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11 "Thyroid neoplasms"
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Case Study
Metastatic leiomyosarcoma of the thyroid gland: cytologic findings and differential diagnosis
Jiyeon Lee, Yunjoo Cho, Kyue Hee Choi, Inwoo Hwang, Young Lyun Oh
J Pathol Transl Med. 2021;55(5):360-365.   Published online August 13, 2021
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4132/jptm.2021.06.23
  • 1,860 View
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  • 2 Citations
AbstractAbstract PDF
Metastatic leiomyosarcoma to the thyroid is an extremely rare occurrence, and only 18 cases have been reported. Here, we report a case of a 37-year-old woman who presented with multiple masses on the scalp. Excisional biopsy was done and the mass revealed fascicles of smooth muscle fibers which showed positive staining for smooth muscle actin, thus confirming the diagnosis of leiomyosarcoma. The patient was also found to have a 0.9 cm mass within the left thyroid. Fine-needle aspiration was done and the cytological smear showed hypercellular spindle cell clusters with hyperchromatic and large nuclei. Normal thyroid follicular cells were found within or around tumor cells. In this report, we present the cytologic findings of metastatic leiomyosarcoma to the thyroid and offer differential diagnoses of the aspirated spindle cells.

Citations

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  • Mesonephric-like Adenocarcinoma of the Ovary: Clinicopathological and Molecular Characteristics
    Hyun Hee Koh, Eunhyang Park, Hyun-Soo Kim
    Diagnostics.2022; 12(2): 326.     CrossRef
  • Alveolar Soft Part Sarcoma of the Uterus: Clinicopathological and Molecular Characteristics
    Yurimi Lee, Kiyong Na, Ha Young Woo, Hyun-Soo Kim
    Diagnostics.2022; 12(5): 1102.     CrossRef
Original Article
Proto-oncogene Pokemon in thyroid cancer: a potential promoter of tumorigenesis in papillary thyroid carcinoma
Kyungseek Chang, Sung-Im Do, Kyungeun Kim, Seoung Wan Chae, In-gu Do, Hyun Joo Lee, Dong Hoon Kim, Jin Hee Sohn
J Pathol Transl Med. 2021;55(5):317-323.   Published online August 9, 2021
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4132/jptm.2021.06.28
  • 2,082 View
  • 102 Download
  • 1 Citations
AbstractAbstract PDFSupplementary Material
Background
Pokemon is an oncogenic transcription regulator that plays a critical role in cellular differentiation. Although it has been found to be overexpressed in several types of cancer involving different organs, its role in thyroid gland has yet to be reported. The objective of this study was to evaluate the expression of Pokemon in papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC) based on clinicopathological parameters.
Methods
Tissue microarray samples derived from patients with PTC or benign thyroid disease were used to evaluate Pokemon expression based on immunohistochemical analysis. Correlations of its expression with various clinicopathological parameters were then analyzed.
Results
Pokemon expression was observed in 22.0% of thyroid follicular cells from the normal group, 44.0% from the group with benign thyroid diseases, and 92.1% from the group with PTC (p < .001). The intensity of Pokemon expression was markedly higher in the PTC group. Pokemon expression level and PTC tumor size showed an inverse correlation. T1a tumors showed strong expression levels of Pokemon. However, larger tumors showed weak expression (p = .006).
Conclusions
Pokemon expression is associated with tumorigenesis of PTC, with expression showing an inverse correlation with PTC tumor size. This might be related to the negative regulation of aerobic glycolysis by Pokemon.

Citations

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  • Knockdown of FBI-1 Inhibits the Warburg Effect and Enhances the Sensitivity of Hepatocellular Carcinoma Cells to Molecular Targeted Agents via miR-3692/HIF-1α
    Juan Liu, Chao Yang, Xiao-Mei Huang, Pan-Pan Lv, Ya-Kun Yang, Jin-Na Zhao, Si-Yuan Zhao, Wan-Jun Sun
    Frontiers in Oncology.2021;[Epub]     CrossRef
Reviews
2019 Practice guidelines for thyroid core needle biopsy: a report of the Clinical Practice Guidelines Development Committee of the Korean Thyroid Association
Chan Kwon Jung, Jung Hwan Baek, Dong Gyu Na, Young Lyun Oh, Ka Hee Yi, Ho-Cheol Kang
J Pathol Transl Med. 2020;54(1):64-86.   Published online January 15, 2020
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4132/jptm.2019.12.04
  • 16,409 View
  • 712 Download
  • 19 Citations
AbstractAbstract PDF
Ultrasound-guided core needle biopsy (CNB) has been increasingly used for the pre-operative diagnosis of thyroid nodules. Since the Korean Society of the Thyroid Radiology published the ‘Consensus Statement and Recommendations for Thyroid CNB’ in 2017 and the Korean Endocrine Pathology Thyroid CNB Study Group published ‘Pathology Reporting of Thyroid Core Needle Biopsy’ in 2015, advances have occurred rapidly not only in the management guidelines for thyroid nodules but also in the diagnostic terminology and classification schemes. The Clinical Practice Guidelines Development Committee of the Korean Thyroid Association (KTA) reviewed publications on thyroid CNB from 1995 to September 2019 and updated the recommendations and statements for the diagnosis and management of thyroid nodules using CNB. Recommendations for the resolution of clinical controversies regarding the use of CNB were based on expert opinion. These practical guidelines include recommendations and statements regarding indications for CNB, patient preparation, CNB technique, biopsy-related complications, biopsy specimen preparation and processing, and pathology interpretation and reporting of thyroid CNB.

Citations

Citations to this article as recorded by  
  • Comparison of Core Needle Biopsy and Repeat Fine-Needle Aspiration in Avoiding Diagnostic Surgery for Thyroid Nodules Initially Diagnosed as Atypia/Follicular Lesion of Undetermined Significance
    Leehi Joo, Dong Gyu Na, Ji-hoon Kim, Hyobin Seo
    Korean Journal of Radiology.2022; 23(2): 280.     CrossRef
  • Diagnostic efficacy, performance and safety of side-cut core needle biopsy for thyroid nodules: comparison of automated and semi-automated biopsy needles
    Ji Yeon Park, Seong Yoon Yi, Soo Heui Baek, Yu Hyun Lee, Heon-Ju Kwon, Hee Jin Park
    Endocrine.2022; 76(2): 341.     CrossRef
  • Thyroid Cancer Diagnostics Related to Occupational and Environmental Risk Factors: An Integrated Risk Assessment Approach
    Gabriela Maria Berinde, Andreea Iulia Socaciu, Mihai Adrian Socaciu, Andreea Cozma, Armand Gabriel Rajnoveanu, Gabriel Emil Petre, Doina Piciu
    Diagnostics.2022; 12(2): 318.     CrossRef
  • Approach to Bethesda system category III thyroid nodules according to US-risk stratification
    Jieun Kim, Jung Hee Shin, Young Lyun Oh, Soo Yeon Hahn, Ko Woon Park
    Endocrine Journal.2022; 69(1): 67.     CrossRef
  • Clinicopathological and Molecular Features of Secondary Cancer (Metastasis) to the Thyroid and Advances in Management
    Marie Nguyen, George He, Alfred King-Yin Lam
    International Journal of Molecular Sciences.2022; 23(6): 3242.     CrossRef
  • Diagnostic Performance of Thyroid Core Needle Biopsy Using the Revised Reporting System: Comparison with Fine Needle Aspiration Cytology
    Kwangsoon Kim, Ja Seong Bae, Jeong Soo Kim, So Lyung Jung, Chan Kwon Jung
    Endocrinology and Metabolism.2022; 37(1): 159.     CrossRef
  • Core Needle Biopsy Can Early and Precisely Identify Large Thyroid Masses
    Antonio Matrone, Luigi De Napoli, Liborio Torregrossa, Aleksandr Aghababyan, Piermarco Papini, Carlo Enrico Ambrosini, Rosa Cervelli, Clara Ugolini, Fulvio Basolo, Eleonora Molinaro, Rossella Elisei, Gabriele Materazzi
    Frontiers in Oncology.2022;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • Primary thyroid leiomyosarcoma with transvenous extension to the right atrium: a case report
    Juraj Dubrava, Peter Martanovic, Marina Pavlovicova, Pavel Babal, Akhil Narang, Maria Mattioli, Nidhish Tiwari, Zhiyu Liu, Mariame Chakir
    European Heart Journal - Case Reports.2022;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • Radiofrequency ablation for management of thyroid nodules in quarantine zone of COVID-19 pandemic setting in Indonesia
    Kristanto Yuli Yarso, Sumadi Lukman Anwar
    Annals of Medicine and Surgery.2022; 81: 104132.     CrossRef
  • A Matched-Pair Analysis of Nuclear Morphologic Features Between Core Needle Biopsy and Surgical Specimen in Thyroid Tumors Using a Deep Learning Model
    Faridul Haq, Andrey Bychkov, Chan Kwon Jung
    Endocrine Pathology.2022; 33(4): 472.     CrossRef
  • Diagnostic performance of core needle biopsy as a first‐line diagnostic tool for thyroid nodules according to ultrasound patterns: Comparison with fine needle aspiration using propensity score matching analysis
    Hye Shin Ahn, Inyoung Youn, Dong Gyu Na, Soo Jin Kim, Mi Yeon Lee
    Clinical Endocrinology.2021; 94(3): 494.     CrossRef
  • Hydrodissection: A Novel Approach for Safe Core Needle Biopsy of Small High-Risk Subcapsular Thyroid Nodules
    Hojat Ebrahiminik, Hossein Chegeni, Javad Jalili, Rambod Salouti, Hadi Rokni, Afshin Mohammadi, Ali Mosaddegh Khah, Seyed Mohammad Tavangar, Zahra Ebrahiminik
    CardioVascular and Interventional Radiology.2021; 44(10): 1651.     CrossRef
  • Application of biomarkers in the diagnosis of uncertain samples of core needle biopsy of thyroid nodules
    Yan Xiong, Xin Li, Li Liang, Dong Li, Limin Yan, Xueying Li, Jiting Di, Ting Li
    Virchows Archiv.2021; 479(5): 961.     CrossRef
  • VE1 immunohistochemistry is an adjunct tool for detection of BRAF V600E mutation: Validation in thyroid cancer patients
    Faiza A. Rashid, Sobia Tabassum, Mosin S. Khan, Hifzur R. Ansari, Muhammad Asif, Ahmareen K. Sheikh, Syed Aga
    Journal of Clinical Laboratory Analysis.2021;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • The Diagnostic Value of the American College of Radiology Thyroid Imaging Reporting and Data System Classification and Shear-Wave Elastography for the Differentiation of Thyroid Nodules
    Gül Bora Makal, Aydın Aslan
    Ultrasound in Medicine & Biology.2021; 47(5): 1227.     CrossRef
  • Comparison of the diagnostic performance of the modified Korean Thyroid Imaging Reporting and Data System for thyroid malignancy with three international guidelines
    Eun Ju Ha, Jung Hee Shin, Dong Gyu Na, So Lyung Jung, Young Hen Lee, Wooyul Paik, Min Ji Hong, Yeo Koon Kim, Chang Yoon Lee
    Ultrasonography.2021; 40(4): 594.     CrossRef
  • VE1 Immunohistochemistry Improves the Limit of Genotyping for Detecting BRAFV600E Mutation in Papillary Thyroid Cancer
    Sonam Choden, Somboon Keelawat, Chan Kwon Jung, Andrey Bychkov
    Cancers.2020; 12(3): 596.     CrossRef
  • The 2019 core-needle biopsy practice guidelines
    So Yeong Jeong, Jung Hwan Baek
    Ultrasonography.2020; 39(3): 311.     CrossRef
  • Re: The 2019 core-needle biopsy practice guidelines
    Ji-hoon Kim
    Ultrasonography.2020; 39(3): 313.     CrossRef
Thyroid Fine-Needle Aspiration Cytology Practice in Korea
Yoon Jin Cha, Ju Yeon Pyo, SoonWon Hong, Jae Yeon Seok, Kyung-Ju Kim, Jee-Young Han, Jeong Mo Bae, Hyeong Ju Kwon, Yeejeong Kim, Kyueng-Whan Min, Soonae Oak, Sunhee Chang
J Pathol Transl Med. 2017;51(6):521-527.   Published online October 11, 2017
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4132/jptm.2017.09.26
  • 6,733 View
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  • 8 Citations
AbstractAbstract PDF
We reviewed the current status of thyroid fine-needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) in Korea. Thyroid aspiration biopsy was first introduced in Korea in 1977. Currently, radiologists aspirate the thyroid nodule under the guidance of ultrasonography, and cytologic interpretation is only legally approved when a cytopathologist makes the diagnosis. In 2008, eight thyroid-related societies came together to form the Korean Thyroid Association. The Korean Society for Cytopathology and the endocrine pathology study group of the Korean Society for Pathologists have been updating the cytologic diagnostic guidelines. The Bethesda System for Reporting Thyroid Cytopathology was first introduced in 2009, and has been used by up to 94% of institutions by 2016. The average diagnosis rates are as follows for each category: I (12.4%), II (57.9%), III (10.4%), IV (2.9%), V (3.7%), and VI (12.7%). The malignancy rates in surgical cases are as follows for each category: I (28.7%), II (27.8%), III (50.6%), IV (52.3%), V (90.7%), and VI (100.0%). Liquid-based cytology has been used since 2010, and it was utilized by 68% of institutions in 2016. The categorization of thyroid lesions into “atypia of undetermined significance” or “follicular lesion of undetermined significance” is necessary to draw consensus in our society. Immunocytochemistry for galectin-3 and BRAF is used. Additionally, a molecular test for BRAF in thyroid FNACs is actively used. Core biopsies were performed in only 44% of institutions. Even the institutions that perform core biopsies only perform them for less than 3% of all FNACs. However, only 5% of institutions performed core biopsies up to three times more than FNAC.

Citations

Citations to this article as recorded by  
  • Diagnostic value of thyroid imaging reporting and data system combined with BRAFV600E mutation analysis in Bethesda categories III–V thyroid nodules
    Liuxi Wu, Hua Shu, Wenqin Chen, Yingqian Gao, Ya Yuan, Xiao Li, Wenjuan Lu, Xinhua Ye, Hongyan Deng
    Scientific Reports.2022;[Epub]     CrossRef
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    Na Rae Kim, Jae Yeon Seok, Yoo Seung Chung, Joon Hyop Lee, Dong Hae Chung
    Journal of Pathology and Translational Medicine.2020; 54(2): 171.     CrossRef
  • Systematic thyroid screening in myotonic dystrophy: link between thyroid volume and insulin resistance
    Adrien Ben Hamou, Stéphanie Espiard, Christine Do Cao, Miriam Ladsous, Camille Loyer, Alexandre Moerman, Samuel Boury, Maéva Kyheng, Claire-Marie Dhaenens, Vincent Tiffreau, Pascal Pigny, Gilles Lebuffe, Robert Caiazzo, Sébastien Aubert, Marie Christine V
    Orphanet Journal of Rare Diseases.2019;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • The History of Korean Thyroid Pathology
    Soon Won Hong, Chan Kwon Jung
    International Journal of Thyroidology.2018; 11(1): 15.     CrossRef
  • BRAFV600E Mutation is a Strong Preoperative Indicator for Predicting Malignancy in Thyroid Nodule Patients with Atypia of Undetermined Significance Identified by Fine Needle Aspiration
    Hye Rang Choi, Bo-Yoon Choi, Jae Hoon Cho, Young Chang Lim
    Korean Journal of Otorhinolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery.2018; 61(11): 600.     CrossRef
  • The Usefulness of Immunocytochemistry of CD56 in Determining Malignancy from Indeterminate Thyroid Fine-Needle Aspiration Cytology
    Hyunseo Cha, Ju Yeon Pyo, Soon Won Hong
    Journal of Pathology and Translational Medicine.2018; 52(6): 404.     CrossRef
  • Thyroid FNA cytology in Asian practice-Active surveillance for indeterminate thyroid nodules reduces overtreatment of thyroid carcinomas
    K. Kakudo, M. Higuchi, M. Hirokawa, S. Satoh, C. K. Jung, A. Bychkov
    Cytopathology.2017; 28(6): 455.     CrossRef
  • The Use of Fine-Needle Aspiration (FNA) Cytology in Patients with Thyroid Nodules in Asia: A Brief Overview of Studies from the Working Group of Asian Thyroid FNA Cytology
    Chan Kwon Jung, SoonWon Hong, Andrey Bychkov, Kennichi Kakudo
    Journal of Pathology and Translational Medicine.2017; 51(6): 571.     CrossRef
Original Article
Classic Papillary Thyroid Carcinoma with Tall Cell Features and Tall Cell Variant Have Similar Clinicopathologic Features
Woo Jin Oh, Young Sub Lee, Uiju Cho, Ja Seong Bae, Sohee Lee, Min Hee Kim, Dong Jun Lim, Gyeong Sin Park, Youn Soo Lee, Chan Kwon Jung
Korean J Pathol. 2014;48(3):201-208.   Published online June 26, 2014
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4132/KoreanJPathol.2014.48.3.201
  • 14,030 View
  • 114 Download
  • 29 Citations
AbstractAbstract PDF
Background

The tall cell variant of papillary thyroid carcinoma (TCVPTC) is more aggressive than classic papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC), but the percentage of tall cells needed to diagnose TCVPTC remains controversial. In addition, little is known about the clinicopathologic features of classic PTC with tall cell features (TCF).

Methods

We retrospectively selected and reviewed the clinicopathologic features and presence of the BRAF mutation in 203 cases of classic PTC, 149 cases of classic PTC with TCF, and 95 cases of TCVPTCs, which were defined as PTCs having <10%, 10-50%, and ≥50% tall cells, respectively.

Results

TCVPTCs and classic PTCs with TCF did not vary significantly in clinicopathologic characteristics such as pathologic (p) T stage, extrathyroidal extension, pN stage, lateral lymph node metastasis, or BRAF mutations; however, these features differed significantly in TCVPTCs and classic PTCs with TCF in comparison to classic PTCs. Similar results were obtained in a subanalysis of patients with microcarcinomas (≤1.0 cm in size).

Conclusions

Classic PTCs with TCF showed a similar BRAF mutation rate and clinicopathologic features to TCVPTCs, but more aggressive characteristics than classic PTCs.

Citations

Citations to this article as recorded by  
  • CD56 Expression in Papillary Thyroid Carcinoma Is Highly Dependent on the Histologic Subtype: A Potential Diagnostic Pitfall
    Uiju Cho, Yourha Kim, Sora Jeon, Chan Kwon Jung
    Applied Immunohistochemistry & Molecular Morphology.2022; 30(5): 389.     CrossRef
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    PK Pravanya, KR Anila, Shaji Thomas, A Sreekumar, K Jayasree
    Medical Journal of Dr. D.Y. Patil Vidyapeeth.2022;[Epub]     CrossRef
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    Shabnam Samankan, Leah Militello, Gabriella Seo, Sedef Everest, Quinn O'Malley, Sarah L. Spaulding, Monica Xing, Ammar Matloob, John Beute, Raymond Chai, Scott Doyle, Mark L. Urken, Margaret Brandwein-Weber
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    Journal of International Medical Research.2021; 49(2): 030006052098461.     CrossRef
  • Tall cell percentage alone in PTC without aggressive features should not guide patients’ clinical management
    Anello Marcello Poma, David Viola, Elisabetta Macerola, Agnese Proietti, Eleonora Molinaro, Dario De Vietro, Rossella Elisei, Gabriele Materazzi, Paolo Miccoli, Fulvio Basolo, Clara Ugolini
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    Paula Soares, Antónia Afonso Póvoa, Miguel Melo, João Vinagre, Valdemar Máximo, Catarina Eloy, José Manuel Cameselle-Teijeiro, Manuel Sobrinho-Simões
    Endocrine Pathology.2021; 32(1): 44.     CrossRef
  • Deep Neck Infection: Atypical Presentation of Papillary Thyroid Cancer
    Apichana Mahattanapreut, Rangsima Aroonroch, Chalermchai Chintrakarn, Chutintorn Sriphrapradang, Dinesh K. Chhetri
    Case Reports in Otolaryngology.2021; 2021: 1.     CrossRef
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    Juan C. Hernandez-Prera
    Seminars in Diagnostic Pathology.2020; 37(5): 228.     CrossRef
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    Andrés Coca-Pelaz, Jatin P. Shah, Juan C. Hernandez-Prera, Ronald A. Ghossein, Juan P. Rodrigo, Dana M. Hartl, Kerry D. Olsen, Ashok R. Shaha, Mark Zafereo, Carlos Suarez, Iain J. Nixon, Gregory W. Randolph, Antti A. Mäkitie, Luiz P. Kowalski, Vincent Van
    Advances in Therapy.2020; 37(7): 3112.     CrossRef
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    Sara Cartwright, Abbey Fingeret
    Current Opinion in Endocrinology, Diabetes & Obesity.2020; 27(5): 351.     CrossRef
  • Le carcinome papillaire de la thyroïde avec contingent à cellules hautes : facteurs pronostiques
    I. Riahi, H. Jaafoura, H. Saibi, E. Chebil, I. Ben Nacef, M. Ksentini, T. Ben Ghachem, R. Lahiani, M. Ben Salah
    Annales d'Endocrinologie.2020; 81(4): 345.     CrossRef
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    Yanhua Bai, Kennichi Kakudo, Chan Kwon Jung
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    Tyler Janovitz, Justine A. Barletta
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Case Report
Aspiration Cytology of the Osteoclastic Variant of Anaplastic Thyroid Carcinoma: with Special Emphasis on the Undifferentiated Mononuclear Cells.
Kang Min Han, Dong Hoon Kim, Wonae Lee
Korean J Pathol. 2010;44(6):682-686.
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4132/KoreanJPathol.2010.44.6.682
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  • 3 Citations
AbstractAbstract PDF
Anaplastic thyroid carcinoma (ATC) is an uncommon aggressive malignant tumor, and the osteoclastic variant of ATC is extremely rare. We report here on the fine needle aspiration cytology of the osteoclastic variant of ATC in an 83-year-old woman. The smear was composed of many oval to slightly elongated undifferentiated mononuclear cells admixed with multinucleated osteoclast-like giant cells. The mononuclear tumor cells revealed inconspicuous nuclear pleomorphism and the nuclei were characterized by vesicular chromatin and an indented or lobulated nuclear membrane with conspicuous nuclear grooves. A few epithelial clusters suggestive of a papillary carcinoma component were also observed. Making the proper cytological diagnosis of the osteoclastic variant of ATC is helpful to determine the proper treatment modality for these patients.

Citations

Citations to this article as recorded by  
  • A case of osteoclastic variant of anaplastic thyroid carcinoma: Diagnostic and prognostic marker studies by cytology
    Surekha Bantumilli, Lee‐Ching Zhu, Muthukumar Sakthivel, Leslie Dodd
    Diagnostic Cytopathology.2022;[Epub]     CrossRef
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Original Articles
Application of Bethesda System for Reporting Thyroid Aspiration Cytology.
Kyungji Lee, Chan Kwon Jung, Kyo Young Lee, Ja Seong Bae, Dong Jun Lim, So Lyung Jung
Korean J Pathol. 2010;44(5):521-527.
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4132/KoreanJPathol.2010.44.5.521
  • 4,148 View
  • 52 Download
  • 20 Citations
AbstractAbstract PDF
BACKGROUND
The Bethesda classification system for reporting on thyroid fine-needle aspiration (FNA) cytology was recently proposed by the National Cancer Institute, USA. We aimed to report our experience with applying this system for thyroid FNA, with a focus on comparing it with the four categorical system.
METHODS
We retrospectively reviewed the 4,966 thyroid FNAs that were performed at the Seoul St. Mary's Hospital between October 2008 and September 2009. All the FNAs were classified according to the Bethesda system and the four tier system.
RESULTS
The cytologic diagnoses of the Bethesda system included 10.0% unsatisfactory, 67.7% benign, 3.1% atypia of undetermined significance, 0.6% follicular neoplasm, 0.5% follicular neoplasm, Hurthle cell type, 5.1% suspicious for malignancy and 13.0% malignancy. Using four tier system, 10.1%, 67.6%, 9.3%, and 13% were diagnosed as unsatisfactory, negative for malignancy, atypical cells and malignancy, respectively. Of the 4,966 nodules, 905 were histologically confirmed. The specificity of the Bethesda system and the four tier system for diagnosing malignancy was 99.6% and 82.6%, respectively.
CONCLUSIONS
The Bethesda system can classify indeterminate thyroid nodules into more detailed categories and provide clinicians with useful information for management.

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Immunohistochemical and Molecular Characteristics of Follicular Patterned Thyroid Nodules with Incomplete Nuclear Features of Papillary Thyroid Carcinoma.
Hye Sook Min, Gheeyoung Choe, Nam Yun Cho, Gyeong Hoon Kang, Seong Hoe Park, So Yeon Park
Korean J Pathol. 2009;43(6):495-502.
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4132/KoreanJPathol.2009.43.6.495
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AbstractAbstract PDF
BACKGROUND
Follicular patterned thyroid nodules with incomplete nuclear features of papillary thyroid carcinoma (FTN-INPTCs) are difficult to diagnose, and their biological behavior and association with follicular variants of PTC (FVPTCs) have not yet been established. The aim of this study is to determine immunohistochemical and molecular characteristics of FTN-INPTCs. METHODS: We investigated immunohistochemical features (galectin-3, HBME-1, CK19, fibronectin-1, CITED1), BRAF V600E mutation and RASSF1A promoter methylation status in 30 FTN-INPTC cases, along with 26 FVPTCs, 21 follicular adenomas (FAs) and 14 nodular hyperplasias (NHs). RESULTS: Expression of galectin-3, HBME-1, CK19 and CITED1 was significantly higher in FTN-INPTCs than in FAs or NHs, but expression of galectin-3, CK19 and fibronectin-1 was lower in FTN-INPTCs than in FVPTCs. The BRAF V600E mutation was not detected in the benign nodules or FTN-INPTCs, whereas 57% of FVPTCs had the mutation. RASSF1A promoter methylation was higher in FTN-INPTCs than in benign nodules but there was no difference between FTN-INPTCs and FVPTCs. CONCLUSIONS: Our results represent the borderline immunohistochemical and molecular characteristics of FTN-INPTC. We conclude that FTN-INPTC is an intermediate lesion between a benign nodule and a FVPTC, and that it is pathogenetically related to FVPTC.

Citations

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  • A Case of Multifocal Papillary Thyroid Carcinoma Consisting of One Encapsulated Follicular Variant withBRAFK601E Mutation and Three Conventional Types withBRAFV600E Mutation
    Wook Youn Kim, Young Sin Ko, Tae Sook Hwang, Hye Seung Han, So Dug Lim, Wan Seop Kim, Seo Young Oh
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    Taeeun Kim, Ji-Hyun Roh, Hee-Jung Park, Jee Eun Kwon, So-Young Kang, Yoon-La Choi, Young Lyun Oh
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Case Report
Oncocytic Parathyroid Adenoma Associated with Primary Hyperparathyroidism: A Case Report.
Jai Hyang Go
Korean J Pathol. 2001;35(3):267-269.
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AbstractAbstract PDF
A rare case of functioning oncocytic parathyroid adenoma associated with primary hyperparathyroidism was found in a 45-year-old woman. The preoperative serum calcium level was 13.1 mg/dL, the phosphate level was 2.44 mg/dL and the parathyroid hormone level was 153 pg/mL. Neck CT revealed a 2.5x1x1 cm, well enhanced mass behind the left thyroid gland, which was compatible with parathyroid adenoma. The removed parathyroid gland showed a well circumscribed, ovoid, brown colored, soft, solid mass. Histologically, this mass was composed of broad sheets of uniform cells having round dense nuclei and abundant eosinophilic granular cytoplasms. The adjacent rim of the normal parathyroid tissue was identified in the periphery of the mass. After operation, all hormone levels were normalized.
Original Article
Ki-67 Labelling Index and Bax Expression According to the Capsular Invasion in the Follicular Neoplasms of the Thyroid.
Hee Kyung Kim, Dong Wha Lee, So Young Jin, Dong Won Kim
Korean J Pathol. 2001;35(6):531-535.
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AbstractAbstract
BACKGROUND
There have been a few studies concerning the differential diagnosis between follicular adenomas and minimally invasive follicular carcinomas, but it is difficult to exclude the possibility of minute capsular and/or vascular invasion throughout the capsular areas as a whole.
METHODS
We examined the diagnostic usefulness of Ki-67 labelling index and bax expression for the differential diagnosis of follicular adenomas and minimally invasive follicular carcinomas.
RESULTS
The result of immunohistochemical staining with Ki-67 and bax antibodies were analyzed in 58 cases of follicular neoplasms from 1996 to 1999. Of 58 cases, 35 were follicular adenomas and 23 were minimally invasive follicular carcinomas. The Ki-67 labelling index was significantly higher in minimally invasive follicular carcinoma of the thyroid (Ki-67 labelling index, 1.62+/-0.35%) than follicular adenoma (0.46+/-0.21%) (P<0.05). Of the follicular adenomas, Ki-67 labelling index of the tumor with 5 cm or more in diameter was 0.38+/-0.13%, while that of the tumor with less than 5 cm was 0.51+/-0.24%. Of the minimally invasive follicular carcinoma, Ki-67 labelling index of the tumor with 5 cm more was 1.30+/-0.07%, while that of the tumor with less than 5 cm was 1.65+/-0.37%. Diffuse bax expression was seen in 27 of 35 cases of follicular adenomas and 2 of 23 cases of minimally invasive follicular carcinoma (P<0.05).
CONCLUSIONS
Our findings suggest Ki-67 labelling index and the degree of bax expression are useful markers for the differential diagnosis between the follicular adenoma and the minimally invasive follicular carcinoma of the thyroid.
Case Report
Thyroid Papillary Carcinoma with Exuberant Nodular Fasciitis-like Stroma: A Case Report.
Kyung Hwa Lee, Jae Hun Chung, Jung Han Yoon, Kyung Whan Min, Chan Choi, Ji Shin Lee
Korean J Pathol. 2006;40(1):76-79.
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AbstractAbstract PDF
Thyroid papillary carcinoma (TPC) with exuberant nodular fasciitis-like stroma is one of the rare variants of TPC. To date, only 19 cases have been reported in the English medical literature. We report here on the the first Korean case of TPC that contained a prominent nodular fasciitis-like stroma. A 40-year-old female presented with a hard painless right neck mass that had been present for two months. Total thyroidectomy disclosed a solitary nodule in the mid portion of the right lobe that measured 25 x 20 mm. The tumor was well delineated, but it was not encapsulated. Microscopically, the tumor was a typical papillary carcinoma except that large areas of the tumor were occupied by a stroma composed of irregular fascicular spindle cells. The stromal component accounted for 60% of the tumor mass. The spindle cells exhibited neither atypism nor mitosis, and the tumor's extensive stromal cell proliferation resembled the appearance of nodular fasciitis of the soft tissues. Immunohistochemically, the spindle cells were positive for vimentin and alpha-smooth muscle actin, but they were negative for thyroglobulin, thyroid transcription factor-1, S-100 protein, CD34 and desmin, and this represents myofibroblastic features.

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