circulating cell-free tumor DNA (ctDNA) in various body fluids, primarily blood. Because the technique is minimally invasive, liquid biopsies are the future in cancer management. Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) ctDNA tests have been performed in routine clinical practice in advanced NSCLC patients to guide tyrosine kinase inhibitor treatment. In the near future, liquid biopsy will be a crucial prognostic, predictive, and diagnostic method in NSCLC. Here we present the current status and future perspectives of liquid biopsy in NSCLC.
Clinical management of abnormal Pap tests: differences between US and Korean guidelines
Seyeon Won, Mi Kyoung Kim, Seok Ju Seong
J Pathol Transl Med. 2020;54(3):213-219.   Published online April 15, 2020
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4132/jptm.2020.03.11
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AbstractAbstract PDF
Cervical cancer has been the most common gynecological cancer in Korea but has become a preventable disease with regular screening and proper vaccination. If regular screening is provided, cervical cancer does not progress to more than carcinoma in situ, due to its comparatively long precancerous duration (years to decades). In 2012, the American Society for Colposcopy and Cervical Pathology published guidelines to aid clinicians in managing women with abnormal Papanicolaou (Pap) tests, and they soon became the standard in the United States. Not long thereafter, the Korean Society of Gynecologic Oncology and the Korean Society for Cytopathology published practical guidelines to reflect the specific situation in Korea. The detailed screening guidelines and management options in the case of abnormal Pap test results are sometimes the same and sometimes different in the United States and Korean guidelines. In this article, we summarize the differences between the United States and Korean guidelines in order to facilitate physicians’ proper management of abnormal Pap test results.
Original Articles
Sarcoma metastasis to the pancreas: experience at a single institution
Miseon Lee, Joon Seon Song, Seung-Mo Hong, Se Jin Jang, Jihun Kim, Ki Byung Song, Jae Hoon Lee, Kyung-Ja Cho
J Pathol Transl Med. 2020;54(3):220-227.   Published online April 22, 2020
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4132/jptm.2020.03.04
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  • 5 Citations
AbstractAbstract PDF
Background
Reports of metastatic sarcoma to the pancreas are limited. We reviewed the clinicopathologic characteristics of such cases.
Methods
We reviewed 124 cases of metastatic tumors to the pancreas diagnosed at Asan Medical Center between 2000 and 2017.
Results
Metastatic tumors to the pancreas consisted of 111 carcinomas (89.5%), 12 sarcomas (9.6%), and one melanoma (0.8%). Primary sarcoma sites were bone (n = 4); brain, lung, and soft tissue (n = 2 for each); and the uterus and pulmonary vein (n = 1 for each). Pathologically, the 12 sarcomas comprised 2 World Health Organization grade III solitary fibrous tumors/hemangiopericytomas, and one case each of synovial sarcoma, malignant solitary fibrous tumor, undifferentiated pleomorphic sarcoma, osteosarcoma, mesenchymal chondrosarcoma, intimal sarcoma, myxofibrosarcoma, myxoid liposarcoma, rhabdomyosarcoma, subtype uncertain, and high-grade spindle-cell sarcoma of uncertain type. The median interval between primary cancer diagnosis and pancreatic metastasis was 28.5 months. One case manifested as a solitary pancreatic osteosarcoma metastasis 15 months prior to detection of osteosarcoma in the femur and was initially misdiagnosed as sarcomatoid carcinoma of the pancreas.
Conclusions
The metastatic sarcoma should remain a differential diagnosis when spindle-cell malignancy is found in the pancreas, even for solitary lesions or in patients without prior history.
A scoring system for the diagnosis of non-alcoholic steatohepatitis from liver biopsy
Kyoungbun Lee, Eun Sun Jung, Eunsil Yu, Yun Kyung Kang, Mee-Yon Cho, Joon Mee Kim, Woo Sung Moon, Jin Sook Jeong, Cheol Keun Park, Jae-Bok Park, Dae Young Kang, Jin Hee Sohn, So-Young Jin
J Pathol Transl Med. 2020;54(3):228-236.   Published online April 15, 2020
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4132/jptm.2020.03.07
  • 3,668 View
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  • 1 Citations
AbstractAbstract PDF
Background
Liver biopsy is the essential method to diagnose non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH), but histological features of NASH are too subjective to achieve reproducible diagnoses in early stages of disease. We aimed to identify the key histological features of NASH and devise a scoring model for diagnosis.
Methods
Thirteen pathologists blindly assessed 12 histological factors and final histological diagnoses (‘not-NASH,’ ‘borderline,’ and ‘NASH’) of 31 liver biopsies that were diagnosed as non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) or NASH before and after consensus. The main histological parameters to diagnose NASH were selected based on histological diagnoses and the diagnostic accuracy and agreement of 12 scoring models were compared for final diagnosis and the NAFLD Activity Score (NAS) system.
Results
Inter-observer agreement of final diagnosis was fair (κ = 0.25) before consensus and slightly improved after consensus (κ = 0.33). Steatosis at more than 5% was the essential parameter for diagnosis. Major diagnostic factors for diagnosis were fibrosis except 1C grade and presence of ballooned cells. Minor diagnostic factors were lobular inflammation ( ≥ 2 foci/ × 200 field), microgranuloma, and glycogenated nuclei. All 12 models showed higher inter-observer agreement rates than NAS and post-consensus diagnosis (κ = 0.52–0.69 vs. 0.33). Considering the reproducibility of factors and practicability of the model, summation of the scores of major (× 2) and minor factors may be used for the practical diagnosis of NASH.
Conclusions
A scoring system for the diagnosis of NAFLD would be helpful as guidelines for pathologists and clinicians by improving the reproducibility of histological diagnosis of NAFLD.
Gene variant profiles and tumor metabolic activity as measured by FOXM1 expression and glucose uptake in lung adenocarcinoma
Ashley Goodman, Waqas Mahmud, Lela Buckingham
J Pathol Transl Med. 2020;54(3):237-245.   Published online March 4, 2020
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4132/jptm.2020.02.08
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AbstractAbstract PDF
Background
Cancer cells displaying aberrant metabolism switch energy production from oxidative phosphorylation to glycolysis. Measure of glucose standardized uptake value (SUV) by positron emission tomography (PET), used for staging of adenocarcinoma in high-risk patients, can reflect cellular use of the glycolysis pathway. The transcription factor, FOXM1 plays a role in regulation of glycolytic genes. Cancer cell transformation is driven by mutations in tumor suppressor genes such as TP53 and STK11 and oncogenes such as KRAS and EGFR. In this study, SUV and FOXM1 gene expression were compared in the background of selected cancer gene mutations.
Methods
Archival tumor tissue from cases of lung adenocarcinoma were analyzed. SUV was collected from patient records. FOXM1 gene expression was assessed by quantitative reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR). Gene mutations were detected by allele-specific PCR and gene sequencing.
Results
SUV and FOXM1 gene expression patterns differed in the presence of single and coexisting gene mutations. Gene mutations affected SUV and FOXM1 differently. EGFR mutations were found in tumors with lower FOXM1 expression but did not affect SUV. Tumors with TP53 mutations had increased SUV (p = .029). FOXM1 expression was significantly higher in tumors with STK11 mutations alone (p < .001) and in combination with KRAS or TP53 mutations (p < .001 and p = .002, respectively).
Conclusions
Cancer gene mutations may affect tumor metabolic activity. These observations support consideration of tumor cell metabolic state in the presence of gene mutations for optimal prognosis and treatment strategy.
Continuous quality improvement program and its results of Korean Society for Cytopathology
Yoo-Duk Choi, Hoon-Kyu Oh, Su-Jin Kim, Kyung-Hee Kim, Yun-Kyung Lee, Bo-Sung Kim, Eun-Jeong Jang, Yoon-Jung Choi, Eun-Kyung Han, Dong-Hoon Kim, Younghee Choi, Chan-Kwon Jung, Sung-Nam Kim, Kyueng-Whan Min, Seok-Jin Yoon, Hun-Kyung Lee, Kyung Un Choi, Hye Kyoung Yoon
J Pathol Transl Med. 2020;54(3):246-252.   Published online April 15, 2020
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4132/jptm.2020.02.22
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  • 102 Download
AbstractAbstract PDF
Background
Since 1995, the Korean Society for Cytopathology has overseen the Continuous Quality Improvement program for cytopathology laboratories. The Committee of Quality Improvement has carried out an annual survey of cytology data for each laboratory and set standards for proficiency tests. Methods: Evaluations were conducted four times per year from 2008 to 2018 and comprised statistics regarding cytology diagnoses of previous years, proficiency tests using cytology slides provided by the committee, assessment of adequacy of gynecology (GYN) cytology slides, and submission of cytology slides for proficiency tests. Results: A total of 206 institutes participated in 2017, and the results were as follows. The number of cytology tests increased from year to year. The ratio of liquid-based cytology in GYN gradually decreased, as most of the GYN cytology had been performed at commercial laboratories. The distribution of GYN diagnoses demonstrated nearly 3.0% as atypical squamous cells. The rate for squamous cell carcinoma was less than 0.02%. The atypical squamous cell/squamous intraepithelial lesion ratio was about 3:1 and showed an upward trend. The major discordant rate of cytology-histology in GYN cytology was less than 1%. The proficiency test maintained a major discordant rate less than 2%. The rate of inappropriate specimens for GYN cytology slides gradually decreased. Conclusions: The Continuous Quality Improvement program should be included in quality assurance programs. Moreover, these data can contribute to development of national cancer examination guidelines and facilitate cancer prevention and treatment.
Case Studies
Morphologic variant of follicular lymphoma reminiscent of hyaline-vascular Castleman disease
Jiwon Koh, Yoon Kyung Jeon
J Pathol Transl Med. 2020;54(3):253-257.   Published online February 5, 2020
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4132/jptm.2019.12.17
  • 4,016 View
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  • 1 Citations
AbstractAbstract PDF
Follicular lymphoma (FL) with hyaline-vascular Castleman disease (FL-HVCD)-like features is a rare morphologic variant, with fewer than 20 cases in the literature. Herein, we report a case of FL-HVCD in a 37-year-old female who presented with isolated neck lymph node enlargement. The excised lymph node showed features reminiscent of HVCD, including regressed germinal centers (GCs) surrounded by onion skin-like mantle zones, lollipop lesions composed of hyalinized blood vessels penetrating into regressed GCs, and hyalinized interfollicular stroma. In addition, focal areas of abnormally conglomerated GCs composed of homogeneous, small centrocytes with strong BCL2, CD10, and BCL6 expression were observed, indicating partial involvement of the FL. Several other lymphoid follicles showed features of in situ follicular neoplasia. Based on the observations, a diagnosis of FL-HVCD was made. Although FLHVCD is very rare, the possibility of this variant should be considered in cases resembling CD. Identification of abnormal, neoplastic follicles and ancillary immunostaining are helpful for proper diagnosis.
Gastric IgG4-related disease presenting as a mass lesion and masquerading as a gastrointestinal stromal tumor
Banumathi Ramakrishna, Rohan Yewale, Kavita Vijayakumar, Patta Radhakrishna, Balakrishnan Siddartha Ramakrishna
J Pathol Transl Med. 2020;54(3):258-262.   Published online March 4, 2020
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4132/jptm.2020.02.10
  • 3,617 View
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  • 3 Citations
AbstractAbstract PDF
IgG4-related disease of the stomach is a rare disorder, and only a few cases have been reported. We present two cases that were identified over a 2-month period in our center. Two male patients aged 52 and 48 years presented with mass lesion in the stomach, which were clinically thought to be gastrointestinal stromal tumor, and they underwent excision of the lesion. Microscopic examination revealed marked fibrosis, which was storiform in one case, associated with diffuse lymphoplasmacytic infiltration and an increase in IgG4-positive plasma cells on immunohistochemistry. Serum IgG4 level was markedly elevated. Although rare, IgG4-related disease should be considered in the differential diagnosis of gastric submucosal mass lesions.
Brief Case Report
Noninvasive encapsulated papillary RAS-like thyroid tumor (NEPRAS) or encapsulated papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC)
Pedro Weslley Rosario
J Pathol Transl Med. 2020;54(3):263-264.   Published online March 4, 2020
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4132/jptm.2020.02.05
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  • 94 Download
  • 3 Citations
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JPTM : Journal of Pathology and Translational Medicine