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Volume 55(1); January 2021
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Reviews
Standardized pathology report for breast cancer
Soo Youn Cho, So Yeon Park, Young Kyung Bae, Jee Yeon Kim, Eun Kyung Kim, Woo Gyeong Kim, Youngmee Kwon, Ahwon Lee, Hee Jin Lee, Ji Shin Lee, Jee Young Park, Gyungyub Gong, Hye Kyoung Yoon
J Pathol Transl Med. 2021;55(1):1-15.   Published online January 11, 2021
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4132/jptm.2020.11.20
  • 4,934 View
  • 404 Download
  • 1 Citations
AbstractAbstract PDFSupplementary Material
Given the recent advances in management and understanding of breast cancer, a standardized pathology report reflecting these changes is critical. To meet this need, the Breast Pathology Study Group of the Korean Society of Pathologists has developed a standardized pathology reporting format for breast cancer, consisting of ‘standard data elements,’ ‘conditional data elements,’ and a biomarker report form. The ‘standard data elements’ consist of the basic pathologic features used for prognostication, while other factors related to prognosis or diagnosis are described in the ‘conditional data elements.’ In addition to standard data elements, all recommended issues are also presented. We expect that this standardized pathology report for breast cancer will improve diagnostic concordance and communication between pathologists and clinicians, as well as between pathologists inter-institutionally.

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  • Sentinel lymph node biopsy in patients with ductal carcinoma in situ: systematic review and meta-analysis
    Matthew G. Davey, Colm O’Flaherty, Eoin F. Cleere, Aoife Nohilly, James Phelan, Evan Ronane, Aoife J. Lowery, Michael J. Kerin
    BJS Open.2022;[Epub]     CrossRef
Imaging features of breast cancer molecular subtypes: state of the art
Nariya Cho
J Pathol Transl Med. 2021;55(1):16-25.   Published online November 9, 2020
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4132/jptm.2020.09.03
  • 45,875 View
  • 231 Download
  • 3 Citations
AbstractAbstract PDF
Characterization of breast cancer molecular subtypes has been the standard of care for breast cancer management. We aimed to provide a review of imaging features of breast cancer molecular subtypes for the field of precision medicine. We also provide an update on the recent progress in precision medicine for breast cancer, implications for imaging, and recent observations in longitudinal functional imaging with radiomics.

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  • Circulating non-coding RNAs as a diagnostic and management biomarker for breast cancer: current insights
    Hamed Hosseinalizadeh, Mehrdad Mahmoodpour, Ammar Ebrahimi
    Molecular Biology Reports.2022; 49(1): 705.     CrossRef
  • MRI as a biomarker for breast cancer diagnosis and prognosis
    Francesca Galati, Veronica Rizzo, Rubina Manuela Trimboli, Endi Kripa, Roberto Maroncelli, Federica Pediconi
    BJR|Open.2022;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • Circulating tumor cells as prognostic biomarkers in breast cancer: current status and future prospects
    Evagelia Chantzara, Nikolaos Xenidis, Galatea Kallergi, Vassilis Georgoulias, Athanasios Kotsakis
    Expert Review of Molecular Diagnostics.2021; 21(10): 1037.     CrossRef
DNA-protein biomarkers for immunotherapy in the era of precision oncology
Binnari Kim, So Young Kang, Kyoung-Mee Kim
J Pathol Transl Med. 2021;55(1):26-32.   Published online November 9, 2020
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4132/jptm.2020.09.23
  • 3,066 View
  • 155 Download
AbstractAbstract PDF
The use of biomarkers to guide patient and therapy selection has gained much attention to increase the scope and complexity of targeted therapy options and immunotherapy. Clinical trials provide a basis for discovery of biomarkers, which can then aid in development of new drugs. To that end, samples from cancer patients, including DNA, RNA, protein, and the metabolome isolated from cancer tissues and blood or urine, are analyzed in various ways to identify relevant biomarkers. In conjunction with nucleotide-based, high-throughput, next-generation sequencing techniques, therapy-guided biomarker assays relying on protein-based immunohistochemistry play a pivotal role in cancer care. In this review, we discuss the current knowledge regarding DNA and protein biomarkers for cancer immunotherapy
Original Articles
Automated immunohistochemical assessment ability to evaluate estrogen and progesterone receptor status compared with quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction in breast carcinoma patients
Taesung Jeon, Aeree Kim, Chungyeul Kim
J Pathol Transl Med. 2021;55(1):33-42.   Published online December 3, 2020
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4132/jptm.2020.09.29
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  • 3 Citations
AbstractAbstract PDF
Background
This study aimed to investigate the capability of an automated immunohistochemical (IHC) evaluation of hormonal receptor status in breast cancer patients compared to a well-validated quantitative reverse transcription–polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR) method.
Methods
This study included 93 invasive breast carcinoma cases that had both standard IHC assay and Oncotype Dx assay results. The same paraffin blocks on which Oncotype Dx assay had been performed were selected. Estrogen receptor (ER) and progesterone receptor (PR) receptor status were evaluated through IHC stains using SP1 monoclonal antibody for ER, and 1E2 monoclonal antibody for PR. All ER and PR immunostained slides were scanned, and invasive tumor areas were marked. Using the QuantCenter image analyzer provided by 3DHISTECH, IHC staining of hormone receptors was measured and converted to histochemical scores (H scores). Pearson correlation coefficients were calculated between Oncotype Dx hormone receptor scores and H scores, and between Oncotype Dx scores and Allred scores.
Results
H scores measured by an automated imaging system showed high concordance with RT-qPCR scores. ER concordance was 98.9% (92/93), and PR concordance was 91.4% (85/93). The correlation magnitude between automated H scores and RT-qPCR scores was high and comparable to those of Allred scores (for ER, 0.51 vs. 0.37 [p=.121], for PR, 0.70 vs. 0.72 [p=.39]).
Conclusions
Automated H scores showed a high concordance with quantitative mRNA expression levels measured by RT-qPCR.

Citations

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  • Marker assessments in ER‐ positive breast cancers: old markers, new applications?
    Joshua J X Li, Gary M Tse
    Histopathology.2022;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • The Story of the Magee Equations: The Ultimate in Applied Immunohistochemistry
    Rohit Bhargava, David J. Dabbs
    Applied Immunohistochemistry & Molecular Morphology.2022;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • Dose-Dependent Relationship between Protection of Thioacetamide-Induced Acute Liver Injury and Hyperammonemia and Concentration of Lactobacillus salivarius Li01 in Mice
    Pengcheng Lou, Yangfan Shen, Aoxiang Zhuge, Longxian Lv, Xueling Zhu, Yin Yuan, Liya Yang, Kaicen Wang, Bo Li, Lanjuan Li, Joanna B. Goldberg
    Microbiology Spectrum.2021;[Epub]     CrossRef
Interobserver diagnostic reproducibility in advanced-stage endometrial carcinoma
Ho Jin Jung, Soo Yeon Lee, Jin Hwa Hong, Yi Kyeong Chun
J Pathol Transl Med. 2021;55(1):43-52.   Published online December 3, 2020
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4132/jptm.2020.10.04
  • 2,575 View
  • 88 Download
  • 2 Citations
AbstractAbstract PDF
Background
The accurate pathologic diagnosis and subtyping of high-grade endometrial carcinoma are often problematic, due to its atypical and overlapping histopathological features.
Methods
Three pathologists reviewed 21 surgically resected cases of advancedstage endometrial carcinoma. The primary diagnosis was based only on hematoxylin and eosin stained slides. When a discrepancy arose, a secondary diagnosis was made by additional review of immunohistochemical (IHC) stains. Finally, three pathologists discussed all cases and rendered a consensus diagnosis.
Results
The primary diagnoses were identical in 13/21 cases (62%). The secondary diagnosis based on the addition of IHC results was concordant in four of eight discrepant cases. Among four cases with discrepancies occurring in this step, two cases subsequently reached a consensus diagnosis after a thorough discussion between three reviewers. Next-generation sequencing (NGS) study was performed in two cases in which it was difficult to distinguish between serous carcinoma and endometrioid carcinoma. Based on the sequencing results, a final diagnosis of serous carcinoma was rendered. The overall kappa for concordance between the original and consensus diagnosis was 0.566 (moderate agreement).
Conclusions
We investigated stepwise changes in interobserver diagnostic reproducibility in advanced-stage endometrial carcinoma. We demonstrated the utility of IHC and NGS study results in the histopathological diagnosis of advanced-stage endometrial carcinoma.

Citations

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  • Application of NGS molecular classification in the diagnosis of endometrial carcinoma: A supplement to traditional pathological diagnosis
    Qunxian Rao, Jianwei Liao, Yangyang Li, Xin Zhang, Guocai Xu, Changbin Zhu, Shengya Tian, Qiuhong Chen, Hui Zhou, Bingzhong Zhang
    Cancer Medicine.2022;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • Risk Stratification of Endometrial Cancer Patients: FIGO Stage, Biomarkers and Molecular Classification
    Jenneke C. Kasius, Johanna M. A. Pijnenborg, Kristina Lindemann, David Forsse, Judith van Zwol, Gunnar B. Kristensen, Camilla Krakstad, Henrica M. J. Werner, Frédéric Amant
    Cancers.2021; 13(22): 5848.     CrossRef
A comparative prognostic performance of definitions of Crohn-like lymphoid reaction in colorectal carcinoma
Younghoon Kim, Jeong Mo Bae, Jung Ho Kim, Nam-Yun Cho, Gyeong Hoon Kang
J Pathol Transl Med. 2021;55(1):53-59.   Published online November 27, 2020
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4132/jptm.2020.10.06
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AbstractAbstract PDFSupplementary Material
Background
The prognostic potential of Crohn-like lymphoid reaction (CLR) in colorectal carcinoma (CRC) has been investigated through the assessment of different criteria.
Methods
The prognostic impact of CLR was investigated in 636 CRC patients to compare methods from previously published articles. These methods included CLR measured by number of lymphoid aggregates (LAs) (CLR count), LA size greater than or equal to 1 mm (CLR size), CLR density with a cutoff value of 0.38, and subjective criteria as defined by intense CLR.
Results
In univariate survival analysis, CLR-positive CRC as defined by the four aforementioned methods was associated with better overall survival (OS) (hazard ratio [HR], 0.463; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.305 to 0.702; p <.001; HR, 0.656; 95% CI, 0.411 to 1.046; p=.077; HR, 0.363; 95% CI, 0.197 to 0.669; p=.001; and HR, 0.433; 95% CI, 0.271 to 0.690; p<.001, respectively) and disease-free survival (DFS) (HR, 0.411; 95% CI, 0.304 to 0.639; p<.001; HR, 0.528; 95% CI, 0.340 to 0.821; p=.004; HR, 0.382; 95% CI, 0.226 to 0.645, p=.004; and HR, 0.501; 95% CI, 0.339 to 0.741; p<.001, respectively) than CLR-negative CRC, regardless of criteria with the exception of OS for CLR density. In multivariate analysis, two objective criteria (CLR count and CLR density) and one subjective criterion (intense CLR) for defining CLR were considered independent prognostic factors of OS and DFS in CRC patients.
Conclusions
CLR has similar traits regardless of criteria, but CLR-positivity should be defined by objective criteria for better reproducibility and prognostic value.
Causes of necrotic features in fine-needle aspirates from cervical lymph nodes
Young Jin Seo, Hyeongchan Shin, Hye Won Lee, Hye Ra Jung
J Pathol Transl Med. 2021;55(1):60-67.   Published online November 27, 2020
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4132/jptm.2020.09.28
  • 3,677 View
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  • 1 Citations
AbstractAbstract PDF
Background
Lymph node fine-needle aspiration (LN FNA) cytology indicates necrosis in various diseases. Dominant necrotic features make the diagnosis of underlying conditions very difficult.
Methods
We retrospectively reviewed 460 patients who underwent cervical LN aspiration cytology that revealed necrotic findings at Keimyung University Dongsan Hospital in Daegu, Korea, from 2003–2017. Each specimen was evaluated and analyzed in association with the clinical findings, biopsy findings, and/or other ancillary tests, including acid-fast bacilli staining and molecular testing for Mycobacterium tuberculosis.
Results
When necrotic features were noted upon cervical LN FNA cytology, the most common pathologic LN FNA category was necrosis alone (31.5%). The second most common category was granulomatous inflammation (31.3%), followed by Kikuchi disease (20.0%) and malignant neoplasm (8.7%). In cases where the cervical LN FNA revealed necrosis alone, the most common final diagnosis was tuberculosis. In young patients, Kikuchi disease should be considered as one cervical LN FNA category, while metastatic carcinoma should be suspected in older patients.
Conclusions
Even when necrosis alone is observed in LN FNA cytology, it is important to determine the cause through further evaluation.

Citations

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  • Impact of HPV status in T1–2 oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma with bulky N3 nodes: a multicenter GETTEC study
    Charles Hurel, Florent Carsuzaa, Julia Salleron, Philippe Gorphe, Christian Righini, Maximilien Rogé, Erwan de Mones, Sylvain Morinière, Sébastien Vergez, Juliette Thariat, Xavier Dufour
    European Archives of Oto-Rhino-Laryngology.2022;[Epub]     CrossRef
Case Studies
A case of cribriform carcinoma of the skin: a newly described rare condition
Hyun Lee, Chong-Hyun Won, Chan-Sik Park
J Pathol Transl Med. 2021;55(1):68-74.   Published online December 3, 2020
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4132/jptm.2020.10.05
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AbstractAbstract PDF
Primary cribriform carcinoma of the skin is an indolent, rare, adnexal tumor. Although its malignant potential remains uncertain, no recurrence or metastasis has been reported. A 33-year-old man presented with a solitary, erythematous, subcutaneous nodule on the right knee. The clinical impression was epidermal cyst, and the resected tumor demonstrated a well-circumscribed mass in the dermis and subcutis. The tumor was composed of two regions: a solid component and a cribriform component. The solid component (90%) showed multiple solid nests of epithelial cells. Individual cells had large, oval-to-round, hyperchromatic, pleomorphic nuclei with a nuclear groove. The cribriform component (10%) showed similar neoplastic cells with many prominent lumina. Some lumina had an eosinophilic substance that exhibited a positive periodic acid-Schiff reaction. No recurrence or metastasis was observed within a followup period of eight months after excision. In conclusion, we report the first case of primary cribriform carcinoma of the skin in Korea.
Fibrocartilaginous mesenchymoma with an unusual location in the rib
Sun-Ju Oh
J Pathol Transl Med. 2021;55(1):75-78.   Published online December 3, 2020
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4132/jptm.2020.10.08
  • 2,279 View
  • 83 Download
  • 1 Citations
AbstractAbstract PDF
Fibrocartilaginous mesenchymoma is a rare bone tumor, with fewer than 35 cases reported in the literature since 1984. This tumor usually occurs in the long bones of children and adolescents. In the current case, the tumor affected a rib. A 17-year-old boy presented with a mass in the right fifth rib. Radiologic findings revealed an osteolytic mass with cortical destruction and calcification; en bloc resection was performed. The tumor showed three distinct histologic features: bland spindle cell proliferation, benign cartilage nodules, and epiphyseal plate-like enchondral ossification. The pathologic diagnosis was fibrocartilaginous mesenchymoma. The patient remains free of disease 1 year after the surgery. Pathological diagnosis of fibrocartilaginous mesenchymoma can be challenging, especially when the tumor occurs in an unusual site. When any fibro-osseous lesion with a cartilaginous component is encountered, the possibility of fibrocartilaginous mesenchymoma should be considered because of its locally aggressive behavior.

Citations

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  • Fibrocartilaginous mesenchymoma of pelvis—a potential diagnostic pitfall
    Monalisa Hui, Shantveer G. Uppin, Ramakrishna Narayanan, K. Nageshwara Rao, B. Aravind Kumar
    Skeletal Radiology.2022;[Epub]     CrossRef
Brief Case Report
EGFR-mutated pulmonary adenocarcinoma with concurrent PIK3CA mutation, and with acquired RET fusion and EGFR T790M mutation after afatinib therapy
Minhye Kim, Ji Min Na, Gyeong-Won Lee, Seung Jun Lee, Jong Duk Kim, Jung Wook Yang
J Pathol Transl Med. 2021;55(1):79-82.   Published online December 3, 2020
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4132/jptm.2020.11.02
  • 2,158 View
  • 92 Download
  • 1 Citations
PDF

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  • RET Proto-Oncogene—Not Such an Obvious Starting Point in Cancer Therapy
    Tomasz Kucharczyk, Paweł Krawczyk, Dariusz M. Kowalski, Adam Płużański, Tomasz Kubiatowski, Ewa Kalinka
    Cancers.2022; 14(21): 5298.     CrossRef

JPTM : Journal of Pathology and Translational Medicine