Skip Navigation
Skip to contents

JPTM : Journal of Pathology and Translational Medicine

OPEN ACCESS
SEARCH
Search

Previous issues

Page Path
HOME > Articles and issues > Previous issues
16 Previous issues
Filter
Filter
Article category
Keywords
Authors
Funded articles
Volume 51(4); July 2017
Prev issue Next issue
Reviews
Rare Gastric Lesions Associated with Helicobacter pylori Infection: A Histopathological Review
Mee Joo
J Pathol Transl Med. 2017;51(4):341-351.   Published online June 5, 2017
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4132/jptm.2017.04.03
  • 9,590 View
  • 303 Download
  • 7 Citations
AbstractAbstract PDF
Helicobacter pylori infection is associated with chronic gastritis, peptic ulcer disease, gastric adenocarcinoma, and mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue lymphoma. However, some rare gastric lesions exhibiting distinctive histological features may also be associated with H. pylori infection, including lymphocytic gastritis, granulomatous gastritis, Russell body gastritis, or crystal-storing histiocytosis. Although diverse factors can contribute to their development, there is convincing evidence that H. pylori infection may play a pathogenic role. These findings are mainly based on studies in patients with these lesions who exhibited clinical and histological improvements after H. pylori eradication therapy. Thus, H. pylori eradication therapy might be indicated in patients with no other underlying disease, particularly in countries with a high prevalence of H. pylori infection. This review describes the characteristic histological features of these rare lesions and evaluates the evidence regarding a causative role for H. pylori infection in their pathogenesis.
Epstein-Barr Virus–Associated Lymphoproliferative Disorders: Review and Update on 2016 WHO Classification
Hyun-Jung Kim, Young Hyeh Ko, Ji Eun Kim, Seung-Sook Lee, Hyekyung Lee, Gyeongsin Park, Jin Ho Paik, Hee Jeong Cha, Yoo-Duk Choi, Jae Ho Han, Jooryung Huh
J Pathol Transl Med. 2017;51(4):352-358.   Published online June 5, 2017
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4132/jptm.2017.03.15
  • 13,035 View
  • 907 Download
  • 46 Citations
AbstractAbstract PDF
Epstein-Barr virus (human herpesvirus-4) is very common virus that can be detected in more than 95% of the human population. Most people are asymptomatic and live their entire lives in a chronically infected state (IgG positive). However, in some populations, the Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) has been involved in the occurrence of a wide range of B-cell lymphoproliferative disorders (LPDs), including Burkitt lymphoma, classic Hodgkin’s lymphoma, and immune–deficiency associated LPDs (post-transplant and human immunodeficiency virus–associated LPDs). T-cell LPDs have been reported to be associated with EBV with a subset of peripheral T-cell lymphomas, angioimmunoblastic T-cell lymphomas, extranodal nasal natural killer/T-cell lymphomas, and other rare histotypes. This article reviews the current evidence covering EBV-associated LPDs based on the 2016 classification of the World Health Organization. These LPD entities often pose diagnostic challenges, both clinically and pathologically, so it is important to understand their unique pathophysiology for correct diagnoses and optimal management.
Original Articles
Implication of PHF2 Expression in Clear Cell Renal Cell Carcinoma
Cheol Lee, Bohyun Kim, Boram Song, Kyung Chul Moon
J Pathol Transl Med. 2017;51(4):359-364.   Published online June 13, 2017
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4132/jptm.2017.03.16
  • 5,812 View
  • 152 Download
  • 8 Citations
AbstractAbstract PDF
Background
Clear cell renal cell carcinoma (CCRCC) is presumed to be associated with adipogenic differentiation. Histone modification is known to be important for adipogenesis, and the function of histone demethylase plant homeodomain finger 2 (PHF2) has been noted. In addition, PHF2 may act as a tumor suppressor via epigenetic regulation of p53 and is reported to be reduced in colon cancer and stomach cancer tissues. In this study, we examined PHF2 expression in CCRCC specimens by immunohistochemistry.
Methods
We studied 254 CCRCCs and 56 non-neoplastic renal tissues from patients who underwent radical or partial nephrectomy between 2000 and 2003 at the Seoul National University Hospital. Tissue microarray blocks were prepared, and immunohistochemical staining for PHF2 was performed.
Results
Among 254 CCRCC cases, 150 cases (59.1%) showed high expression and 104 cases (40.1%) showed low expression. High expression of PHF2 was significantly correlated with a low Fuhrman nuclear grade (p < .001), smaller tumor size (p < .001), low overall stage (p = .003), longer cancer-specific survival (p = .002), and progression-free survival (p < .001) of the patients. However, it was not an independent prognostic factor in multivariate analysis adjusted for Fuhrman nuclear grade and overall stage.
Conclusions
Our study showed that low expression of PHF2 is associated with aggressiveness and poor prognosis of CCRCC.
Yes-Associated Protein Expression Is Correlated to the Differentiation of Prostate Adenocarcinoma
Myung-Giun Noh, Sung Sun Kim, Eu Chang Hwang, Dong Deuk Kwon, Chan Choi
J Pathol Transl Med. 2017;51(4):365-373.   Published online June 9, 2017
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4132/jptm.2017.05.04
  • 5,634 View
  • 179 Download
  • 5 Citations
AbstractAbstract PDF
Background
Yes-associated protein (YAP) in the Hippo signaling pathway is a growth control pathway that regulates cell proliferation and stem cell functions. Abnormal regulation of YAP was reported in human cancers including liver, lung, breast, skin, colon, and ovarian cancer. However, the function of YAP is not known in prostate adenocarcinoma. The purpose of this study was to investigate the role of YAP in tumorigenesis, differentiation, and prognosis of prostate adenocarcinoma.
Methods
The nuclear and cytoplasmic expression of YAP was examined in 188 cases of prostate adenocarcinoma using immunohistochemistry. YAP expression levels were evaluated in the nucleus and cytoplasm of the prostate adenocarcinoma and the adjacent normal prostate tissue. The presence of immunopositive tumor cells was evaluated and interpreted in comparison with the patients’ clinicopathologic data.
Results
YAP expression levels were not significantly different between normal epithelial cells and prostate adenocarcinoma. However, YAP expression level was significantly higher in carcinomas with a high Gleason grades (8–10) than in carcinomas with a low Gleason grades (6–7) (p < .01). There was no statistical correlation between YAP expression and stage, age, prostate-specific antigen level, and tumor volume. Biochemical recurrence (BCR)–free survival was significantly lower in patients with high YAP expressing cancers (p = .02). However high YAP expression was not an independent prognostic factor for BCR in the Cox proportional hazards model.
Conclusions
The results suggested that YAP is not associated with prostate adenocarcinoma development, but it may be associated with the differentiation of the adenocarcinoma. YAP was not associated with BCR.
Basaloid Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Head and Neck: Subclassification into Basal, Ductal, and Mixed Subtypes Based on Comparison of Clinico-pathologic Features and Expression of p53, Cyclin D1, Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor, p16, and Human Papillomavirus
Kyung-Ja Cho, Se Un Jeong, Sung Bae Kim, Sang-wook Lee, Seung-Ho Choi, Soon Yuhl Nam, Sang Yoon Kim
J Pathol Transl Med. 2017;51(4):374-380.   Published online June 8, 2017
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4132/jptm.2017.03.03
  • 11,445 View
  • 320 Download
  • 11 Citations
AbstractAbstract PDF
Background
Basaloid squamous cell carcinoma (BSCC) is a rare variant of squamous cell carcinoma with distinct pathologic characteristics. The histogenesis of BSCC is not fully understood, and the cancer has been suggested to originate from a totipotent primitive cell in the basal cell layer of the surface epithelium or in the proximal duct of secretory glands.
Methods
Twenty-six cases of head and neck BSCC from Asan Medical Center, Seoul, Korea, reported during a 14-year-period were subclassified into basal, ductal, and mixed subtypes according to the expression of basal (cytokeratin [CK] 5/6, p63) or ductal markers (CK7, CK8/18). The cases were also subject to immunohistochemical study for CK19, p53, cyclin D1, epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), and p16 and to in situ hybridization for human papillomavirus (HPV), and the results were clinico-pathologically compared.
Results
Mixed subtype (12 cases) was the most common, and these cases showed hypopharyngeal predilection, older age, and higher expression of CK19, p53, and EGFR than other subtypes. The basal subtype (nine cases) showed frequent comedo-necrosis and high expression of cyclin D1. The ductal subtype (five cases) showed the lowest expression of p53, cyclin D1, and EGFR. A small number of p16- and/or HPV-positive cases were not restricted to one subtype. BSCC was the cause of death in 19 patients, and the average follow-up period for all patients was 79.5 months. Overall survival among the three subtypes was not significantly different.
Conclusions
The results of this study suggest a heterogeneous pathogenesis of head and neck BSCC. Each subtype showed variable histology and immunoprofiles, although the clinical implication of heterogeneity was not determined in this study.
Morphological Features and Immunohistochemical Expression of p57Kip2 in Early Molar Pregnancies and Their Relations to the Progression to Persistent Trophoblastic Disease
Marwa Khashaba, Mohammad Arafa, Eman Elsalkh, Reda Hemida, Wagiha Kandil
J Pathol Transl Med. 2017;51(4):381-387.   Published online June 12, 2017
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4132/jptm.2017.04.28
  • 12,004 View
  • 207 Download
  • 2 Citations
AbstractAbstract PDF
Background
Although the morphological features characteristic of products of conception specimens including molar pregnancies are well described, substantial histopathological similarities are observed between the different entities, especially in cases of early pregnancies. Furthermore, there are no current solid criteria that could predict cases with progression to persistent gestational trophoblastic disease. In this study, we aimed to determine the most specific histopathological and immunohistochemical features required for accurate diagnosis that can reliably predict the clinical behavior.
Methods
Sixty-five cases of products of conception were reviewed clinically and pathologically, and any progression to persistent gestational trophoblastic disease (GTD), if present, was noted. Pathological assessment of the archival material included re-cut sections of 5 μm in thickness, routine staining with hematoxylin and eosin and immunohistochemical staining of p57Kip2.
Results
Certain histopathological criteria were found to be significant in differentiation between complete hydatidiform mole (CHM) and partial hydatidiform mole including villous shape and outline, villous trophoblast hyperplasia, and atypia in extravillous trophoblasts. There were no significant differences in any morphological or immunohistochemical features between cases with or without subsequent development of GTD.
Conclusions
Histopathological diagnosis of molar pregnancy remains problematic especially in early gestation. Their diagnosis should be stated after a constellation of specific histopathological criteria in order not to miss CHM. p57Kip2 immunohistochemistry is of great value in diagnosis of cases that had equivocal morphology by histopathological examination. However, there were no significant features to predict cases that subsequently developed persistent GTD.
Loss of Progesterone Receptor Expression Is an Early Tumorigenesis Event Associated with Tumor Progression and Shorter Survival in Pancreatic Neuroendocrine Tumor Patients
Sung Joo Kim, Soyeon An, Jae Hoon Lee, Joo Young Kim, Ki-Byung Song, Dae Wook Hwang, Song Cheol Kim, Eunsil Yu, Seung-Mo Hong
J Pathol Transl Med. 2017;51(4):388-395.   Published online June 8, 2017
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4132/jptm.2017.03.19
  • 5,492 View
  • 122 Download
  • 10 Citations
AbstractAbstract PDF
Background
Pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors (PanNETs) are the second most common pancreatic neoplasms and there is no well-elucidated biomarker to stratify their detection and prognosis. Previous studies have reported that progesterone receptor (PR) expression status was associated with poorer survival in PanNET patients.
Methods
To validate previous studies, PR protein expression was assessed in 21 neuroendocrine microadenomas and 277 PanNETs and compared with clinicopathologic factors including patient survival.
Results
PR expression was gradually decreased from normal islets (49/49 cases, 100%) to neuroendocrine microadenoma (14/21, 66.6%) to PanNETs (60/277, 21.3%; p < .001). PanNETs with loss of PR expression were associated with increased tumor size (p < .001), World Health Organization grade (p = .001), pT classification (p < .001), perineural invasion (p = .028), lymph node metastasis (p = .004), activation of alternative lengthening of telomeres (p = .005), other peptide hormonal expression (p < .001) and ATRX/DAXX expression (p = .015). PanNET patients with loss of PR expression (5-year survival rate, 64.1%) had significantly poorer recurrence-free survival outcomes than those with intact PR expression (90%) by univariate (p = .012) but not multivariate analyses. Similarly, PanNET patients with PR expression loss (5-year survival rate, 76%) had significantly poorer overall survival by univariate (p = .015) but not multivariate analyses.
Conclusions
Loss of PR expression was noted in neuroendocrine microadenomas and was observed in the majority of PanNETs. This was associated with increased grade, tumor size, and advanced pT and pN classification; and was correlated with decreased patient survival time by univariate but not multivariate analyses. Loss of PR expression can provide additional information on shorter disease-free survival in PanNET patients.
HER2 Status and Its Heterogeneity in Gastric Carcinoma of Vietnamese Patient
Dang Anh Thu Phan, Vu Thien Nguyen, Thi Ngoc Ha Hua, Quoc Dat Ngo, Thi Phuong Thao Doan, Sao Trung Nguyen, Anh Tu Thai, Van Thanh Nguyen
J Pathol Transl Med. 2017;51(4):396-402.   Published online June 19, 2017
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4132/jptm.2017.04.24
  • 6,850 View
  • 128 Download
  • 5 Citations
AbstractAbstract PDF
Background
Human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2) is related to the pathogenesis and poor outcome of numerous types of carcinomas, including gastric carcinoma. Gastric cancer patients with HER2 positivity have become potential candidates for targeted therapy with trastuzumab.
Methods
We investigated 208 gastric cancer specimens using immunohistochemistry (IHC), fluorescence in situ hybridization and dual in situ hybridization (ISH). We also investigated the concordance between IHC and ISH. The correlation between HER2 status and various clinicopathological findings was also investigated.
Results
In total, 15.9% (33/208) and 24.5% (51/208) of gastric cancers showed HER2 gene amplification and protein overexpression, respectively. A high level of concordance between ISH and IHC analyses (91.3%, κ = 0.76) was found. A significant correlation between HER2 status and intestinal-type (p < .05) and differentiated carcinomas (p < .05) was also noted. The HER2 heterogeneity was high in gastric cancers; we found 68.8% phenotypic heterogeneity and 57.6% genotypic heterogeneity. Heterogeneity in HER2 protein expression and gene amplification showed a close association with diffuse histologic type and IHC 2+.
Conclusions
HER2 protein overexpression and gene amplification were detected in 24.5% and 15.9% of gastric cancer specimens, respectively. Intestinal-type showed a higher level of HER2 protein overexpression and gene amplification than diffuse type. HER2 status also showed a significant relationship with well- and moderately-differentiated carcinomas. The ratio of phenotypic and genotypic heterogeneity of HER2 was high in gastric carcinomas and was associated with HER2 IHC 2+ and diffuse histologic type.
Prognostic Significance of a Micropapillary Pattern in Pure Mucinous Carcinoma of the Breast: Comparative Analysis with Micropapillary Carcinoma
Hyun-Jung Kim, Kyeongmee Park, Jung Yeon Kim, Guhyun Kang, Geumhee Gwak, Inseok Park
J Pathol Transl Med. 2017;51(4):403-409.   Published online June 9, 2017
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4132/jptm.2017.03.18
  • 5,607 View
  • 186 Download
  • 11 Citations
AbstractAbstract PDF
Background
Mucinous carcinoma of the breast is an indolent tumors with a favorable prognosis; however, micropapillary features tend to lead to aggressive behavior. Thus, mucinous carcinoma and micropapillary carcinoma exhibit contrasting biologic behaviors. Here, we review invasive mucinous carcinoma with a focus on micropapillary features and correlations with clinicopathological factors.
Methods
A total of 64 patients with invasive breast cancer with mucinous or micropapillary features were enrolled in the study. Of 36 pure mucinous carcinomas, 17 (47.2%) had micropapillary features and were termed mucinous carcinoma with micropapillary features (MUMPC), and 19 (52.8%) had no micropapillary features and were termed mucinous carcinoma without micropapillary features. MUMPC were compared with 15 invasive micropapillary carcinomas (IMPC) and 13 invasive ductal and micropapillary carcinomas (IDMPC).
Results
The clinicopathological factors of pure mucinous carcinoma and MUMPC were not significantly different. In contrast to IMPC and IDMPC, MUMPC had a low nuclear grade, lower mitotic rate, higher expression of hormone receptors, negative human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2) status, lower Ki-67 proliferating index, and less frequent lymph node metastasis (p < .05). According to univariate analyses, progesterone receptor, HER2, T-stage, and lymph node metastasis were significant risk factors for overall survival; however, only T-stage remained significant in a multivariate analysis (p < .05).
Conclusions
In contrast to IMPC and IDMPC, the micropapillary pattern in mucinous carcinoma does not contribute to aggressive behavior. However, further analysis of a larger series of patients is required to clarify the prognostic significance of micropapillary patterns in mucinous carcinoma of the breast.
The Use of the Bethesda System for Reporting Thyroid Cytopathology in Korea: A Nationwide Multicenter Survey by the Korean Society of Endocrine Pathologists
Mimi Kim, Hyo Jin Park, Hye Sook Min, Hyeong Ju Kwon, Chan Kwon Jung, Seoung Wan Chae, Hyun Ju Yoo, Yoo Duk Choi, Mi Ja Lee, Jeong Ja Kwak, Dong Eun Song, Dong Hoon Kim, Hye Kyung Lee, Ji Yeon Kim, Sook Hee Hong, Jang Sihn Sohn, Hyun Seung Lee, So Yeon Park, Soon Won Hong, Mi Kyung Shin
J Pathol Transl Med. 2017;51(4):410-417.   Published online June 14, 2017
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4132/jptm.2017.04.05
  • 7,319 View
  • 203 Download
  • 18 Citations
AbstractAbstract PDF
Background
The Bethesda System for Reporting Thyroid Cytopathology (TBSRTC) has standardized the reporting of thyroid cytology specimens. The objective of the current study was to evaluate the nationwide usage of TBSRTC and assess the malignancy rates in each category of TBSRTC in Korea.
Methods
Questionnaire surveys were used for data collection on the fine needle aspiration (FNA) of thyroid nodules at 74 institutes in 2012. The incidences and follow-up malignancy rates of each category diagnosed from January to December, 2011, in each institute were also collected and analyzed.
Results
Sixty out of 74 institutes answering the surveys reported the results of thyroid FNA in accordance with TBSRTC. The average malignancy rates for resected cases in 15 institutes were as follows: nondiagnostic, 45.6%; benign, 16.5%; atypical of undetermined significance, 68.8%; suspicious for follicular neoplasm (SFN), 30.2%; suspicious for malignancy, 97.5%; malignancy, 99.7%.
Conclusions
More than 80% of Korean institutes were using TBSRTC as of 2012. All malignancy rates other than the SFN and malignancy categories were higher than those reported by other countries. Therefore, the guidelines for treating patients with thyroid nodules in Korea should be revisited based on the malignancy rates reported in this study.
Case Studies
Metaplastic Carcinoma with Chondroid Differentiation Arising in Microglandular Adenosis
Ga-Eon Kim, Nah Ihm Kim, Ji Shin Lee, Min Ho Park
J Pathol Transl Med. 2017;51(4):418-421.   Published online April 4, 2017
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4132/jptm.2016.10.06
  • 5,771 View
  • 94 Download
  • 3 Citations
AbstractAbstract PDF
Microglandular adenosis (MGA) of the breast is a rare, benign proliferative lesion but with a significant rate of associated carcinoma. Herein, we report an unusual case of metaplastic carcinoma with chondroid differentiation associated with typical MGA. Histologically, MGA showed a direct transition to metaplastic carcinoma without an intervening atypical MGA or ductal carcinoma in situ component. The immunohistochemical profile of the metaplastic carcinoma was mostly similar to that of MGA. In both areas, all the epithelial cells were positive for S-100 protein, but negative for estrogen receptor, progesterone receptor, HER2/neu, and epidermal growth factor receptor. An increase in the Ki-67 and p53 labelling index was observed from MGA to invasive carcinoma. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first case of metaplastic carcinoma with chondroid differentiation arising in MGA in Korea. This case supports the hypothesis that a subset of MGA may be a non-obligate morphologic precursor of breast carcinoma, especially the triple-negative subtype.
Mammary Carcinoma Arising in Microglandular Adenosis: A Report of Five Cases
Mimi Kim, Milim Kim, Yul Ri Chung, So Yeon Park
J Pathol Transl Med. 2017;51(4):422-427.   Published online April 4, 2017
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4132/jptm.2016.11.11
  • 10,957 View
  • 155 Download
  • 6 Citations
AbstractAbstract PDF
Mammary carcinoma arising in microglandular adenosis (MGA) is extremely rare, and MGA is regarded as a non-obligate precursor of triple-negative breast cancer. We report five cases of carcinoma arising in MGA of the breast. All cases showed a spectrum of proliferative lesions ranging from MGA to atypical MGA, ductal carcinoma in situ or invasive carcinoma. Immunohistochemically, all cases were triple-negative and expression of S-100 protein gradually decreased as the lesions progressed from MGA to atypical MGA and carcinoma. Three cases showed acinic cell differentiation with reactivity to α1-antitrypsin, and one case was metaplastic carcinoma. During clinical follow-up, one patient developed local recurrence. Carcinoma arising in MGA is a rare but distinct subset of triple-negative breast cancer with characteristic histologic and immunohistochemical findings.
Perivascular Epithelioid Cell Tumor in the Stomach
Sun Ah Shin, Jiwoon Choi, Kyung Chul Moon, Woo Ho Kim
J Pathol Transl Med. 2017;51(4):428-432.   Published online April 4, 2017
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4132/jptm.2016.09.16
  • 6,338 View
  • 133 Download
  • 3 Citations
AbstractAbstract PDF
Perivascular epithelioid cell tumors or PEComas can arise in any location in the body. However, a limited number of cases of gastric PEComa have been reported. We present two cases of gastric PEComas. The first case involved a 62-year-old woman who presented with a 4.2 cm gastric subepithelial mass in the prepyloric antrum, and the second case involved a 67-year-old man with a 5.0 cm mass slightly below the gastroesophageal junction. Microscopic examination revealed that both tumors were composed of perivascular epithelioid cells that were immunoreactive for melanocytic and smooth muscle markers. Prior to surgery, the clinical impression of both tumors was gastrointestinal stromal tumor (GIST), and the second case was erroneously diagnosed as GIST even after microscopic examination. Although gastric PEComa is a very rare neoplasm, it should be considered in the differential diagnosis of gastric submucosal lesions.
A Rare Case of Intramural Müllerian Adenosarcoma Arising from Adenomyosis of the Uterus
Sun-Jae Lee, Ji Y. Park
J Pathol Transl Med. 2017;51(4):433-440.   Published online June 29, 2017
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4132/jptm.2017.06.11
  • 6,983 View
  • 116 Download
  • 8 Citations
AbstractAbstract PDF
Müllerian adenosarcomas usually arise as polypoid masses in the endometrium of post-menopausal women. Occasionally, these tumors arise in the cervix, vagina, broad and round ligaments, ovaries and rarely in extragenital sites; these cases are generally associated with endometriosis. We experienced a rare case of extraendometrial, intramural adenosarcoma arising in a patient with adenomyosis. A 40-year-old woman presented with sudden-onset suprapubic pain. The imaging findings suggested leiomyoma with cystic degeneration in the uterine fundus. An ill-defined ovoid tumor with hemorrhagic degeneration, measuring 7.5 cm in diameter, was detected. The microscopic findings showed glandular cells without atypia and a sarcomatous component with pleomorphism and high mitotic rates. There was no evidence of endometrial origin. To recognize that adenosarcoma can, although rarely, arise from adenomyosis is important to avoid overstaging and inappropriate treatment.
Brief Case Report
Metastatic Squamous Cell Carcinoma from Lung Adenocarcinoma after Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor Tyrosine Kinase Inhibitor Therapy
Hyung Kyu Park, Youjeong Seo, Yoon-La Choi, Myung-Ju Ahn, Joungho Han
J Pathol Transl Med. 2017;51(4):441-443.   Published online April 4, 2017
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4132/jptm.2016.10.18
  • 5,315 View
  • 124 Download
  • 7 Citations
PDF

JPTM : Journal of Pathology and Translational Medicine